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HISTORY 



OF THR 



ettkttwnt 4 Mi^pr (^mU% 



(ONTARIO,) 



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 



THE BAY QUINTE. 



BY 



WM. CANNIFP, M.D., M.R.C.S.E., 

PKOPESSOR OP SURGBRT UNIVERSITY VICTORIA COLLKOK, AUTHOR OP THB 
"PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY." 



TOEONTO: 

DUDLEY & BURNS, PRINTERS, VICTORIA HALL. 

1869. 



r 3 254-997 



■A 



TO 

THE HONORABLE 

SIR JOHN ALEXANDER MACDONALD, K.C.B.,>D.C.L., M.P., 

PREMIER OP THE DOMINION OP CANADA, 



\ 



THIS VOLUME IS BY PERMISSION RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 

AS 

A RECOGNITION OF HI8 ABILITIKS AS A CANADIAN STATESMAN, 

AND AS A TRIBUTE TO A LONO STANDING INHABITANT OF BAY QUXNTB, WHO HAS GIVEN 

BIB TALENTS AND ENERGIES TO LAY A SUBB FOUNDATION FOR 

"a GREAT NORTHERN NATION." 

BY HIS RESPECTFUL ADMIRER, 

I 

WILLIAM CANNIPP. 



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PREFACE. 



In tho year 18G1 a mooting was convened at the Education 
Office, Toronto, with tho view of oatablishing an Historical Society 
for Upper Canada. TIio writer, as an Upper Canadian by birth, 
and deeply interested in his country with respect to tho past as well 
as tho future, was present. The result of that meeting was the 
appointment of a Committee to frame a Constitution and By-Laws, 
and take tho necessary stops to organize the proposed Society, and 
to report three weeks thereafter 

The Committee consisted of tho Hon. Mr. Merritt, Eev. Dr. 
Eyerson, Col. Jarvis, Mr. DevTrassi, Mr. Merritt, J. J. Hodgins, Dr. 
Canniff and Mr. Coventry. For reasons unknown to the writer, 
this Committee never even met. The following year the writer 
received a printed circular respecting an " Historical Society of 
Upper Canada " which had been established at St. Catharines, of 
which Col. John Clarke, of Port Dalhousio, was President; Hon. 
Wm. H. Merritt, Vice-President, and George Coventry of Cobourg, 
Secretary. 

"HONORAIIY MEMBERS." 

" Chief Justice Sir John Beverley Rob- Henry Ruttan, Esq., Cobourg, 

inson, Bart., The Venerable Lord Bishop of Toronto, 

Colonel Jarvis, Toronto, . , Alfio DeGrassi, Esq., Toronto, 

Doctor Canniflf, " J. P. Merritt, St. Catharines, 

Henry Eccles, Esq., Q.C., Thomas C. Kcefer, Esq., JVA-- Me, 

William H. Kittson, Esq., Hamilton, Hon. George S. Boulton, Cobourg, 

David, Burn, Esq., Cobourg." 

At the request of this Society the writer undertook to prepare 
a Paper upon the Settlement of the Bay Quinte. Having been 
induced to take up his abode for a time at Belleville, near which he 
was born, the writer availed himself of every opj)ortunity he could 



croato whilo on^agod in his profosaional dutios, during a period of 
five yourrt, to collect facts pertaining to the subject. After some 
months of labor, he was advised by frienda, in whose judgment ho 
hatl contidenco, to write a History of the Bay (iuint*), for publication. 
Acting upon this advice, he continued, with increased energy, 
to collect and elaborate material. In carrying out this object, ho 
not only visited difterent sections of the country and many indivi- 
duals, but consulted the libraries at Toronto and Ottawa, as well as 
availed himself of the private libraries of kind friends, especially 
Canniff Ilaight, Esq., of Picton. As the writer proceeded in his 
work, he found the subject assuming more extended proportions 
than he had anticipated. lie found that, to write an account of 
the Settlement of the Bay Quinte, was to pen a history of the 
settlement of the Province. Finally, he has been induced to desig- 
nate the work " A History of the Settlement of Upper Canada." 

The labor, time and thought which has been given to the 
subject need not to be dwelt upon. Every effort has been made, 
consistent with professional duties, upon which the writer's family 
is dependent, to sift a mass of promiscuous material which has 
come under investigation, so that grains of truth alone might fill 
the measure which this volume represents. ' *'" ' "" 

Various sources of information have been duly indicated in 
the text; but there are a largo number of individuals, ft*om whom 
information has been obtained, whose names could not be recalled. 

This work has been one of love as well as labor ; yet time and 
again the writer would have relinquished it had it not been for the 
words of entouragoment, volunteered by his friends. '''. \ 

The writer has explained the cause of bis writing this volume. 
He now presents it to the reader — to Canadians — to the world. 
He lov'is his country so well, that he regrets an abler pen had not 
undertaken the task, that justice might be more fully done to the 

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,!. Fault may be found because of repeated and earnest protests 
j^agaiust-tho^t^tud^ai . a^sunxed, J^y the, IJnited , ^.tate^i : , th© domm^nts 



PREFAOK. m 

ma<lo in rospoct to ihoir history: the conlrivHt drawn upon tho 
subject of Liberty nnd Krbedom. Tho wviter offerH no oxcubo. 
Ho has ondoavorod to adhoro to truth. It in true those pa^es havo 
boon written during a period of gi-eat irritation to Canadians, from 
the hostile and uggi-ossivo spirit which tho United States havo dis- 
phiyod towards us ; but a record has boon mado which, it is trusted, 
will stand tho tost of tho closest examination. 

As to tho work, ai)art from its historical character, no remark 
is offered, except that tho writer is perfectly conscious of errors 
and imporfoctions. Time has not boon allowed to polish; and 
while the pages havo boon going through the press, other necessary 
duties havo j)rovontod that dose and undivided attention which tho 
work demanded. But subscribers to the volume wore urgent in 
their requests to have tho work without further delay. The reader 
is referred to a page of Errata. 

A concluding chapter it has boon found necessary to omit, in 
consoquonco of tho size already attained. J n this it was intended 
to discuss tho future prospects of the Dominion. Tho writer has 
unbounded faith in tho Confederation scheme. Before this scheme 
was initiated, the writer, in a lecture delivered to a Toronto 
audience, uttered those words. Pointing out the elements 
which constitute the fabric of a great nation, he remarked that ho 
" loved to contemplate the future, when all tho British American 
Provinces would be consolidated into a grand whole ; when, from 
the summit of the Rocky Mountains, would bo seen — to the East 
along the magnificent lakes and river to the Atlantic, and down 
the western slopes to the Pacific — the ccasoloss industry of tho 
Canadian beavei*, and the evergreen Maple Leaf overshadowing the 
peaceful homes of Canada." Tho prospects now are fHr brighter 
than when those words were spoken ; and notwithstanding the 
obstacles — an unpfitriotic company ofEnglishmen, the unscrupulous 
designs of covetous Americans, and the apathy of the British Gov- 
ernment — the belief is brbad and strong that the dream of tho 
future will be realized. There is life in the tree whose seed wtis 



vm VRKKACB. 

planted eighty yoarH ago, and an it han in thu past continued to 
grow, HO it will in the future. 

In concluding thoHo prefatory remarkH, wodoHiro to tender our 
thankH to all who have aHHistod uh directly or indirectly, by sup- 
plying information, and by encouraging words. Particularly wo 
thank those gentlemen who gave their namew an Hubscribors, Homo 
of them voluntarily, years ago, before the work was fairly com- 
menced ; also the ]Ion. Lewis Wallbridgo, for procuring for us, 
when Speaker, copies of manuscript in the Parlianioutary Library, 
at Ottawa. 

Finally, wo express our obligations to the Publishers and 
Printers. 



Toronto, 27th March, 1869. , 

, iCopy Right uourad. 

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CONTENTS. 



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" .,'• 



A BKRTCII 1>F FIU.NCO-CANADIAN II18T0RY. 

CHAPTER I. 

PAQI 

ntiquarianlHTO — Rooords of tho Karly Nations — Tradition — The ProsB— 
Tlie Enatorn World — Tho WcHtcrn World — I mpoit<ui(«! of History- 
Columbus — Colonizivtioii — (.'iiimdii — America — (^'artier — French Cana- 
dian writers — Cartioi-'s lirnt visit — Huguenots — Cartier's second visit — 
Jean Francois — Sir (Jk'orge K. Cartii-r — Estublislimeut of the Fur Trade 
— Champhiin — Discovery of Lake Ontario — liny of Quinte — Quebec 
founded — First lightintc with Indians — First taliing of Quebec by the 
British — Uoturned to Franco — The Uecollots and Jesuits — Death of 
Champluin — F(>undation of Montreal — Emigration from France — The 
Carignan Regiment — DoCourcelle— Proposal to found a Fort at Lake 
Ontario — Frontenac — Fort at Cativraqui — La Salle — Fort at Niagara — 
First vessel upon the Lakes — Its fate — Death of La Salle, the first 
settler of Upper (Janada — Founder of Louisiana — Discoverer of the 
mouth of the Mississippi , 1 



CHAPTER 11. 

[itaraqui Fort strengthened — Keute Indians seized and carried captive to 
France — Massacre of Lachine — Commencing struggle between New 
England and New France — Siege of Quebec by Sir Wm. Phipps — De- 
struction of Fort Cataraqui — Its re-erection — Treaty .of Ryswick— ■ 
Death of Frontenac — Iroquois in England — Another attempt to cap- 
ture Quebec — Decline of French power — Population of Canada and of 

New England — Continuation of the contest for the fur trade Taking 

of Fort Louisburg — Col. Washington, dishonorable conduct — Inconsis- ; 
tency of Dr. Franklin — Commencement of seven years' war — Close of ' 
first year — Montcalm — His presentiment —Taking of Fort Oswego— 
Of Fort William Henry — Fearful massacre — Tlie state of Canada- 
Wolfe appears — Taking of Frontenac — Duquesne — Apathy of Franco 
— The Spring of 1759 — Reduced state of Canada — Overthrow of French ■'' 
power in America — The resul<>— Union of elements — The capture of 
Quebec — Wolfe —Death of Montcalm — Fort Niagara — Johnson— Effort ' . 
to retake Quebec — Wreck of the French army — Capitulation at Mon- - * 
treal — Population — The first British Governor of Canada — The Cana- 
dians as British subjects— The result of French enterprise — Rebellion 16 



Z CONTENTS. 

* »" , ,. DIVISION I. ,. 

, , ,[ , THR BEBEtUON OF 1776 — TUB THIRTEBN C0L0NIB8. 

CHAPTER III. . 

PAUI 

First American rebellion— 'Iudependenc<! — Traitors made heroes— LoyalistR 
driven away to found another colony — The responsibility of rebelling 
— Treatment of the Xjoyalists — The Hevera! colonies — The first Eng- 
lishman in America — llecoivcs XIO — English colonization — Virginia 
— Convicts— Extent of Virginia — First Governor — Virginians not 
'vvilling to rebel — Quota supplied to the rcibel army — New York — 
■:> Hudson — The Dutch — New Netherlands — Price of New Amsterdam 
(New York) — First Legislative Assembly — Not quick to rebel — Quota 
of rebel troops — Gave many settlers to Upper Canada — New Jersey — 
Its settlement — A battle ground — Gave rebel troops ; also loyal troops 
— Furnished settlers to Upper ('anada — JIassachusettb — Captain Smith 
— New England Puritans — The " Mayflower " — First Governor — Cruel 
treatment of Indians — Mofisachusetts takes the leiul in rebelling — 
Troops — LoyalistR — New IT.impshire — Troops — Delaware — Settlement 
— Quotf* of rebel troops — ( .'onnecticut — Education — Troops — Roman 
Catholics — Toleration — Rhode Island — Providence— Inconsistency of 
the Puritans— Roger Williams — North Carolina — Inhabitants — South 
Carolina — Many Loyalists — Pennsylvania — William Penn — Conduct 
toward Indians — The people opposed to rebellion— Georgia — Ogle- 
thorpe — Policy of New England — Now England, ,^,,j,^ ;. a.«*.v. » v »•> ♦* '^ 

C,5 Minia«'»H'''KiT--lK,l'.iwl>-:it; CHAPTER IV, ,j ■^v.,.^iu.-A flil'l— jn jouu;- - 

American writers—Sabtne — Loyalists had no time to waste — Independence 
not sought at first — Adams— Franklin — Jay— Jefferson — Washington 
— Madison — The British Government — Ingratitude of the Colonists — 
Taxation — Smugglers — Crown officers — Persistence — Superciliousness 
Contest between Old England and New England 41 

The signers of the Declaration of Indep^indence — Their nativity — Injus- 
tice of Americau writers for 80 years— Cast back mis-statements — The 
Whigs had been U. B Loyalists — Hancock — Oificc-seekers — Malcon- 
tents stir up strife — V/^hat the fathers of the Republic fought for — 
Rebel committees— Black mail — Otis, John Adams, Warren, Washing- 
ton, Hsnry, Franklin- — What caused them to rebel — What the American 
revolutionary heroes actually were — Cruelty, during and after the war 
—No Freedom — The political mistake of the rebels in alienating the 
loyalists — The Consequence — Motives of the loyalists — False charges 
-i-Conscientious Consetvatives — ^Rebellion not warranted— Attachment 
to the old flag — Loyalists driven away — Suppressio veri — Want of noble 
spirit towards the South — Effects — Comparison between loyalists and 
rubel8r~£duoation' — Religion — The neutral — The professiouB, 46 

CHAPTER VI. 

y ; 

Kepublicanism — The lesson of the first rebellion — The late civil war — Th« 
Loyalists ; their losses and hardships — Ignored by Americans — Unre- 
corded — The world kept in ignorancei — American glory — Englishmen 
— Question of. Colonial; treatment — The reason why Great Britain 
failed . to B\ihdjuetljLerel?ieJiiion--Chai:act^^ rebel bravery— The 

.„ great result-— Liberty in England aad United States contrasted-M 



CeNTENTS. XI 

PAOI 
Slavery — The result to IT. E. Loyalists — IJurgoyne — Molwcracy— 
Treatment from "Sons of Liberty" — Old mon, women and children — 
Instances of cruelty — Brutality — Itapacity — Torture — The lower elassos 
— <' Swamp Law" — Fiendish cruelty — Worse than Butler's Hangers— 
Seward and the Fenians —Infamous falsification— Close of the war — 
Recognition of independence by Great Britain — Crushed hopes of the 
Loyalists — In New York — Their conduct — Evacuation day — The ' ' 
position of the Loyalists — Confiscation — " Attainting" — Seizing Estaten 
— Paine — Commissioners at Paris — British Ministry — Loyalists' petition 
— King'., speech — Division of claimants — Six classes — The number- 
Tardy justice — Noble conduct of South Carolina — Impostors — Loyal- 
ists in Lower Canada — Proclamation — The soldiers' families — Journey- 
ingfi— Meeting of families -, ,-. . iv;'. .-. .' i '.; V. ...;..,; . ; ; . . 52 

•v ..- -.r, .-/..^ -.nl.r. .,. CHAPTER VII. ....••. v 

spirit of strife — Tha French war — British American troops — Former 
comnii'.es opposed — Number of U. E. Loyalists in the field — General 
Burgoyne — Defeat — First reverse of British arms — The campaign-— 
Colonel St. Leg;r — Fort Stanwix — Colonel Baume — Battle of Ban- 
nington — General Herkimer — Gatei- — Schuyler — Braemar Heights— 
Sarato;;a — Surrender — The result upon the people — Sir .John Jolinson 
— Sir William— Sketch — Indian Chief — Laced coat — Indian's drearn — 
It comes to p-isii — Sir William dreams — It also comes to pass — Too 
hard a dream — li'ir John — Attempt to arrest — Escape— Starving- 
Royal greens — lohason's losses — Living in Canada — Death — Principal 
Corps of Royalists — King's Rangers — Queen's Rangers — Major Rogers 
— Simcoe — The Rangers in Upper Canada — Disbanded — The Hessians. 63 

■■ rn'v'iil u^fiui— --*■•'; ■■•" -■•■" '-■-''■'—■■ ■■■■ " '■■- 

. . ; , •*.._r ^ ,^v<»-,' CHAPTER VIII. f't-' -"'■''^ '" idrjiKi.-! Joft 

Indian names — The Five Tribes — The Sixth — Confederation — Govern-' 
ment — Sub-divisions— Origin — Hendrick — Death-— Brant — Birtli— s 
Education — Married — Teaching — Christianity — Brant elected Chief — 
Commissioned a British Captain — Visita England — Returns — Leads his 
warriors to battle — Efi'orts of Rebels to seduce Brant to their cause — 
Attempted treachery of the Rebel Herkimer — Border warfare — Wyom- i.vr 
ing— Attempt to blacken the character of Brant — His noble conduct- 
Untruthful American History — The inhabitants of Wyoming — The 
Rebels first to blame — Cherry Valley — Van Schaick — Bloody order»->-»r 
Terrible conduct of the Rebels, Helpless Indian families— Further- 
deeds of blood and rapine by the rebel Sullivan — A month of horrible 
work — Attributes of cruelty more conspicuous in the Rebels than in 
the Indians — The New Englander — Conduct toward the Indians — In- 
consistent — The " down trodden " — The Mohawks — Indian agriculture 
— Broken faith with the Indians — Noble conduct of Brant— After the 
war — His family — Death — Miss Molly — Indian usage — The cliaracter l 
of the Mohawk — The six Indians as Canadians — Fidelity to the British 
— Receiving land — Bay Quinte — 'Grand River — Settling— ^ Captaia 
Isaac, Captain John — At present — Mohawk Counsel tl 

CHAPTER IX. . , „ . ... „ 

llndividuals — Anderson — Bethune — Bnrwell -^Bailer — Canliff — Clati^— •" 
Coffin — Donne — Jarvis — Jones— McDonald — Mc<Jill— McGilles-— Mer-"* 
lit — Munday— Peters — Robinson — Sihgleton — Boss — McNah— AllenTT-- 
Alli8on— Ashley— Bell— Bnvritt--^k8Cy— CawcalliOla-Tehttp-i^^ 
—Crawford— Dame— Daly— Diamond' ...........;::/.;:;. .".'?.\ :^7l '■ 86 



XU CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

PAOB 

Ferguson — Frazer — Gerollainy — GoldHmith — Harrison — Hudgins — Hicka 
Howell — HoTor — Hoglc — Ham — Herkimer — Holt — Jones — .Johnson — 
Ketcheson— 'Loyst — Myers — McArthur — Miller — Mordeus — McDonald 
— McDonnell — McDonell-rOstrom — Peterson lOO 

CHAPTER XI, - - 

Rogers' family — Ryerson — R<idner — Sherwood — Taylor — Van Dnsen — 
Williambiirgh — Wright — Wilkins — Young — Officers who settled in 
Niagara District 117 

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DIVISION II. 

TRAVKLING IN EARLY TIMES ORIGINAL ROUTES. 

CHAPTER XII. 

Indian paths — Portages — Original French routes — Merde Canada — Original 
names of St. Lawrence — Ontario — Huron — Route by Bay Quint6 — Old 
French maps — Original English routes — Four ways from Atlantic to 
the Lakes — Mississippi — Potomac — Hudson — Indian name of Erie — 
From New York to Ontario — The Hudson River — Mohawk — Wood 
creek — Oneida Lake — Oswego River — The carrying places — West 
Canada Creek — Black River — Oswegotchie — The navigation — Military 
highway — Lower Canada — An historic route — The paths followed by 
the Loyalists — Indian paths north of Lake Ontario — Crossing the Lake 
— From Cape Vincent to the Bay Quints — From Oswego by Duck 
Islands — East Lake — Picton Bav — Coasting Ontario— Two vrays to 
Huron — By Bay Quint6 and Trent; by Don River — Lake Simcoe — 
Point Traverse — Loyalists — Travelling by the St. Lawrence — First 
road — Long remembered event..,, .'...';....;'. ^.... ... .i. ..'. 129 

-iuri'i .1i \f(,\fuiy. (Wii't i , UM Ar i Jliiv JLlli,*,,. j( (,,'i"i-rM ■■ f-ti-^n 

Indians trav :jlec' by foot or by canoe — Secreting canoes — Primeval scenes 
— Hunting expeditions — War path — In 1812 — Brock — A night at 
Myers' Creak—Important arrival — The North West Company — Their 
canoes — 'Route — Grand Portage — The Voyageurs— The Batteaux — Size 
— Ascending the rapids — Lachine^A dry dock — Loyalists by batteaux 
— Durham boats — Difficulties — In 1788, time from Lachine to Freder- 
ieksburg— Wfliting for batteaux — Extracts from a journal, trayeling in 

K'.i 1811 — From Kingston to Montreal — The expenses — The Schenectady 
boats — Trade between Albany and Cataraqui — The Durham boat — 
Duncan — Description of flat-bottomed boat by " Murray " — Statement 
ofFinkle — Trading — Batteaux in 181 2 — Rate of traveling — The change 
in fifty years — Time from Albany to Bay Quinte — Instances — Loyalists 
traveling in winter — Route — Willsbury wilderness — Tarrying at Corn- 
wall — The " French Train " — Traveling along north shore of Ontario 

- —Indian path-— Horseback — Individual owners of batteaux — Around 

Bay Quinte — The Last regular batteaux — In 1819 — "Lines" from 
magaEine ...n*. >,.,*,!(■,,,»*, ...j,,k,.>j. ....,..i,j, ,.,.»,. <),j,_,^^,-«.,j_.^^,j,j^_,^.. 135 



CONTENTS. im 

CHAPTER XIV. 

PAOB 

The first Vessel— The B'leneh— La Salio— The Griffon— Vessels in 1770— 
During the Rebellion — Huilding at Carleton Island — Captain Andrews 
The Ontario — Col. Burton — Loss of the Ontario — The Sheehans — Hills 
— Givins' — Murney's Point — Schooner ' Speedy ' — Mohawlv — Missis- 
sauga — Duke of Kent — Capt. Bouchottc — Paxton — McKenzie — 
Riciiardson — Earle Steele — Fortiche — The Governor Simcoe — Sloop 
' Elizabeth ' — First vessel built at York — Collins' Report upon 
Navigating the Lakes — Navy in Upper Canada, 1795 — Rochfoucault 
— Capt. Boufhctte — Officers' Pay — York, the centre of the Naval Force 
— Gun Boats — The Loss of tlie " Spcsedy " — Reckoner — Dr. Sti achan — 
Solicitor-Gen. Gray — Canada took the lead in ouilding A'^essels — First 
Canadian Merchant Vessel — Tlie York — A Schooner on runners round 
the Falls — Sending Coals to Newcastle — Upon Bay Quinte — The Out- 
skirts of Civilization — "Tht Prince Edward" built of Red Cedar— In 
1812 — Schooner " Mary Ann " — 1817— Capt. Matthews 147 

.11 Y.OiblVJAi 

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. t«.f^Mv.ii...n DIVISION III. ,,;,„......,,, 

!■:•'•■ -■^^ai■ ' *'^. ,^ ■ • 

i.i i!«f.J fl THK LOYALISTS AS PIONEERS — THE ORIGINAL SURVEY. ^j ' 

'f>f'''-' •■ -■ ~-,.,..^-i-.i...-.v..<f,. r . 

»,„,..fl- ,.,,.„., ,r,' ., :.; • CHAPTER XV. T'^ /; ^- ,; ,' 

Major Gen, Holland — Surveying on Atlantic Coast — An adherent of the 
Crown — Removal to Montreal — Death — Major Holland — Information 
" Maple Leaves " — Holland Farm — Tach^ — First Canadian Poem — 
Head Quarters of Gen. Montgomery — Hospitality — Duke of Kent — 
Spencer Grange — Holland Tree — Graves — Epitaphs — Surveyor Wash- 
ington — County Surveyor — Su. veyors after the War — First Survey in 
Upper Canada — Commenced in 1781 — The Mode pursued — Information 

, f in Crown Lands Department — The Nine Townships upon the St. 
Lawrence — At the close of the War — Non-Professional Surveyors — 
Thomas Sherwood — Assisting to Settle — Surveying around the Bay 
Quinte — Bongard — Deputy-Surveyor Collins — First Survey at Fron- 
tenac — Town Reserve — Size of Township — Mistakes — Kottye — Tuffy 
— Capt. Grass — Capt. Murney — Surveying in Winter — Planting Posts 
— Result — ^Litigation — Losing Land — A Newspaper Letter — Magis- 
trates — Landholders — Their Son's Lawyers — Alleged Filcliing — Spec- 
ulators at Seat of Government — Grave Charges — Width of Lots — 
Mode of Surveying — Number of Concessions— Cross Roads — Survej'- 
ors Orders — Numbering the Lots — Surveying around the Bay — The 
ten Townships — Their Lands — The Surveying Party — A Singer — State- 
ment of Gourl(iy..., 154 

:.....h,^H CHAPTER XVI. ■ ••■ 

The teiift 'Cdticession — First Concession of Land in Canada — The Carignan 
Regiment — Seigniories — Disproportion of the sexes — Females sent 
from France — Their appearance — Settling them — Marriage allowance 
— The last seigniory — New Longeuil — Seigniory at Prontenao — Grants 
to refugees — Officers and men — Scale of granting — Free of expense — 
Squatting — Disbanded soldiers — Remote regions — A wise and benefi- 
cent policy — Impostors — Very young officers — Wholesale granting of 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAOB 
land — Republicans coming over — CovctouH — FiiIhc pretensions — Gov- 
ernment had to discriminate — Rules and regulations — Family lands — 
Bounty — (Jertificatcs — Soiling claims — Rear conccskiions — Transfer of '* 
location ticket — Land board — Tardiness in obtaining titles to real 
estJite — Transfer by bond— Jobbing — Sir Wm. PuUency — AVashington 
— Giving lands to favcn-itcs — Reserves — Evil results — The Family 
Compact^ — PJxtract from Playt( r — Extract from Lord Durham — From 
Gourlay — Recompense to Loyalists — Rations — Mode of drawing land 
— Land agent — Broken front— Traitor Arnold — Tyendinaga 164 

vir^jlr-^.itM-iiV.wiV. CHAPTER XVII. ..,r/,i.J if M.iUo' ;i'<i!' 

Lines — Western Settlement, 1783 — Population — Settlement upon St. Law- 
rence and Bay — Number, 1784 — Procla; tion to Loyalists — Society 
disturbed — Two kinds of Loyalists — St. i^awrence and Bay favorable 
for settlement — Government provisions — State of the Loyalists — Serv- 
ing out I tions — Clothes — Utensils for clearing and fencing — The axe 
— Furniture — Attacking a last enemy — Tents — Waiting for their lots 
— " Bees " — Size of dwellings — Mode of building — Exchanging work 
— Bedsteads — Clearing — Fireing trees — Ignorance of pioneer life — 
Disposing of the wood — No beast of burden — Logging — Determina- 
tion — All settlers on a common ground — Additional refugees — Advance 
— Simcoe's proclamation, 1792 — Conditions of grants — The response — 
Later settlers — Questionable Loyalists — Yankees longing for Canada 
—Loyalty in 1812 ..... ,;. ;;,.., .T;. ' 181 

^^uu(.■•^-• , ^ I i.t;^. —1:; ..-.^i 

"titmb. — soinwdjsl/ Jfifii'.titi)! -^jfur-iyf ,d'I~-v,Uir,t.l>z'jti iliivj iLb-»iO— ' 
—Roilaid aobo(>W — luiyjii c--, ,.■■)'-: L\., ,. ■', — Krt.8ila-.uii') ■.iino'.':/<l'~:ija-'>i. 
to Hl'i-yjC'! — xlhiX'/rM ;iuy,ibii.I— riqtii.-.ia/Jf vjdi-'> —eno'^qP^ -^OAAf^f 
Bfljaibili iWilitinU— ■•■iTJ'^T ■.""•H?r"--T'. . ...i;;;;rj5jtaia<iiW t..l:l iioqii I*KlV.-.lA 
iuo'Ja JifjfuoJwtft ''1' \5!:ibiii-.t;jb (aooioW— 

/ifiV) hi'nan.iu}<i-~ D I V I j8 I O N ■ I-y-i''''^ '' -'^ j»i!M:aKi:W ciaiUii 
-83 vio-nr,A—Hunii-'jv*[ vr-j j-^ J;*jc',,'.l. bl; ,V*— b'-...r,v;a'd8 ,vJii'^i hiO 
•Mh&'l Ut .)j/. ' ' ?(:u.iJi,bj:i.-'Al— 89qi:--. 

' -ol — vxtKf/bal ii, »iw.., Jv :■.. j,vv>.t/.3 aiil' — lt3Jii.'jJiic<; 

I?fJ , ^f^^■.7CHAPTER XVIII.;T;,h--;-.-!...fiof>: a:c'=j;^f;,-j. 

Father Picquet — Provision of Forts in Upper Canada just before conquest 
— Frontenac — Milk — Brandy— Toronto— The several forts — Detroit — 
British garrisons — Grasping rebels — Efforts to starve out Loyalists in 
Canada — Worse treated than the Acadians — Efforts to secure Fur 
Trade — The frontier forts — Americans' conduct to Indian^— Result — 
Conduct of British Government — Rations for three years— Grinding 
by hand — "Hominy blocks"— " Plumping mill"— -The women — Sol- 
dier farmers— The Hessians — Su^'ering— The " Scarce Year" Charge 

. against the Commisijariat officers — Famine — Cry for bread — Instances 
" of suffering — Starving children — No salt — Fish— Game — Eating young 
grain — Begging bran — A common sorrow — Providential escapes — 
Eating buds and leaves — Deaths—Primitive fishing — Catching salmon 
— Going 125 miles tp mill— Disconsolate families — 1789 — Partial 
relief — First beef slaughtered in Uppet Canada— First log bam — A 
«'Bee," what they ate and drabk — Tea introduced — Statements of 
Sheriff Sherwood— Rogei' Botes — John Parrott— Col. Clark— Squirrel 
swfinmiTig Niagara — Maple sugar — How it was made— Women assist- 
ing— Made dishts of food — Pumpkiii loaf— Extract from Rocfaefoucault 

- 1795'^— Quality of grain raised;— Quinte Bay — Cultivation— Com 

exported — Th6 grain dealers— Price of flour — Pork — Profits of the 
mwchantr: ? -i^i^ . . . V/;ir;.;^i^:l';V^i£. . .^ ;vH';l^':;;;;i;;;'vf ;^vv-^^-^ '191 



CONTENTS. XV 



.;.,■. I .fM '.f. CHAPTER XIX. o„ fn,> . ini;--' 'mtOT — I 



PAOB 



Kingston Mills — Action of Government — Tlie Millwright — Situation of the 
first Mill — Why Selected — Tlie Machinery — Put up hy Loyalists — No 
Toll — Only Mill for three years — Going to Mili, 1784 — The Napanoo . 
Mill — Comraenced 1785 — Kobert Clarke — And old Book — "Appenea" 
Falls — Price of certain articles — What Rum cost, ai\d was used for — - 
The Mill opened 1787 — Sergt.-Major Clarke in charge — Indian Corn — 
Small Toll — Surveyor Collins in charge — Becomes the property of R. 
Cartwright, 1792 — Rebuilt — Origin of Napanee — Price of Butter, 1'88 
— Mills at Four Mile Creek, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, and Grnnd River 
— Mills on the St. Lawrence — The Stone Mills — VanAIstine — Lake of 
the Mountain — 179(3 — Natural Beauty, t rsun Utility — The Mill — Van 
Alstine's Death-:- Wind l^Iill — Myef's Mill— Mill at Consocon. ...,.., 206 

'•'•i/rif- '«i ^•!\i] f,()j( n"., -...•'■.»<■• i!-! -.t!"l/. y,, I ^(, ^l ,r)>| O'W I'. — |. )fll<.)<! ,. 

./•(ur' -Ji-»fiilJ!y' I "*'*» CHAPTER XX. ijmirr./.)r>— 1'i->iii M.ffn r-! 

Clothing — Domestic and Farming Implements — Style of Dress eighty years 
ago — Clotldng of the Refuges — Disbanded Soldiers — No Fresh Supply 
Indiaa Garments of Skin — Deerskin Pants — Petticoats — Bed Coverings 
— Cultivating Flax — Sheep — Home-mode Clothes- — Rude Implements . f 
— Fulling — French Mode — Lindsay Woolsey — The Spinning-wheel — , 
Young men Selecting Wives — Bees — Marriage Portion — Every Farmer 
his own Tanner and Shoemaker — Fashions—How odd hours were spent .. i 
— Home-made Shoes — What Blankets \v( re made of — Primitive Bed- 
stead — Nakedness — Bridal Apparel — No Saddles — Kingston and Newark 
—Little Money — Bartering — Merchants from Albany — Unable to buy 
— Credit with Merchants — The Results — Itinerant Mechanics — Amer- 
icans — Become Canadians — An old Stone-mason — Wooden Dishes — 
Making Spoons — Other Hardships — Indians Friendly — Effects of 
Alcohol upon the Mississaugas — Groundless Panic — Drunken Indians 
— Women, defending Themselves — An erroneous Statement aboat 
Indian Massacre in " Dominion Monthly Magazine " — Statement of an 
Old Settler, Sherwood — Wild Beasts — Few Fire-arms — Farrow Es- 
capes — Depredations at Night — Destroying Stock — An Act of Parlia- 
ment—" A traveller's Statement — The Day of Small Things — Settlers 
Contented — The Extent of their Ambition — Reward of Industry — ^Po- 
pulation in 1808 — Importations — Money — The Youth 211 

—iioiloU— aJwl ta' CHAPTER XXI. .h0fn,<l-~>{|iM -oijnoJmnU— 

Sweat of the fcrow— ifo beiist of burden — No stocki--Excep^ t)y afc^--_'^|r 
Horses and qxen — From Lower Canada — York State — Late comerd,^ /'' , 
brought some — No fodder — First stock in Adolphustown — Incidents ' 
—Cock and hens — " Tipler " — Cattle driving— -Fir^t cow in Thurlow — ' j 
First house in Marysburgh — The first ox,en7— No market for butter and V; 
cheese — Sheep — Rev. Mr. Stuart, as an Agriculturist — Horses at Nap- ' 
anee — An offer for a yoke of steers , . . , , , 220 

-'??iqj3oa9 luiiiT'bi'roiH' — //oTiO!^ rioijitrro't /•. — njntf ^ar5j;g')a — it\m-^ 
i.?irriji>( aiitiiv^KO— qnhfCtHAPTER XXII..r(~- ^■)/ivj'l bnxi Hbuci y/K:»it''{. 

Old channels of trade, and travel — Art and Hcience— New enannels— Thai^.^ 
wilderness — Loyalists Travelling on foot, from Kingston to York— ^j „ 
Formation of roads — Act of parliament — 1 793— Its provisions — Crooked (g 
roads — Foot-pa,th — Bridle-path— King's highway from Lower Canadft'^y 
—When surveyed— Road fronj Kingston westwardr-Jts course — Simcoe'a '.^ ■ 
military road-r-Dundas 3treet>— Asa DanfortliTr-Contract with Boy-^'__ 
ernment — Road from Kingston to Ancaster— Danforth road^ — 1799—^^ 
r Misunderstandings — Danforth's pamphlets — Slow improvemen(i--ijgj 



XVI CONTENTiS. 

I'AOI 
Cause — Extract from Oourlay — ThomaH Markland's ntport — Ferries — 
1796 — ActH of parliament — Statute labor — Money grantH — ComniiH- 
Bioners — Midland di8tri<:t — Distribution — The Cataraipii Bridge Com- 
pany — Tlio ptftitionerrt — An act — The provisions — Tlio plan of build- 
ing — The bridge — Toll — Completing the bridge — Improvements of 
roads — McAdam — Declinea a knighthood 224 

'w.J,in jJii-liMO; ;!>^. CHAPTER XXIII. ..i.u i.Ur/ .-.■•■/ .: 

Ode to Canada — Early events— First English child in America, 1587 — In 
New England— First French child, 1621— First in Upper Canada, 1783 
— In Prince Edward — Adolphustowu — Ameliasburgh — North of the 
Rideau — Indian marriage ceremony— Difficulty among first settlers to 
get clergymcu— First marriage in America, 1608 — Fiist in New Eng- 
land, 1621 — First in Canada, 1621 — Marriageable folks— No one to tic. 
the matrimonial knot — Only one clergyman — Officers marrying— 
Magistrates empowered— Legislation, 1793 — Ita provision — Making 
valid certain marriages — Further Legislation, 1798 — In 1818 — 1821 — 
1831 — Clergymen of all denominations permitted to marry. — Methodist 
ministers — Marriage license, 1814 — Five persons appointed to issue — 
A noticeable matter — Statements of Bates — Mode of courting in the 
woods — Newcastle wedding expeditions — Weapons of defence — Ladies' 
dresses — The lover's "rig" — A wedding ring — Paying the magistrate 
— A good corn basket — Going to weddings — " Bitters "—Old folks stay 
at home — The dance, several nights— Marriage outfit— Frontier life — 

"^ Morals in Upper Canada — Absenct; of irregularities — Exceptional 
instances — Unable to get married, Peter and Polly — A singular witness 
— Rev, Mr. Stuart— Langhorn — McDowell — How to adorn the bride — 
What she wore — A wedding in 1808 — On horseback — The guests — The 
wedding — The banquet— The game of forfeits — The night— Second day 
wedding — The young folks on horseback— -Terpischorean — An elope- 
ment by canoe— The Squire — The chase^Tho lovers successful — The 
Squires -who man-ied, ,^,... ,,.......;,.,,,, , 

Burying places — -How selected — Family burying place — ^^For the neighbor- 
hood — The Dutyh — Upon the Hudson — Bay Qtiinto — A sacred spot to 
the Loyalists — Ashes to ashes — Primitive mode of burial — The coffin 
— At the grave — The father's i^marks— -Return to labor — French Bury- 
ing-place at Frontenaq— Its site— U. E. Loyalists' burying place at 
Kingston — The " U. E. burying-ground," Adolphustown — Worthy sires 
of Canada's sons — Decay — Neglect of illustrious dead — Repair wanted 
— Oldest burying-ground in Prince Edward — Ross Place — At East 
Lake — Upon the Rose faam — " Tlie Dutch burying-ground " — Second 
growth trees — In Sophiasburgh — Gronk farm — In Sidney — Rude tomb 
8to)ies — Burial-place of Captain Myers — Reflections — Dust to dust — 

''■' In Thurlow — "Taylor burying-ground" — The first person buried — 
Lieut. Ferguson — An aged female — Her work done — Wheels stand 

■'- still 

omou oi b:.n. ,nn lo I 



232 



C0NTKNT8. ZVll 

; ,.o. : : DIVISION V. i 

I ■■ ■'J'"V,;'' '■' TUB BARLY OLBBOYMKN ANP CHUKCIIKH. ',■" ^ '}' " 

■ ^ •'^^>-'"'-' - CHAPTER XXV. ' ' "*'•" '^ "«' ' -••^' 

PAOI 

French miHRionarics — FirBt in 1615 — Recollcts — Witli Chaniplain — JcRuits, 
in 1625 — Valuable retards — Bisliopric of Quebec, 1674 — KirHt Bishop 
of Canada, Laval — Rivalry — .Power of JoHuits — Number of miHsiona- 
ries — Their "relations" — Fii-st mission field; Bay Quintc region — 
" Antient mission " — How founded — First missionaries — Kleus, Abbe 
D'Urfe — La Salle to build a church — The ornaments and sacred vessels 
— The site of the "Chappol" uncert^dn — Bald Bluff, Carrying; Place — 
Silver crosses — Mission at Georgian Bay — The "Christian Islands" — 
Chapel atJMichilmioinac, 1679 — The natives attracted — Subjects of the 
French King — Francois Picquet — La Presentation — Sof-yasti — The 
most important mission — The object — Six Nations — The missionary's 
living — "Disagreeable expostulations" — Putting stomach in order — 
Trout — Picquet's mode of teaohiug Indians — The same afterwards 
adopted by Rev. W. Case — Picquet's success — Picquet on a voyage — 
At Fort Toronto — Mississaugas' request — Picquet's reply — A slander — 
At Niagara, Oswego — At Frontenac — Grand reception — Return to La 
Presentation — Picquet in the last French war — Returns to France — 
By Mississippi — " Apostles of Peace " — Unseemly strife — Last of the 
Jesuits in Canada 24i» 

„.v::.:..u;,..ml..'/.! -^"-^^''-^cHAPTER XXVI. 'i ''' 

First church in New York, 1633— First Dominie, Rev. Everardus Rogar- 
dus — The Dutch, Huguenots, Pilgrims — ^Transporting ministers and 
churches — First Rector of New York, Wm. Vesoy — Henry Barclay, 1746 
— First Catholic Bishop in America, 1789 — Episcopalian Bishop, 1796 
— Moral state of Pioneers in Canada— Religion— No ministers — No 
striking immorality— Feared God and honored their King— The Fath- 
ers of Upper Canaila— Religious views — A hundred years ago— " Ca- 
rousing and Dancing "-Rev. Dr. .John Ogilvie - First Protestant 
clergyman in Canada— Chaplain, 1769, at Niagara — A Missionary Suc- 
cessor of Dr. Barclay, New York — Death, 1774 — Rev. .Tolin Doughty — 
A Graduate ordained — At Pcekskill — Schenectady— A Loyalist — A 
Prisoner — To Canada — Chaplain— To England— Returns— Minsionary 
Pi'^signs— Rev Dr. John Stuart — First clergyman to settle — His memoir 

— The " Father of the U. C. Church " — Mission work — Tlie five nations 
— 'i'lie Dutch — Rev. Mr. Freeman — Translator — Rev. Mr. Andrews — 
R«'V Mr. Spencer Woodbridge, Howley — New England missionaries 

— II v. Dr. Whelock — The Indian converts— The London society 
— iCev. Mr. Inglis — .John Stuart selected missionary — A native of Penn- 
syhania — Jrish descent — A graduate, Phil. Coll. — Joins Church of 
Lii^iland — To England — Ordination — Holy Orders, 1770 — Pinters upon 

hih work .-; i;'yi«.'; ...^i% . . . .^ 255 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

At Fort Hunter — Mr. Stuart's first sermon, Christmas — Officiates in Indian 
tongue — Translates — The rebellion — Prayers for the King — The John- 
sons — Rebels attack his house — Plunder — Indignity — Church desecra- 
ted — Used as a stable — A barrel of rum — Arrested — Ordered to come '^ 
before rebel commissioners — On Parole — Limits — Idle two years — To 
Albany — Phil — Determines to remove to Canada — Not secure — Ex- 



, P&OI 

chauf^ing — Hccmity— tteal CHtntu fbrlbiicd— Uouto — Negroe*— Tho 
journey, tliroo wfloicK— At St. .Iohn'«— Chargo of Publiu School — Chap< 
lain — At the iloueof tho war — Three Protostant lariwhcH — Dutorminos 
to Hettlo at (-'fttmqui — Chaplain to OarriHra — MiHsionary — iJiHhop of 
Virginia, Dr. (Irillitli — ViHitii Mr. Stuart---'.uvitatloa to Virgiua declin- 
«;d — "lilvctted prcjudicee," satisfled — "The only refuge clergymen" — 
Path of duty — Visits the suttlomcuts, 1784 — Mohawks, Grand river — 
Ucccption of thiir old pastor— First ciiurch— Mohawks, Bay of Qiiinte 
— UemainK in Montreal a year — AHsistant — Komovcs toCataraqui, 17fi5 
—His land— Siunbor of houses in Kingston— A short cat to Lake 
Huron — Kortiinato in land -5Q00 settlers — Poor and happy- -Indus- 
trious — Around his Parish, 1788— Two hundred miles long— Uy battoau 
— Brant— New Oswego — Mohawk village chnrch,Bteeple,and bell — First 
in Upper Canwla— Plate— Organ — ^Furnituro— Ilfcturns— At Niagara- 
Old parishiontirH — Toinptcil to move — Comfot'table, not rich — Declines 
a judgoship -New Mccklonburgb — Appointed (?liaplain to first House 
of Assembly -Mohawk Mission — At Maiysburgh -Bogree of D.l). — 
Prosperity — Happy -Decline of life -Ilia duticH—IllntSH, Dcalth, 1611 
• • — His appearanco— '< The little gentleman "—His manners -llonorablo 

trtlo~His children llcv. O^Kill Sturtrt 260 

: ''I CHAPTER XXVIII. 

A Missionary -(Chaplain at Niagara — ^Pastors to the Hettlei* — Chaphtin to 
Legislature— ViKits (rrand river — Ortlciatcs— A land speculator— Re- 
ceives a pt'nsion, £50 — 1823 — Rev. Mr. Pollard — At Araherstburgh — 
Mr. Langboru — A missionary — Little education — Useful — Odd — On 
Bay Quintc in Evneattown— Builds a chrtrch — At Adolphustown— 
Preaches at Hagerman's — Anptheir chiurch — A, diligent pastor — Pioneer 
preacher around the bay — Christening—Marrying— Particular — His ap- 
pointments—Clerk's Fees-^Genorosity — Present to bride — Faithful to 
sick cAlls — Frozen feet — No stockings — Shoo buckles — Dress — Books 
— Peculiarities— Fond of the water— Charitable— \Var of 1812— Deter- 
miijed to leave Canada— Thinks it doomed— Singular notice — Returns 
to EuFope — His library — Present to Kingston — Twenty years in Canada 
—Extract from Gazette— No one immediately to take his place— Rev. 
John Bethunc— Died 1815— Native of Scotland— U. E. Loyalists- 
Lost Property — Chaplain to 84th Regiment — A Presbyterian— Second 

p. Legal Clergymen in Upper Canada — Settled at Cornwall — Children — 
The Baptists — Wyner — Turner — Holts Wiem — Baptists upon river 
Moira — First Chapel — How built — Places of preaching — Hayden's 
Corners — At East Lake-r The Lutherans — Rov. Schwerdfeger — 
Lutheran settlers — County Dundas — First church east of Kingston — 
Rev. Mr. Myers lived in Marysburgh — Marriage — His log church — Re- 
moves to St. Lawrence — Resigns— To Philadelphiiv — Mr. Weant — 
Lives in Ernesttown — Itemov^s to Matilda — Not supported — Secretly 
joins the English church — Re-oixlained — His society ignorant — Sus- 
picious— Preaching in shirt sleeves — Mr. Myers' return, by sleigh — 

f;;: Locking church door — 'the thirty-nine articles — Compromise— Mr. 
Myers continues thiTce years a Lutheran — He secedes — The end of both 
secedei's — Rev. I. L. Sepderliug — Rev. Herman Hayunga — Rev. Mr. 
Shorts — Last Luthcrai) minister at Emefittown, McCarty — Married. .... 26i 

'f;!-—<:} ■ -3i!b:i,4v^)liC!HAiP'rER XXtX. ' '■■' 'bM ..iii..a^.aA 
Jl ■'•ifjOid a 71. :'>s i'h..r 1 .•.■/ — 

Bishop Strachan — A teacher— A preacher — A student — Holy Orders — A 
Presbyterian — Becomes an Episcopalian— A supporter of the " Family 
compact"— -Sincere— His opinion of the people — Ignorant — Unprepared 
for self-government — Strachan's religious chart— He was deceived— 



OONffUNTt" 



The MntIiorfi«t«-Anoinii!onH ronncrtfon— A ..im.nMhrir.ir i„.<,„le— 
RepnM1rnni«n rp:otlHtiVul_Loyftlty of the Woth<Kli«tH. -Atiiorioftr. 

iwl'*- » n"T /'"i^'.^^' ThooIoRy-Co.nc« to t!»n.ufft_\ .tu.lmt of Dr. 

4 W " Deiicon— A mJuMlonary at Cornwall- -Urc^tor at Vork 

-A nhdcftrnn BJr1u»p otTomTit,._(<oml.iutor-I),.|ith- \ pnbMr J.i.rlftl 

vZ\^!; M'-I^"^':f -»""'♦ l'r(,H»,yt«rinn at Day y..Jnto-h,rit<-,l by 

H^cirouit-A worthy min ster-FtilHIlinK J>iH i»i««ion~TravrHn(<on 
foot— lo York— Marrying tljo poopU— HiH deatli— Hi« doBccnduntH^ 
Placos of preaching- A CalviniHt— Invlteg rontrovorHy— Mr. (NxiUt 
accepts tho challcngo-The dl«putation-Kxcitement - The r.HiiIt 
,Au- Mr. Smart-Called hy Mr. McDowoll-Pr.^8. clcrgynmn at Brock- 
vlllo_F!lty years -An carngstChriKtian-A dcsJro to write -'• Ohsor- 
uJ^^^,'^ '■'^ ''•*""" "*" "'g'-ct- -Not cxtrcmo-Mr. Smart's viewH 
on polltlcB^---Tho maftsoH inicdtlcatcd - The " FatnUy Compact" -Rise 
of rcsponRlbIn government- The BHwcII-h Credit to Pr. Strachan- 
Brock s funeral Hcrmon -Foundation of Kfngston gaoI-Maitland.. . 
Demonstration -Shcrwood'a statement.... 079 

• '•'.'■■ UA 'u .' .)i-- .. ...ill. i.. '.1.11 . r,IJ;. 



CHAPTKH XXX, 



The Qu»kers_-Among the Sottlors-From Pcnn-.Duche88 County-First 
Mceting-house-David Sand-Elijah Hick -Visiting Canmial-Jaraes ' 
Noxoo-A first settler -Their mode of worship-In Sopl,iusl.urg_Thc 
moettng-houfio-Joseph Leavens— Hicksites-Traveling-Deatlj.agod 
92— iLxtract, Picton Sun— Tlic first preachiaig phices-Flrst Englieh 
church-Iu private houses-At Sandwioh-Thc Indian church at the; 
hay-Krnesttown— First Methodist church— Preaching at Nineaja- 
tirst church in King8ton-,At Waterloo_At Niaganv-Churches at 
, o\T *".' ,^,«^^--I» Hallowoll-Thurlow-Methodist meotiug-housos. 
1816-At Montreal-Building chapels in olden times-Occupying the 
frame- rho old Methodist chapcls-Ju llallowell towuHhip-Iu the 
fifth town-St. Lawrence-First English Church, BcUevi lie-Mr.'! 
Campbe l-First time in the pulpiU-How he got out-The old church * 
supersedcd-Church, front of Sidney— Rev. John Cochrane-Rov. Mr 

^"^'■"^^iu*'.^''"^^'?^*'*"'^" ^^"'■''■'» '■'^ Belleville -Rov. Mr. Ketcham-r' 
first Methodist Church in Belleville— Healey, Puffcr—Thc sito of the 
church-..A second one ..,....,.,.' . . 279 

*:£i-i,v „H -. u<uri'.i,9T.i M .9 .,„js;^ .,; f„;j ' v,oH-b.,Vd;j iJlvK^mMH 

--iK.tapfH/{ ...j^, ,i;>.., , . ,,,,,o!W.,.>ci4,,, n-nnOiTl 

The flrst MetlrAdfst Preachers— The army— Oapt. Webb— Tnffoy-George 
Neal— Lyons— School-teftclier— Kxhorter— McCarty— Persecution— ' 
Bigotry- Vagabonds- Mccarty kn'estM- TMal— At Kingston—' 
Banished—" A martyr"- Doubtful—Losee, first Methodist mLssionarV . 
1 790— A minister— A loyalist— Where ho first preached—" A curiogf ty" ; 
—Earnest pioneer Methodist— Class-meetings— Suitable for all clnsses' 
Losee's class-meetings- Determines to build a niceting-house— Built in 
. Adolphustown— Its size— The subfecrihers— Members, amount— Em- 
bury—Those who subscribed for first church in New Yoi-k— Same names' 
—The centenary of Methodism— New York Methodists driven away- 
American Methodist forgetful-^Embury and Heck refugees— Ashgrove 
—No credit given to British officers— Emburvs brother— The rigging 
loft, N. Y.— Barbara Heck— Settling in Augusta— First Methodist f ., T 
Church m America— Subscribers— « Lost Chapters"— The Author's 
silence— What is acknowledged— "Seveie threats"— Mr. Mann— To 
Nova Scotia— Mr. Wluiteley " admires piety"— Not " loyalty"— Second 



IX CONTENTU. 

PAOB 

»■ ■ 

i'hftp«'l, N. Y,— A(tol|)hnHt«)wn Miiliiwrlborii — (Conrad Van DuHon — EU». 
ilublin — Hull' — Ruttaii — ThoHodotiil MttthodiNtchiiiiol — Thu nubMcrilMtrH 
— €oniiiinac<!tl May, 17U6 — Oirpuntoi'H WHgi'H — MuinbcrH (jiitjimqui 
Circuit — UuiuK to Confurouce — lUituruH-^lMriivH Dunhiuii — riiyHiiiiiii— 
KIrHt (|Uiirtcrly iiiuctinK — AuottlotoH — Hringing a " «llMh doth"-*-" (jloun 
up" — 'I'hf new intid(! 8<|uire — Asm-H — Unclean HpiritR — Lohoo dlHcon- 
tinu»!H pniuhinf; — ('hiihc— DiHappuintnicnt — Uotiirn to New York — 
Dunham imeful — SrttloH — I'rwiohors travelling — Haddle-lwiKH — Metluxl. 
imni among loyaliiitii — (jamp-moctinKH — Whore tirMt huld in (Janada — 
WorHhipping in tlie woo(U — Mnaliing up— Killing the Dovil — FirHt 
Canadian preacher — .louruvy from Now York '28S 

Henry Ilyan — RyauitoH — Ho comes to Canada — His aH«ociato, (Jauo — At 
KingHton — A itinger — rrcaching in the markot-j)lace — Their treatment 
— In oftiee — HiM eircuit — 1000 miles — What ho r(!<;eived — KIder — 
SuperHeded — Prubablc cause — A KrltiHh subject — During tlic war of 
1812— ProHideut of Conferonco — " High-minded " — TlHeful— Acceptable 
to the people — DeHired independenf.o by the CauadiauR — How he wa« 
treated — IIIh labors — Brave — Witty — "Fatherless children" — " Impu- 
dent scoundrel " — Muscular " Methodists' bull " — " Magistrate's goat " 

— Uyan seeks separation — JJreckenridge — Conduct of "the Aracric^an 
Conference — Ryan's agitation — Eflfoct upon the Bi8hoi)s — First Canada 
Conferenoe — At Hallowoll — Desire for independence; — R(!aHons, cogent 
— Fruit of Ryan's doings — The way the Conference treated Ryan — 
Withdraws — No faith in the United States Conference— Ryan sincere 
— " Canadian Wesleyans " — The motives of the United States Confer- 
ence questionable — The wrong dt>nc Ryan— H(!cond Canada Conference 
— Case, (irst Superintendent — Visit of Bishop Asbtiiy-Account by 
Henry Ba;hm — Asbury an Englishman— During the rebellion — A 
BUbop — His journey to Canada— Crossing the St. Lawrence— Travel- 
ing in Canada — An upset — "A decent people" — His ojjinion of the 
country — The Bishop 111 — At Kingston —Btohm at Kmbiiry's — A field 
meeting — Riding all night— Crossing to Sackett's harbor— Nearly 
wrecked 295| 

y y y ,. ,,,,.( . . 



.,^..t.i,,.. ,,„^ .,.,/...,;,„, CHAPTER XXXII, 






McDonnell— First R, Catholic Bishop — A "Memorandum" — Birth-place — 
in Spain— A priest— In Scotland- Qlengary Fcnciblcs— Ireland, 1798 
— To Canada— Bishop — Death in Scotland— Body removed to Canada 
, , , — Funeral obsequies — Buried at Kingston — Had influence — Member of 
Canadian Lrgislative Council — Pastoral visitations, 1806— A loyal 
man — A pioneer in his church — The Bishop's Address, 1836 — Refuting 
Mal-charges — Number of the R. C. clergy in 1804 — From Lake Supe- 
rior to Lower Canada— Traveling horseback— Sometimes on foot — 
Hardships— Not a politician— Expending private means— Faithful 
services— Acknowledged — Roman (!atholic U. E. Loyalists — First 
church in Ernesttown- McDonnell at Belleville— Rev. M. Brennan — 
First church in BelKsviHe — What we have aimed at — The advantages 
to the Unglreh Chui'ch-— The Reserves— In Lower Canada— Dr. Moun- 
tain — Number of English clergymen, 1793^— A Bishop — Monopoly 
Initiated — Intolerance and exclusion swept away-^An early habit at 
Divine Service.v'.'V'.' . . '.'s'-''^*^^ ".iiV.'/.i'. ii'.'l".'.'n'l.i :'^''\W.>ii;iViiWi^ 

aniid— ii'iuiov/ 'lo anoiioijj.V ,• -coif looif-*.— nut-uff!-- 

.vuo,.! li.iv A .-.h,,u.,j[;H^pTER xxxiiL ;^r ,r"^''-*''r^'«'?lf 

First .Sabbath tiaacUin^IIannab BelT, 1769— School established, 1781— 

.^.y Raikes — Ti^psley— -Fir^tln United Statijs — First In Canada— Cattrick 

— Moon- Common in' l^i4— First in Belleville— Tumbull— Cooper— 



CONTENTri. HI 

)^' 

PAfll 

MnrNlmll l*ri/cri,whowon tli«'in -Mr. Tiiriilinll'Miloiitli tii(i'in|ifranc6 
— Firnt tcmpcmiKCHorirticd ('linriKO ot'iMiHtoiu -Ruin IncnmMiiiK'in* 
tiMnpcmncc Tlic tiiHtcH of tho pioticfM- 'IVinp«riincc, not t<>«(otnliHiii 
Finit Hucicty in (Jiinada— DriukR at miMingH luid buuM — Hociutj at ilaU 
lowol 308 

.. .7 ;../ "'"■'•• CIIAI'TEUXXXIV."'"*'"- •''•"'"■ " "' 

The Six NftUonB - Folthful EriKliMh AIUpr -Society for rropiigfttlon of 
OoBpel— rirHt nilHHiomiry to frocmois— .fohn ThornaH, flmt convert— 
Visit of ClilofH to HnRliind Tlulr niimo« -Thoir portraits Attention 
to thtiut — Awkjug for iuHtructor Quoen Anno — Coiiuniinion iService — 
During tlut llolx-l Hun -Burying tlus plate -Uecovercd -DIvlMion of the ' 
artick'H— Siicrilfgu of the llehelH U<.'-l)rinting Prayer Hook -Mr. Stuart, 
miHsionary — The women and children -At Lachiue- Attachment to 
Mr. Stuart — Touching instance -Mr. Stuart's Indian sister-Church at 
Tyendinaga — Sdiool teacher to the Mohawk — .tohn Uininger -First 
tt'at:hur_ The Hininger family— The Moravian Society Count Zinnen- 
dorf— Moravian church at New York— First minister, Abraham Itinin- 
gor— Friend of Kmbury -An old account hook — .lohn Hiningcr Jour- 
neying to Canada— Living at Hay Quiute—Ilemuves to Mohawk villago 
—Missionary spirit — Abraham lliningcr's letters — The directions- 
Children pleasing parents — "(lalloping thoughts" — Christianity- 
Canadian Moravian misHionaries— Moravian loyalists— What was neat 
from New York—" Hest Treasure "—The " Dear Flock "—David Zies- 
hagcr at the Tlkamus -J. Itiniuger acceptable to Mohawk — Abraham 
Biningtir desires to visit Cana<la — Death of Mrs, Hiningor— "Tendor 
mother "—Hiningcr and Wesley—" Oaritson " — " Lohw. " — " I^nnon "— 
Bticonciled to Methodists— Pitying Losee — Losee leaving Canada- 
Ceases to bo teacher — Appointing a successor — William Bell— Tho 
salary — Tho Mohawks don't attend school—An improvement — The 
cattle may not go in School-house — The sdiool discontinued... '|.,',,, 312 

*'" • , • . ■ . , , lj!»il:,)nv/ 

CHAPTEU XXXV. 



M 



The first Church at Tyendinaga grows old — A Council — Ask for assistance 
— Oov. Bagot — Laying first stone of new Church — The Inscription — 
Th6 Ceremony— The new Church — Their Singing — The surrounding 
Scenery — John Hall's Tomb— Pagan Indians— Red Jacket— His Speqch 
— Uefleution nponChristians-Iudians had nothing to do with murdering 
tho Saviour. ...... ....•••••••••••• •••••••••••• • •• • • • •. • • • •,• : •, • ,•.• : '^^^ 

iiUlidaH -. U^'Hl ,H«j.nt»iiA (iqoti'iiH 'xfT. il .ii;r('> Hid /li t'tnno'ti '■. ouirr 

.«WH ')Af.d m-yi'-i ^OHf CHAPTER XXXVIw) rxfrnifT' -«'>aii.(f .-iiiW 

■hv.ii no- >.';iiii,i'>iiii(<-<— i,fij^rf_,i'i •»..•/..> i ,.t ■,,,;-. 

MissigHanga Indians — Father Picqnet's opinion — Remnant of a targe trite 
— Their land — Sold to Government— llev. Wm. Case — .John Sunday — 
A drunkard— Peter Jones— Baptising Indians — At a camp-meeting — 
Their department — Extract from Pluyter— William Beaver — Conver- 
sions — Jacob Peter— Severe upon white christians — Their worship— 
The Father of Canadian missions — Scheme to teach Indians — Grape 
Island— Leasing Islands— Tho parties — "Dated at Belleville" — Con- 

!i)fi structing a village — The lumber— How obtained — Encamping on Grape 
Island — The method of instrucMon — The number — Agriculture — Their • 
singing— School house — Tho teacher — Instructions of women— Miss ' 
Barnes — Property of Indians— Cost of improvements — A visit to Gov- 
ernment — Asking for land-H-" Big Island " — Other favors- Peter Jacobf ..^ 
at New York — Extracts from Playter — Number of Indian converts, 
- 1829— River Credit Indians— Indians removed to Alnwick 323 



HU OONTKNTH. 



> >• DIVISION VI. 

U/U- / . 1.'/-. .imi.u, eHAI'TEU XXXVIJ. „.',r . ,., . .. ' 



PAOB 

Education amuiiK ihp LoyiilintH— KflVot of thu wnr— No oppoituaity for 
KdmaUon — A tnw KducaUxl — At li^ith — A coiiiiiimm Iwlicf— What wan 
roquisito for fminiiit,' — Learning at lionu; — 'I'lio mliool tomhern — Tlioir 
r|iiallfU!atioiiH^[lt)V. Mr. Htiiart an a tcaclutr — Acuclciny at KiiiKHton — 
Flrgt Canjuliun P. I).— Mr. Clark, Teujiier, 1780— Donovan— (larriHoii 
Hchoolt*— (-o<ki»rcll — MyorB — Blantiy — Mithaol — AtkliiH — KlngHton, 
170S— LyonH— MrH. (Jranahan— Tn A<lolpliii8town — Morduh— Faiilkl- 
h«'r — Tho HI Iiool bookn — Evtiiiinn HthoolR — McDoiiKall — O'llclley — 
Mc(!ornii('k-~l<Mo|{Ki>iK — Saliflbiiry — JainoH — Potter — Wright — Watkin 
— (HbHon — SinitM — Wliolan — Articlt'S of Af^rcoutcnt — Uccolloctionii— 
Hoarding roiir»l — AnioriciiQ tcttchcvK — School books — The letter Z . . . .129 
■- ■ ■'■. ' ''- . .: .;.. . i. ..Ui. '.,. 

'11.-1 i,„i"l . .V, .1- I'HArTER XXXVIlt. 

1... ,. . . . I j • _ I. . 
Mr. StuttlTH' Hfihool SImcod— Mtate Churdi and f 'ollpt^e - (hammar gchooln 
— Hon. 11. flamllton ChalnierH Stracbnn — ComcHto ('anada — Edu- 
cational hiRtory — Arrival at Kinnnton — Tho pupiln — Fees — RritioroH 
to Cornwall — FupilH follow — Htra(:han,aCanadiiin — MurrioH — Interview 
with Hiwhop Strachan — His diKiii)pointm(!nt — A wtranger — What he 
for80ok — 300 pupils — Their auctieH8-^8tuy at (Jornwall — A))po!ntnient« 
at York — A lecturer — At Kingnton — Member of IjogiHlativo (Jouncil — 
Politician — r^lerj,'y UeHCi-vo« — FnundH King's (N)llegi' — The thirty-nine 
nrticloR — 'Monopoly swept away — VoluntaryiHin — Founds Trinity (!ol- 
lege — Bishop Strachan in 1800 — What lie had acoonipliBhcd- Thos« ho 
tntored — Setting up a high standard — " llcckoner " — Sincerity — LegiH- 
lation, 1797 — Address to the King — Grammar Schools — Grant, 1798 — 
Board of Education — Endowment of King's (Joilege — Its constitution 
— Changes — ITitper (Canada College — Endowment — " A spirit of im- 
provement " — Gourlay — Tho second academy — At Ernesttown — The 
trustees — Bidwell — Charges — Contradicted — llival school — Bidwell's 
8on — (Conspicuous character — Bidwell's death — Son removes to Toronto 
— Academy building, u barrack— Literary spirit of BatU — Never ro- 
vhrcd— York. . . . v. '.'•.'. : .-. i";;: -v K, , '.'I'jV. :.'iiVA.-,'iVl V\Vl\. .^V'ivm'. 334 

■1-' -- "" ■ ■■■ '■JiUM-A*-'' '.'1 - ilaifii ;»ilj /ii !i V)niij)j0')^ ' 

■mil ' — (lyauqjik, >ji ' oe.V • :. „:j .> ],r.(n\'. » \ium\iN "— ' »af)tnb 

' ii«!>nf>iiiA (Uio>r "— OHAfiTER X3tXIXi.J)if«j-; '- -^d P— " mrh.vi 



'b/-. U'jJilTt'r ''-— ■.tM>i(yi I Mil-ii'i -^■,-,,,y'H .,( j).iuV/' II " t-yr,! 



( u 



Extract from Cooper — Educational Institutions — Kingston— Queen's College 
— Owti'b Ileal Kstato — Kt^giopolis College — Itmntui Catholic — Grammar 
School-.— Attendauc<! — (school bonnes — Library— Separate School — Priv- 

^iy. ate Schools— The Quaker School—William Pcnu — Upon tho Hudson — 
Near Bromflold — Origin of school— G urnay — His offer — Manngement of 
school — The teaching— Mrs. Crombie's school — Fiction ladies' Academy 
— McMullen, proprietor — Teachers — Gentlemen's department — Popular 
— The art of printing — In America — Book publishing — First in Amer- 
ica — Books among the loyalists— Few — Passed around — Ferguson's 
books — The bible — Libraries at Kingston and Bath — Ijcgislation — In 
Lower Canada^Ileading room at Hallowell — Keserves for education — 
Upper Canada in respect to education — Praiseworthy — Common School 
system bill introduced 1841 — Amended, 1846 — Dr. Ryerson's system — 

"_L Unsurpassed 341 



CONTINTH. x^^[i 



I 1' 



CHA1TKU XL. 



PAOI 



Flr«t N(!WK|>H|)crH, 1457— Yfiu, OO— Mn^liHh N<>wH|Mt|)«TM— In AmorliA — In 
(.'annda — 'Unaettv' — Fuiiniior — I'u|mth ht 175H — (Jiivbci' <H<>i'aM' — 
Montreal ' (JiiHittti) ' — • Le IVnipH '— (jiu-boc ' Morciiry '—Canadian 
'C'ourant' — < Itoyal (iitxrtte'— Firnt in Nowroiindliind— ' U. C (iaKottc* 
— Fiht jmiii'i— Hiil)M(iilM'rM — lIp|ior Ciinmla MJiiiiiiliun ' — Wiliox — Mr. 
Thorpo — ()p|M>HiUou — Mbel — Klcttml t<» I'mlianiunt — York Juil--> 
Leader — In IU12— Dowrted — York <«)ttc<<tt»' — KinKHtuQ 'UMettu'-*.- 
Oaly ra|>er— -X«WH fdxty ytarM iiKo—In Midland Diiitriut — U«v. tAt. 
MiloH— l'ioii«tfr of .lournaiiHin — HIn Uirtliplaco — LiiarnH the printiiiff 
l)ii*in«Mi — Mow«r — Muntronl ' Cln/etUi ' — Kendall-^ I'artnurKiiip — To 
Kin)]:Hton in I8lo — Tii« printing ottluc — Kil^^'HU>n < (iu;iutto'-~ALr. Milim 
m-.\U out— Tiie conoern piinlmwd — Mr. Miles ankud to be Kditor— 
'I'lit'ir kindnoKK — (lrntlttidt> — St'( ond Volmne — Kxtruet fr*)ni MJazettn' 
—The Prici' — KInKHtoii ' (.'lironicio '—Upper (.'iinnda ' Herald '— 
■(Canadian VViitclinmn ' — Mr. MIIoh at PrcBCott — lleturiiH to KinKHton 
— EntefM till* Ministry— Loyal Hubjixit — In 1H13— On Duty — Arch- 
deation Htnnrt — <'<d. Cartwri^bt — (.'ontributorH to ' (ioaj-tto'—Uur 
ThankH — A Wat<b — FaitbfuhuiKH — " A Uood t'banto " — .SulmcribwrH at 
York — KinKHton ' Spuctator ' — ' i'atriot ' — ' Argus ' — ' Commercial Ad- 
vertluer'— ' HritJMb WIiIk — ' Clironlclo ' and 'News '— First Daily in 
Upper Canada — I'aper HoxeH — UrockvilJu ' Uecorder ' — A Hefonn paper 
— .McLcitid — Orcuviliv ' Uaviotte '— I'rcucott ' Tt'legraph '— ' ChrlsUfrn 
Uuoi'dian ' — Reform JournalH. . ..,„,, ^.^j^. ,,,.,,, !^60 

iTjllf'ij.'lJ I— '(..,,,.■• , ■ , . . 

1 •■ lildV/ li-iu;.».. / - -).f,..ll.lic...i, . .■ i, r.ni — lUlli'.J/U", iji.ilHiM iljiw 

:U>M)r\0'nK Ih.v^ni''- CHAPTERfXLTi .ri'-- "iJij.-.f ( 'ir...,(..,,.,:o'! 

^•in^ff^M .i''li/:r:>t^'!^.T \i i.ii,Tk..,.r /i i-., '/■-■. 

Flrat paper between KiiiKHton niui York — Hallowell "Free Prow" — 'th* 
Editor — " Redime" — FruitleHH eflfortu — Proprietor — Wooden press — Of 
iron — "Free Presg," independent— -Tbo "Travoilor" — Presu removed 
to Cobourg — " Prince Kdward (Jaaette " — " Picton Gazette "— " Pictoa 
Sun"—" Picton IMmea"—" New Nation "_" Oobourg H tar "—" Anglos 
Canadian " at Bellovillo—Tlio K<lltor— Price— The " Plionnix "—Slice* 
— «« Canadian WeHleyau" — « HiistingH Timos" — Tlio "Reformer" — 
The "Intelligencer" — Uoorgo Btnjumin — Tbe "Victoria Obronicio'' 
— "Hastings Chronicle" — Extract from Playtt»r — "Colonial Advocate'* 
— " Upper Canada Herald "— " Barker's Magazine "— " Victoria Maga* 
zine "—Joseph Wilson — Mrs. Moodie — Sheriti" Moodie — Pioneer in 
Canadian literature — Extract from Morgan — "Literary (jittrland"-«»V 
"Roughing it in the Bush" — " Eclectic Magazine" — " Wilson's Expe- 
riment "— " Wilson's Canada Casket"— The " Bee " at Napanoe— " Em- 
porium"— The " Standard "—The " Reformer "—" North American"— 
" Ledger" — " Weekly Express"- '• Chrintian Casket"—" Trenton Ad- 
vocate'— " British Ensign "—The " Canadian Gem"- "Maple LMrf'HJ-.i 
— Papers In 1853 — Canadian papers superior to American— -Death >»M 
Boston — Berczy — Canadian idioms — Accent — Good English — Supovati- 
tion — Home education — Fireside stories — Traditions , . * ♦ , . , 358 

'^^ ' -l<fl.'lii.'l.''Tfi,H'i;;: _. .; , 

. -i^qrA n! t>tTr'H.:_^i,fri-^ii(.lr>tI (A ill- ;\«ltrthc] ^o i-iw;6tfT— , 

-■•■:TO«*irr)(t «'uor(!)x^f l >itrfi- ''oilf;( IL 
" i •r^f^"'^' V.'.ijti'iV'j- V • • ••-'••••••• k ■ - -A . .. Ijose;..... . ! 



XXIV OONTKNTS. 

DIVISION VII. 

•• - THE TBBRITOBy OF DPPKB CANADA — THIS BAY gi'lNIK. 

' - • . CHAPTER XLII. 



PAoa 



The Indians — Their origin- -Pro-iiiHtoric Canadd — Indian relics — Original 
inhabitants — Les Iroquois du nord — Original names — Peninsula of 
Upper Cannda — Charaplain exploring — Ascends the Ottawa — His route 
to Lake Nipissing — To Lake Huron — B'rench river — The country — 
Georgian Bay — Lake Simcoc — Down the Trent — A grand trip — Bay 
Quinte and Lake Ontario discovered — War demonstration — Wintering 
at the Bay — A contrast — Roundabout way — Erroneous impressions . . . 366 

" ' ^S, CHAPTER XLin. I ' 

Name — Letter, " Daily News" — "Omega" Lines — The writ^n- — Conjecturofi 
— ^Pivc Bays — Indian origin — Rentes — Villages — Les Gouis — Modes of 
spelling — Canty — The occupants, 1783 — Mississaugas — Origin — With 
the Jroquois — The Souter — Mississaugas, dark — At Kingston — Bay 
Quinte — Land bought — Reserves — Claim upon the islands — Wappoose 
Island — Indian agent — Indians hunting — Up the Bagonaska— Making 
sugar — Peaceable — To Kingston for presents;^* '. . ;'; K'i i ; '.' VVi-tvrt '.''\ vV. 374 

':T.^^?":"^:r '""^r^^HAPTER xLiv. '^'^7:'\-:^ ^^^^^^^'^ 

Appearance — Mouth of Bay — Length — The Peninsnlii of Prince Edward — 
' Width of Bay — Long Reach-^'omse of Bay — The High Shore — Division 
of bay — Eastern, central, western — Taking a trip — Through the Reach 
— A picture — A quiet spot— Lake on the mountain — A description — 
Montreal Gazette — Beautiful view — Rhine, Hudson — Contrasl^— Classic 
ground' — A sketch — Birth place of celebrated Canadians — Hagerman — 
A leading spirit — Sir J. A. McDonald — Reflections — A log house — 
Relics of the past — Lesson of life — In the lower bay — Reminiscences— 
The front — Cradle of tho province — Shore of Marysburgh — In the 
Western Bay — Cuthbertson — Up the bay — A battle ground — Devil's 
Hill— In the depths — Prosperity — Geological sujyposition — Heail of bay 

"riout.i>u.j5 i, -fi,v'ffjii ic,ii-CHAPTER XLV;'<fJ1>-d ,isMlM«at?;>it"iixa«!j 

The " Big Bay "— Musketoe Bay— Mohawk Buy— Hay Bay—" Eastern Bay' 
— Site of Ancient Rentes — The name — Old Families — An Accident, 
1819 — Eighteen Drowned — Extract from Playtcr — Searching for tl 
Bodies — Burying the dead— PictOu Bay — Appearance — The " Gran 
Bay "— ;Upper Gap — Lower Gap — Kingston Bay — A Picture — Rec lei 
tipftfi-rrA, Cpntract — Ship Yards — Extract from Cpoper — Inland Lakes, f- 

Islands— Pbss'efesed by ' Indians — The "Thousand Islands ' — Oarleton Ip- 
land — History of Island — During the rebellion — Wolfe Island — The 
name — Howe Island — Old name — County of Ontario — Garden Island — 
Horseshoe Island— Sir Jeffry Amherst— The size — Indian name — 
" Tontine " — Johnson's Island-^The Island won— Present owner — 
First settler — The three brothers— Small* Islands — Hare Island — Nut 
Island- Wappoose Island — Indian rendeavous — Captain John's Island 
— ^Bartering — Hunger Island— Big Island — First settlers — Huft''8 
Isljiiid — Paul Huff— Grape Island— Hog Island — Smaller Islands — 
^^ Mi'SsfsfeHiga IslAtid — A tradition-*— The carrying place — ^Its course — 
^^^ Original survey — Historj- — American prisoners— Col Wilkins 402 



CONTENTS. XXV 



DIVISION VIII.. 

THE FIRST TEN TOWNSHIPS IN THE MIDLAND DISTRICT. 



CHAPTER XLVI. 



PAQB 



The French — Their policy — Trading posts — Cahiaqne — Variations — Name 
of river — Fonndation of Fort Frontenac — A change — Site of old fort — 
La Salle's petition — A Seigniory — Qovornora visiting — War Expedition 
— Fort destroyed — Rebuilt — Colonial wars — Taking of Fort Oswego— 
Frontenac taken-^End of French domination... i-i* ..<ii'«>.<««'<'.v^^w' 410 

■"' -—.i.Ht'lJii'j.i At— <_«it K»,U -. 

CHAPTER XLVII.4 ., 

Cooper's Essay — Loyalists miming places — King's Town — Queen's Town — 
Niagara — Spanish names — C taraqui from 1759 to 1783 — Desolation — 
The rebellion — Station, Carleton Island — Settling — Refugees at New . 
York — Michael Grass— Prisoner at Cataraqui — From New York to, 
Canada — Captain Grass takes possession of first township — First land- 
holders — A letter by Captain Grass — Changes — Surveying forts and 
harbors — Report to Lord Dorchester — Kingston, verms Carleton Island 
— The defenses — Troops — King's township — First scitlers — "Plan of 
townsh'p No. 1 " — First owners of town lots — Names — Settlers upon 
the front — First inhabitants of Kingston — A naval and military station 
The Commodore — Living of old— Kingston in lait c««<wry— New for- 
tincations ..••.,;/». r^i^ t->it.< i. »•» #,;«,■< ^»ir^>;^«..»>^^>r^»M- »:fB»il*-«-^«ii''wr-t;K>f> "**•* 

-o-.cujiiwr.L A— nimc CHAPTER XL VIII. '""'(' /=-••;:'♦ 'iq A-- 

The situation of Kingston — Under military influence — Monopolist — Early 
history of legislation — In 1810 — Gour]aj''s statement— Police — Modern 
Kingston — liord Sydenham — Seat of government — Perambulating — 
Surrounding country — Provisions— An appeal for Kingston as capital 
— Barriefield — Pittsburg — Building of small crafts — Famous — Roads- 
Waterloo — Cemetry— Portsmouth — Kingston Mill — Little Cataraqui— 

' •■ ' Collinsby — Quantity of land — Early and influential inliabitants— rPost 
masters — "Honorable men" — Deacon, Macaulay, Cavtwright, Ma-kland, 
Cummings, Smiths, Kerby — Allen McLean, first lawyer — A gardener — 
Sheriff McLean — " Chrys " Hagerman — Customs — Sampson, shooting a 
smuggler — Hagerman, M.P.P. — Removes to Toronto. 'jl/.^v.i^y.toiU.. 430 
'"' -- •■ -; - ■ ,;;■,,.;,,; ;(.^.i.)lrA V) :t.i!^--- 

■■■■'- ;.ilT--:vK.iiTiv.i,|jCHAJ?TEB.:?£LLjC.:.,l. ■ 

"he second towa— Ernest's town— -King 'trcorgc — His children — ^Settlers of 
Ernesttown — Disbanded soldicr^- — .Johnson's regiment— Major Rogers' 
corps — The " IloU '" — Number — rBy wJiom enlisted— An old book--:,^ 
Township surveyed — Settling — Tmvciing — Living in tents-r-A, change 
— Oilieers — .Names-r-Occupants of lots — Mill Creek-r-'I'iic descendants 
— Quality of land — Village — The settlers in l^ 1 Ir^The main road-r-tar 
cocpoiutiou of Bath — Trading— Fairft eltlT-rThe library ^-Bath by; Gomt . 
lay-^Bath of the pre»ent-^Bath veyajw iSTaiJanee— In 1812-T-AmerictHji . 
Fleet— Wonderful achie vem*}ntr^Safq 4i8taiit;« from shore— rThird townr 
ship— Fredericksburgh — After Duke of Sussex — Surveyed by Kotte-^, 

j^V A promise to the disbantied soldierH^-Johnson — FredefjckaVurgl^addip 
tional— A dispute— Quantity of land — Extract from Mrs. Moodie — Ee- 
!e* serve for village— Second surveys.. ...jj.,;*,.^.,,^, .f.m^rv 439 



-i^to L 



»V1 CONTENTS. 

' OHAPTISR L. 
"'" PAGE 

The fourth township — Adolphustown — After Diike of Cambridge — Quantity 
of Land — Survey — Major VanAlstine — Refugees — From New York — 
— Time — Voyage — Their Fare — Names — Arrived — Hagerman's Point — 
In Tents— First Settler— Town Plot— Death— The Burial— A Relic- 
Commissary — Dispute of Surveyors — The Settlers — All things in com- 

'w ' mon — An aged man — Golden rule — Old map — Names — Islands — The 
township — Price of land — First " town meeting " — Minuteg — The Of- 
ficers Record — Inhabitants, 1794 — Up to 1824 — First Magistrates — 
Centre of Canada — Court Held in Barn — In Methodist Chapel — " A Den 
of Tlueves " — Court House erected— Adolphustown Canadians — Mom- > 
hers of Parliament— The Courts — Where first held — Hagerman — Trarel- 
ers tarrying at Adolphustown 448 

-i'iiui''. ■! ••-ir-lvisT ailoT, — .■, "" " ha<>ll't ;,f._iiri'-Mrii.;j yitbiuV 

ScqiyutJJW' — iaaikjiii. iiMqv (^jj^pter lI '^.'"f "■'•>^!'5^ — ''llfyyU^I 'In 

utij.-il y.it .iiolh'iui') -■;/i/.''. ' ''-■bU),M 

Marysbufgli-^Origifi^Ohce'Iiftk of a Seigniory— Survey — Hessiai&^Md' 
map — The lots — Officers of the 84th Regt. — Original landowners — 
Indian Point — McDonnell's Cove — Grog Bay — " Accommodating Bay" 
— " Gammon Point" — Black River — " Long Point" — Reserves— Course 
pursued by the Surveyor — Number of Hessians — Their sufferings — Dark 
tales — Discontented — Retm-ning to Hesse — A suitable location — NotU. 
E. Loyalists — Re(;eived land gratis — Family land — Their habits — Capt. 
McDonnell — Squire Wright — Sergt. Harrison — The Smith's — Grant to 
Major VanAlstine — Beautiful Scenery — Smith's bay — " The Rock" — 

-,,,y i^ver a prccipiQe.. ..■.'. v. rMi*..^..../^«'t.**«'-.«t«-k**'a-.. .'.'•■.'(..■•. ^. t*i«. 4Do 



, ■ :- ry ^, ■■; I ft :, • - 

, , , ,. •WAP'TERLil. , , ', , , . 

Sixth t<)wuBi)ip-T-j(^<>---pui:v^ for ^ettlenxcntr— First ^ettley^' 
— A remote township— Wliat was paid for lots — " Late Loy^list8"-r™ 
Going to Mill — (ieblogical formation — Along the fronts— High shpye-p^ 
Grassy Point — Its history — Marsh front^Ce^utral plact, ^Sticki^ey'i^ 
f, Q^ Hill— Foster's Hill — North port— Trade — .lames Cotter — Gores — D^m- 
erestville — The name — "Sodom" — First records — Township meetings 
— The Laws of the township — Divided into parishes — Town clerk — 
Officers — The poor — The committee — Inhabitants, 1824 — Fish Lake — . 
Seventh Township — The name — Survey by Kotte — At the Carrying 
Place — Surveyor's assistant — No early recorc's — First settlers 465 

t:'' ■■ ', .■.'■;.■• ■ ■ " ' '■'-• 

^ ^CHlPTEft Llil! '^ 

Prince Edward — The name— .Rich land-*-Bize of peninsula — Shape — Small 
Lakes — Sand hills — The Ducks — Gibson's rock — The past — First 
settler — Col. Young — Prospecting — iDiscovery of East Lake — West 
Lake- — Moving in — Settlers in 1800 — East Lake — Capt. Richardson — 
" Prince Edward Division Bill"— Office seekers-^Townshjp of Hallowell i; 
— Th« name — Formation of Township — First records 1798— The officers 
—The laws— Magistrates— Picton — Its origin — Halloweii village — Dr. 
Austin — Gea. Picton — His monument— Naming the villages — A con- 
test — The Court house — An oiler — ^Enterprise — Proposeed steamboat 
jrrGhueehea+n-Re^i Mr. Maeaulajw-rJieVf i 14r, fijasei" — Rev. H^ri i<Aior... 476 



OONXXKTS. jqiTU 

CHAPTER LIV. 

PAGB 

Eighth Township — Sidney — Name — Survey — Settlement, 1787 — Letter 
from Fergusbu — Trading — Bftrter — Potatoes — Building — Cows— No 
salt to spare — First settlers — Myers — Re-surveying — James Parley- 
Town Clerk at first meeting — William Ketchesou — Gilbert's Cove — 
Coming to tho front — River Trent — Old names — Perry — Bridge — Tren- 
ton — Its settlement — Squire Bleekcr 485 

" vV Wis * .'"^la, 'ill 1.1.1 ii..-r' ^^li**-.' • ■"■iiii-ttt *v f v.\i i"'''M"^""»'^ "■■■■' 

CHAPTER LV. ■ ' ""[ 

Ninth town — Thurlow — Name — When surveyed — Front — Indian burying 
gronnd — Owner of first lots — Chisholm— Singleton— Myers— Ferguson - 

r.. / Indian traders — To Kingston in batteuu — Singleton's death — Ferguson's 
death — Distress of the families — Settled, 1789 — Ascending tho Moira — 
Taking possession of land — Fifth concession — ,Iohn Taylor — Founder 
of Belleville — Myers buying land — Settlers upon the front — Municipal 
record — Town officers — 1 798 — Succeeding years — Canifton, its founder 
— Settling — The diet — Building mill — Road — River Moira — Origin of 
name — Earl Moirftr— Indian name — Indian offering — " Cabojuuk " — 
Myers' saw-mill — Place not attractive — First bridge — The flouring-mill 
— Belleville-r-Indian village — Myers' Creek — Formation of village — 
First Inn — Permanent bridge — ^Bridge Street — In 1800 — Growth—^ 
second mill — McNabb's — Sad death — Captain Mcintosh — Pcfcrie — In- 
habitants, 1809 — Dr. Spareham — Naming of Belleville — Bella Gore — 
By Gore in council — Petition — Extract from Kingston Gazette — Sur- 
veying reserve — Wilmot — Mistakes — Granting of lots — Conditions — 

0,1 ^ Board of Police — Extent of Belleville — Muddy streets — Inhabitants in 
. ' H24 — Court-house — First Court, Quarter Sessions — Belleville in 1836. 489 

CHAPTER LVI. 



<). 



Tenth township — Richmond — Origin — Quantity of land — Shores of Mo-, 
hawk Bay — Village on south shore — Original land holders— Names — 
Napanee— The falls — The mill — Salmon River — Indian name — Source 
of Napanee River — Its course — Colebrook — Simcoe Falls — Name — 
Clarke's MiUs— ;l>fewburgh-— Academy-^The^settt^ ClarkvjUe"— 

^9 record^ . , ^^ j^,y;.^j, v,^. ^s^jifL* rf,hM,j«*.?Ji»^ft,>iVf »,?r$'-^i4nf^l?'>^ * ^^^ 
— ;t)-)['.i iiwoT — •^'>ff^iTij3!roJ0! hsbi^r't — i{fil«iT-w(.>i -^iIt to HVinI sfIT- — 
— 9>lflv.I t1<j!'i~{i:8ri'*nflif'i,nK/tT--'^^i ft ,«(•)'> 'irfT — "jooq srlT—'aift'vfftO 
■ '^mrniitO «){j JA^-^otto>l- '{il-*-t— -j-twin ^idT— ({irisiiiwo'P ifJxfft^H 

^*!>^ ^vM.hi? i^xW — iilnoyj'i ,_,:, ■ ■■/. — JmiJ^fr.^ii ■<:■^l)■|^^'^^<.^r!■ — r.u- .' 

DIVISION IX. 

isA% — iaitq !>iiT )i->'yi yao-m^'t}' — «J iMfl ;)(ii -v,'Utt bofi'l- — «i(jiii;(J.' 

n%ff'ft — '■^MA iai»ai 'id v"? CHATPTER LVIIi'Ti~->*^"« •' .iuL>-r~iuUJ »«• 

— r'f,>pi!nmfr>iH -itiB; )—•)?( nj ii --ii'tijj"!^— n.i "jfrrv^W — •,>/!«!l- 

Military nil«--^ImiM;rliVl Act, 1 774>^French Canada — Refugees — Military 

G^feftiment la Upper Canada— New Di^ricts— Lunenburgh— Meek* 

l«nbur!afh-^Nag«»ti"--Hi38«e — The Jiidge» — Dunoan — Gartwrighfc— Ham- 

iltoa-^Robertsbn — Oonrt in Meofttenlwirgh — ^Civil Ijaw — .fudge Dusoan 

^.i — ijtidge Cftrtwright — Punishment inflictod — First c«ecution — New 

OV Constitution of Quebec — 1791, Quebec Bill passed — Inhabitants of 

Upper Canada , 506 



zxnii corrTENTs. 



CHArTEU I. VIII. 



PAQR 



8imcoe — His arrival iu Canada — Up the St. Lawrence — An old houHc^ 
'• Old BreechcH' River " — Simcoe's attendants — The old veterans — 
" Good old cause '' — " Content " — Toasting — Old officers — Executive 
Council of Upper Canada — First entry — ^Simcoo inducted to office — 

•''•'' Religious ceremony — " The proceedingp '' — Those present — Oath of 

office — Orga' ization of Legislative Council — Assembly— Issuing writs "i 
for elections- -Membera of Council — Simcoe's difficulty — At Kingston 
Division of Province— The Governor's officers — Rochfoucault upon 
Simcoe — Simcoe's surroundings — His wife — Opening Parliament in 
1795 — Those present — Retinue — Dress — The nineteen counties — Sim- 

• - coe's designs — Visit of the Queen's father — At Kingston — Niagara — A 

war dance 509 

•l^nlHtARWuiHirr—Tsv/y (.CHAPTER LIX. -MJnhtJ) mi bmroT/i -^m ■•< 

General Hunter — ^I^eter Russell — Francis Gore, 1806 — Alex. Grant — Brocli 
— 1812 — United States declare war — Prompt action — Parliament — Pro- 
clamation — The issue — Second proclamation — General Hull — His pro- 
clamation — Bombast and impertinonc^—The Indians— Proclamation 
answered — Hull a prisoner — Michigan conquered — To Niagara — At 

Iti ; Queenston heights — " Push on York Volunteers "—Death of Brock- 
McDonnell — War of 1812, the Americans — Extract from Merritt — What 
Canadians did — Brock's monument — General Sheaflfe — General Druni- 
mond — Invading the States — What Caitada will do— Lord Sydenham 
— A tribute by Dr. Ryerson — Union of the Provinces 517 

,A-.K— "-^niiao'l JwtlinflK '•— bwifrrufi ariiiMiaaiA — S.I6; n't wwUhV. :.'.if<or'.T 
— '{yta'A-il^.uQ'ial — i-jutoii ->■■■•■ ' ' ' ' iil)ih A — zamhiil >fw£it 
. — noiimiuilomq '*'-^'^*^'^"~ CHAPTER LX '^'■''^ — H'yj&ffiA iffl;»nMmA 

Kingstoii— I'irf^l WpiUi-Ui^if^'ktt bf |<jvcril& 

capital — Niagara in 1 788 — Carrying place — Landing place — Newark — 
In 1795— Mr. Hamilton— The inhabitants— Little York— The Don— 
The Harbor — Survey — De la Trenche — London — Inhabitants of the 
Don — Yonge street, a military road — Governor at York — Castle Frank 
—York in 1798— The Baldwins— In 1806— Buffalo— York, 1813— 
Taken by the Americans — The Combatants — Toronto — " Muddy York " 
— ^A monument required 526 



. , :l^CHAPTER LXI.^ U 

Parliament — Simcoe's Proclamation — Nineteen counties formed — Names 
and boundaries — First elections — Names of members — Officers of the 
House — A Quaker member — Chaplain— Meeting of Parliament — The 
Throne, a camp stool — Address — To both houses — Closing address — 
Acts passed — Simcoe's confidential letters — ^A contrast — A blending— •,.,,? ^ 
2nd Session — The Acts — Quarter Sessions — 3rd, 4th, 6th Sessions — New ' / 
division of Province— 1 788 — Modes of punishment— Burning the hand 
— Whipping — Salaries of officers— Revenue first year — The members of 
Parliament — Education— Offering for Parliament — A " Junius " — Early 
administration of justice— " Heaven-born lawyers " — First magistrates. 533 



CONIKKTS. ZZIX 



DIVISION X. 

- SiwVjoi'ly ■ ''"■ "ABI-V MILITIA OF UPPBH CANADA. U ' ViJl LtO ' ' 

■ ... -n„ ,.ff};-i:_,r..«;*.t .,■,, CHAPTER LXII./,;,:,-,-,'*'". ■^■''' •■:.:; ■. 

PAGB 

Militia Act, 1792— Simooe — No faith in the Americans — His views — Mili- 
tary RoadB — Division of Districts — Military purposes — The officers — 
Legislation — The expenses — Repeattid Legislation — Aggressive spirit ' 

— The Enrolment — Hastings Battalion — " Something brewing " — List 
of Officers — Col. Ferguson— Col. Bell — Lecids Militia — Officers' clothing 
— The Midland District— -Prince Ed waadT-Trainiug Places. ,,... , . . , .,, 534 

u. -. '. CHAPTER LXIIL ''.' 

In 1812, around Bay Quinte — The declaration of war — The news at King- 
ston — The call to arms — Hastings — Events at Kingston — In 1813 — 
Attack upon Backet's Harbor — Oswego — American fleet before King- i'» 
ston — Royal George — Kingston prepared — Chrysler's farm — A " Post- 
script" — Along the St. Lawrence — Ribaldry — The Commissary — Capt. 
Wllkins — Quakers — ^Rato of pay — American prisoners — The Wounded 
-—Surgeons, Dougal, Meacham — Jonathan Phillips — Militiamen's 
reward — Militia orders — Parliamentary grants 561 

-lOinQ Iin:.i('»;.i — ••fiHOflH |. i-.tMM.,. ttT-^-r: :'ont r'jI toifl — hib HiuMmn', > 
{jwiiuc'bxri LnoJ:-!rOi|t,,Uj.x2HAPTER LXIV/i-'-^'r' «<<l,awb/5/yi!lr- i^jM<i^. , . 

The Six Nations in 1812 — American animus — "Manifest Destiny" — Mo- 
hawk Indians — A right to defend their homes — Inconsistency — 
American savages — Extract from Playter — Brock's proclamation — 
Indian character, conduct, eloquence — Deserters in 1812 — Few of 
them — Court-martials— The attempts at conquest by the Americans-^ -, 
The i^umbers — Result of war — Canadians saved the country — And can ' 
do so— Fraternal kindness .tfrritMifltrtf Min*^^r.Tf:tmW»T-'.ttv^£^>rT''',i^. ^^^ 

' Aic> I {bbr/M-"— rijff.ni)T-»-^. - i )iii ! li!i ! iUM" > m { ('— aifjiohoirr A y ^* yd iwH&'V 
^i3 . r .,,,.... , J)'jfiiip',n Jii'jimmora A— 



DIVISION XL 

samr.'irl — bojtnol Ji!)!}!' advanob op civimzat[on.')i'1 a'ooortti^! — )n;im«ihjjS[ 
f>riJ )o Hi^KjrftO — Biadrtii: m > JriI'*! — Kohisbmiod bxia 

ailT — inflijjistli«<l lo H'*'J*-»CHAPTER LXV,"^"''^'" t»^b«',> A — rt?.r».>H 

!-.r<f; jiftirol" ' . ■ ,• . rX> 

Canada's fii'Mr'^te^ iii'Clvilization—Slav*fty in America — By whom Introt 
duced — False chal'ge — Slavery in Canada^History — Imperial Acts^ 
Legislation in Canada — The serefal clauses — In Lower Canada -i' 
':'■' Justice Osgood — Slavery at the Rebellion — Among the U. E. Loyalists 
:, — Those who held slaves— Descendants of thfe 8laTe*^<'A British 
* * slave " — " For sal e " — <' Indian slavfe " — Upper Canada's Records- 
Compared with the States — Liberty — Why the United States abol- 
ished slavery — Honor to whom honor is due 569 



ittat oonnsNTs. 



CHAPTER LXW; 



PikGS 



Ileturag to the Pioneer— iiaor il«Kion— (iiurdun ot C«uuuliv>~ClogB— FaIrc 
views of settlerB — licBult— iNew bloo<l — Good examplu — Anecdote — 
The "ForaiJy Compact "-J»artialitjr— Origin of the Compart^Theiv 

,, conduct — The evil they did— A proposed Canadian Aristocracy— What 

it would have led to»— What may como-t-" Peter Fuuk»" . *^, ((•,^,.»^.^.-,<^>0 



CHAPTER LXVII. 



.Ui. 



Agriculture — Natural Products — Rica— Ginseng— Orchards — Plows — Reap- 
ing — Flax — Legislation— Agricultural Society organized by Simcoe- 
A Snuff Box — Fogies — Silver — Want of help— Midland District taking; :>»JoW' 
the lead — Societies— liegislHtivo help — Prince Edward — Pearl Ashes— - 
Factoriei'-— Tanneries-Breweries, Carding Machines — Paper — Lumber'' 
— First vehicles — Bloighs — Waggons — Home-made — Road»— First 
Public Conveyances — Stages — Fare — Building Greater— Rawing Mills 
introduced by the Dutch^First Brick Building — Myers" House— Its 
.K past history — ^Furniture from Albany — Currency — Paper Mooey-~ 

Banks — First Merchants — Bi\rter— Pedlars— On the Bay 587 

M«»-:)l, --•■. »«ri<iJ ir. •4.'>>. 

CHAPTER LXVIII. 

Steam vessels — Crossing the Atlantic in 1791— First Steam Vessel — Hud- 
son — The second on the St. Lawrence — First across the Atlantic — 
In Upper Canada — Frontenac — Built in Ernesttown — The Builders — 
Finkle's Point — Cost of Vessel — Dimensions — Launched — First Trip 
— Captain McKonzie — 'W(tik'in-4hey Water' — ^^tuen Charlotte- — How Built 
—Upon Bay Quints — Capt. Dennis — .First year — Death of Dennis — 
Henry Qilderslieve — What he did— 'Other Steamboats— Canals— 'First 

^'''' in Upper C»i»da*— Welland Canal-~;DesjprHin-jRideau — Ua object*—* ''' 

i- Ati. Col. By— 1-A proposed C'aniil — Railroads — rThe first in the world— Pi o^^ .,jj. 

posed Railway from Kingston to Toronto, 1846 — In Prince Edward 

i«< , District— Increase of Population — Extract from Dr. Lillie — Compario-^v 
son with the United States — Favorable to Canada — False Cries — The 
French— Midland District, 1818 599 



T^ri 



DIVISION XII. 

THK 0NITKD 8MPIRE L0YAII8T8 — THB rATHERS OF UPPER CANADA. 

CHAPTER LXIX. 

Definition — A division— Their principles — Out position — Ancestry— Dutch 
—Puritans — ^Huguenots — New Rochelle — English writers — .Talbot — 
Falsehoods — Canadian and English ancestry — Howison — Maligner — 
Gourlay's reply — Palatines — Old names 616 



00NTXNT8. XXZl 



chai'tkh lxx. 

< PAKI 

[Character— HoKpitftlity — At home — Fireside — Vlfiitors — Rees — RaiHingH-— 
Eaator Eggs — Dancing — Hovlngton IIouhc — Canto — Drinks — Horae- 
racing — Boxing — AmiiHriinontR — La Crosse — Dnels — Patriotism — An- 
nexation — Froodoni — Egotism— Tlio Loyalists — Instances — Longevity 

;. V —Climato of Canada->A quotation — Long lived— The children — The 
present race — A nationality — Comparison — "II. E. Loyalist" — Their 
Privileges — Order of Council — Diswitisfaction 624 

rtV7 T iT'^rM/.H) 

If',:!-. .vr.,r'^. .;'t-;-'-n CHAPTER LXXI. --r':r-'T 'rr-T^ •-•":■ :|VI^ 

Notice of a Few— Booth— Brock— (B«ifltt-»*<3otter — Cartwright— Conger 
— Cole — Dempsoy — Detlor— Fraser — Finkle — Fisher — Fairfield—, t 
Grass— 43amblc — Hagerman — Johnson's — " Bill " Johnson — MacAuIay i 
— The Captive, Christian Moore— P»rtlnm«nt— Morden'^-Roblins— ■' 
Simon — Van Alstine — Wallbridge — Chrysler —White — Wilkins — i , , i 
Stewart — Wilson— Metcalf — Jayue — Mcintosh— Bird— *Ocrow— Van* ' 
'kleek--4P«rry*-*fr William Johnson's childfen' .•■,.j\UJ'Vifl^tVvriA .Ui 642 

'■;_■,' _ ,, ;. , ■_ • , .■,.'.■ '..«jf..i.- I iM.iui. — .i(iu>nji-)iA -l«i< '( — i»;ta«j.'. 

,',' • l.«-i '• >; ■ (, i\.-i'.jiii'...n''i ti\>.<^ I 1/1 ,^l.■l ,).'•! -,',,•) 
'"./> 'tVii ■■ijiiri-iii III iiiinimn iiiii Miiiiii I ..fi i'::i'. , Mvf i^rl Ji. , :i'i\i'', 

••->Uii«JJA o:lt Hmvifi )^t'Oi,-'hiioTnv..l .i'i odi '.to iifio'^'*s niif—arn 

qh'V iviV't—hMhrtrsaJ- - - - ' Y:Vj 49t>l<'-n^*6{'>*l e'oWgilt, .; 

Hfifff Y/oH,-- ?»«(jV-.R,\0 >s'A P P E N D I X ^ — ■i';sa->>h)M niA'tfl*'^- 

— ?.;n^^^ft•'V(^' (5^£MT. .■•fff'^t •^n-'i-..-..;.-,.'. .•! Ui^r^'^^ith40 '■^t^^i r«St^->-' " 

Roll of the 2nd Battalion King's Royal Regiment r.i^»ii »tiJtk)^tu**>T¥M'tTf oo? 

The Governors of Canada.^^^j. ;,tf;tvSr6'r'<3i'^f(J/'«i^h'i5* •6K*<\' Vft^^iWIi' tM'> ^'^^ 
TnHiATi ntttiAu - J- ' ••'■I >r.vra h'i'7,f'/r'l — -'-f'liuilfi.iv'i '.•> ■.'■nvii./i'..[-- . '■''■«)-.!■. : 071 

• ci3 > , ,.....♦., ... ...... ^*»)i:#H*;»i u»i.iAX8^ t^oiiJHJll iiiia\\>UL'-Aom\A>r. 



. t ■ ■ , ;■ ■ ^» 



■...■Hr;.!;,-. f-.rfy._., ,<ii:irh:T,...'/r,;.i ^'Vi.; 



tKtr. '■■^-i-\/ > 



■i.i-f,,) . ,4J. ,'J>' ■'•<•• ' /.) . ./il.- •: ' '...1 '. --Ik'n/i'l, .•,■. <* • 

.,, !• -. , .1, . ..' ;•{ , ' .'. - ... .)■■ ■ .- • ' '■ " ' •''"■• •■' 



.. ,t, J... •.jfu.i'.../'*.! ■. E E R A T A .."^'•-.i.'''>'>'l- ■•••'•■'■ ' '• ."■ ■ i; . 

Ui ■ "■ ■■ 

.« .1, 

Page 29, 12th line from top, instead of" 1859," read <' 1789." 
Page 80, 4th line from botton, instead of " arc equally," read " were equally." 

Page 102, I6th line from bottom, insteiid of " removed to the town," read "to 
. the fifth town." 

Page 104, instead of " Hodgins," read " Hudgins," 

Page 104, 16th line from top, instead of" 1859," read " 1809." 

Page 130, 4th line, 2nd paragraph, instead of " South," read " North." 

Page 138, heading of page should be " Voyaging." 

Page 192, bottom line, intitead of " dispersed," read "dispossessed." 

Page 257, 19th line, " gloomy," read « glowing," 

Page 288, 19th line, " glowing a picture," should have " of" following 

Page 293, instead of " Wesleyanism," read " Wesleyans." 

Page 371, 14th line, instead of " 181 5," read " 1616." ^ . ., 

Page 437, 10th line from l)ottom, instead of " Lawer," read " Lawyer." 

Page 585, 15th line, after " Governor," read they were generally. 

Page 596, 3rd line, after " often," r^^ad ii\ferior. 



HISTORY 

or ' . 

THE SETTLEMENT OF UPPER CANADA, 

WITH SPECIAL REFERKNCE TO THE RAY OF QUINT^. 

.ATAflJf 5i 



",«WTi ii ,'l'>* aiotl 'jxtil difA ,85 05/1'i 

niAPTh-T? I 
i^n«<fiv» ftww»> ftfl.i 'V- '^^'■'^-^ -^'■'^'' .-^-a, ,tiot*r«-f moi'> mil rfi^ j<>« oj^aT 

.m% ".a-ltut oca M ' • T N T U D U C T I OT?.' ^"Ot* <"^'f ^^'^^ •.''''^^ '•^'''' 
^ A SKETCH OF FRANCO-CANADIAN HISTORY, awii ,*.iU ujjJt'i 

Contents — AntiqiiarianiHin — Ilecords of tho Early Nations — Tradition — Tho 
Press — The Eastern World— Tlio Western World — Importance of History— 
CoIumbuH — Colonization — Canada — America — (Jartii-r — Fronch ('unadiau 
writers — Cartier's first visit — Hnf,'uenots — (^artier's second visit — Jean 
Francois — Sir Oeorjje E. Cartier — Establishment of the Fur Trade; — Cham- 
plain — Discovery of Lake Ontario — Bay of Quint6 — Qaoboc founded — First 
fighting with Indians — First taking of Quebec by the British — Returned to 
France— Tho Recollets and Jesuits — Death of Champlain — Foundation of 
Montreal — Emigration from Franco — The Carignau Regiment— De(Joureelle 
— Proposal to found a Fort at Lake Ontario — Frontenac — Fort at Cataraqui 
— La Salle — Fort at Niagara — First vessel upon the Lakes — Its fate 
— Death of La Salle, the first settler of Upper Canada — Founder of Louiai-. 
ana — Discoverer of the mouth of the Mississippi. 

There exists, as ono characteristic of tho nineteenth century, 

an earnest desire on the part of n. .ay to recall, and, in mind, to live 

over the days and years that are pa.st; and manj' there are who 

occupy more or less of their time in collecting the scattered relics 

f)f by-gone days — in searching among the faded records of departed 

pears, to eagerly catch the golden sands of facts which cling to 

egendary tales, and to interpret the hieroglyphics which the foot- 

teps of time have well-nigh worn awa3^ To this fact many a 

nuseum can bear ample testimony. The antiqxiarian enjoys intense 

atisfaction in his labors of research, and when he is rewarded by 

he discovery of something new, ho is but 'stimulated to renewed 

sxertion. In the old world rich fields have been, and are now being 

xplored ; and in the new laborers are not wanting. , 



2 1>ISC'(>VKIIV or A.MKRiCi.V. 

HInco tho (luyH vvIumi man first trcxl the virgin soil of thU 
glolto, ho lias nvDi" l)()un acciistoiiuMi to |)roNcrvo \hv inoro iniportant 
ovoiitH of his liti), and, by tradition, to hand thiMn down to his chil- 
divii.s' childfon; and lik-owiso lias il hoon with (lonininnities and 
nutionH. Evory jjooplo who aro known to havo occupied a jilaco 
U|>iiii tho oarth, havo loft somo indication of thoir origin, and the 
part thoy playod in tho world's great drama. In rocont days, facts 
l)ci-taining to nations and particular individuals are prcsorvod in all 
their amplitude, through tluMigoncy of the I'ress. Hut in form'>'- 
cculuries, only a low .synihols, perhaps rudely cut in solid ist<;no, 
commemorated events of tho most important kind. Tho historians 
of Kastorn nations havo had to look far back into tho misty past, 
to loarn tho facts of thoir birth and infant days; while tho dark 
days of barbarism hang as a thick veil to obstruct tho view. Tho 
middle agos, liko a destructive flood, swept away, to a great extent, 
the records previously in existence. But out ol" tho dcltn's has been 
oxhumod many u precious relic; and tho stono and tho marble thus 
obtained, have supplied valuable material on which to base trust- 
W(jrthy history. 

In recording tho events which belong to the Western world — 
this broad American continent — the historian has far less of toil 
and research to undergo. It is true the native Indian, who once 
prouilly ruled the vast extent of tho new world, has a history yet 
ujideveloped. An impenetrable cloud obscures the facts appertain- 
ing to his advent upon this continent. The nature of his origin is 
buried in the ocean of pro-historic time. But in reference to tho 
occupation of America by Europeans, the subjugation and gradual 
extermination of the Indian, tho life of the pioneer, the struggles 
for political independence, the rapid growth and development of 
nations ; all these results, embraced within tho space of a few 
centuries, are freely accessible to the American historian. 
■ The importance of history cannot be questioned; the light it 
aflfords is always valuable, and, if studied aright, will supply the 
student with material by which ho may qualify himself for any 
position in public life. In the following chapters it is intended to 
draw attention more particularly to tho now world, and to examine 
a few pages in the history of North America. 

In the absence of»any data upon which to base statements 
relating to the aborigines, we may say the history of the new 
world begins with the memorable and enterprising adventures of 
Christopher Columbus, in 1492; although there is evidence that 



CANADA — AMERIOA. 8 

Amoricft hud boon previously viHilod by tho poojtlo of Northern 
Kuropc, iilxmt the your lOOO. The Hteady'flow of eini^rui\tH whieh 
comineiiced a century Uiter, from the old world to the new, of bold, 
energetic jjeople, in u H])ectucle of grand import. 

Almost every nation of Kurope has contributed to the coloniza- 
tion of America. All, however, were not at tlrst actuated by tho 
same motives in braving the perils of the deoj) — then far greater 
than at (he present day — and the dangers of the wilderness. The 
Spaniards were searching for the ))recious gold. The English 
desired to acquire territory; tho Dutch sought to extend their 
commerce; and the French, it is said, wore, nt first, intent only on 
converting the pagan Indians to Christianity. — (Garneau.) Space 
will not permit to trace the course of events in connection with 
the first settlements in America; tlio history of the several colonies, 
the bloody Indian wars, the contentions between the ditt'erent 
colonizing people, the rebellions of tho colonies and their achieve- 
ment of independence. We shall mainly confine ourselves to those 
events which led to, and accompanied tho settlement of Upper 
Canada. 

Canada, the coast of which was first discovered by John Cabot, 
in 1497, is an honorable name, far more ho than America. It has 
been a cause of complaint with some that the United States should 
appropriate to their exclusive use the name of America. But it is 
quite right they should enjoy it. It is after a superficial impostor, 
Amerigo Vespucci, who availed himself of. the discoveries ot 
Columbus, to vaunt himself into renown. 

Tho word Canada is most probably derived from an Iroquois 
word, signifying Cabin. It has been stated on the authority of a 
Castilian tradition, that tho word was of Spanish origin. Tho 
Spaniards, looking after gold, ascended tho St. Lawrence, but failing 
to find the precious metal, exclaimed " Aca nada," (Hero is nothing.) 
The natives hearing the land thus called, when Europeans again 
visited them, upon being asked tho name of their country, replied 
"Canada," in imitation of tho Spaniards. Again, Father Hennepin 
asserts that the Spaniards, upon leaving the land, gave it tho appel- 
lation "El Cape di nada," (Capo nothing,) which in time became 
changed into Canada. But Charlevoix, in his " Histoire de la Nou- 
vello France," says that Canada is derived from tho Iroquois word 
"Kannata," pronounced Canada, which signifies " love of cabins." 
Duponcion, in the ^'Transactions of the Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia," founds his belief of the Indian origin of the name 



4 JAUQUI8 OARTIMR. 

Canada, on tho fact that, in tl»« IrHnMlntion of tho Oogpcl hy St. 
Mutthow ihto tho Mohawk tonkin', hy Hrant, tho word (Janada U 
alwayn mmlc to Hi^tiify a viUa^o. Takinj^ tho wholo nuittor into 
coHHidoration, thoro appoui'H tho host of roaHonn to concludo that 
Canada, u tiatno now |»ro|torly hontowod upon tho Dominion, iH of 
Indian origin, and Hi^niHoH tho country of a |»t)oplo who arc 
accuHtomod to livo in viila>(OH or jjoruianont cahiiiH, iiiHtoiwi of in 
touts and coriHtantly (diarij^in^ from ono phu-o to atiothor. 

TIjo history of Fronch Canada isono of unuHual intorost — from 
tho timo Jao(iuoH Cartior, in 1534, with two vohhoIh of Iohh than 60 
tons hurdon oach, arid 122 mon in all, onlorod for tho Hrst timo tho 
Gulf of Ht. Lawronco — up to tho proHont day. It was not until tho 
first docado of tho 17th oontury, noarly a hundrod yoars aftor 
Cartior Hrst landed, that HUcoosHful colonization by tho Fronch 
was accomplishod. Novortholoss, Canada has as oarly a place 
amon^ij tho colonioH of America afl Now Nothorlands or Vii/^inia, 
which aro tho oidcHt StatoH of tho noi^'hboring Union. Virginia 
was planted in 1(508; Now Nothorlandrt (now Now York,) was not 
Bottled until 1614. Prior to that, in 1609, Hudwon had aHcondod 
tho river now bearing his name, im fur as tho ])roHent site of 
Albany; but at the same timo tho intrepid Champlain was travers- 
ing tho wilds of tho more northern part of tho territory to tho 
Bouth of Lake Ontario. 

Although tho history of Now Franco is ono of groat interest, 
yet, in this local history, space can only bo allowed to glanco at 
the course of events' in connection therewith. But French Canada 
is not in danger of suiforing for want of historians to pen tho 
events of her life. Already enthusiastic countrymen have done 
justice to tho patriotism, valor and ability of tho Franco-Canadian 
race. And, at tho present time, earnest workers are in tho field, 
searching among tho records of tho past, stowed away in Paris, 
with the view of making known all that can bo learned of their 
sires. Wo find no fault with the intense love they bear to their 
language, their laws, their religion, their institutions generally. 
Such is characteristic of a high-spirited race; and, as common 
Canadians we rejoice to have so devoted a people to lay with us the 
foundation of our northern Dominion. 

It has already been said that Jacques Cartior first landed in 
Canada in 1534. At this time the pent up millions of Europe, 
lying in a state of somi-bondago, were prepared U) strike off the 
chains which had hitherto bound them, both in mind and body, to 



rilUlT WINTKtt IN OANADAf 5 

tho Holoct onoH, who clnitnod that prerogative, m of Dlvlno origin, 
and to uvnil thomMolvoH of tho vuHt territory which ColuinhiiH hiid 
rocovorod from oblivion. Then wum tho futuro pro^nHnt with ovotit« 
of tho nioHt Hturtliii^ niiture — ovonts fniu^ht with iiitcroHtH of tho 
moHt ('oUoHHul magiiitudo. Wl»ihi Amoricu whk to open up u now 
fiold for Hctivo hihor, whoroin all nii/^fht pluck wealth, tho art of 
|>rintin/jf, ho hooii to ho in active operation, was to oinanoipate tho 
mind, and cast broadly the seeds of universal liberty. Already 
was beiii;^ broken tho fallow ground, in tho rich soil of whi(di was 
to gerniinato the /L?reat truths of scionce. 

In May, 15.'{6, Cartior sot out on his second voyage to tho New 
World, in •* La (Jrando Jlerniion," a voshoI of 1 lO totis, accomi»anied 
by two otiior vessels of smaller size, with 110 men altogether. 
Keaching Labrador in July, ho on Ht. Laurence Day entered St. 
John's Kiver; and thus arose tlio name of St. Lawrence, afterward 
applied to tho mighty river now bearing tljat name. (Juided by 
two luitivos, Cartior ascended the St. Jjawrenco as far as tho Islo 
d'Orhjans, whore ho was received by the Indians in a friendly 
Hpirit. Cartior having determined to stay tho winter, moored his 
vessels in tho St. Charles Kiver, with the Indian village of Slada- 
cone U[)on the heights above him. Tho same autumn ho ascen<led 
with IV small party to visit Ilochelaga, now Montreal. Here ho 
found a considerable village of fifty wooden dwellings, each fifty paces 
long, and twelve and fifteen broad. This village was fortified. An 
aged and withered chief accorded Cartior a distjijguished reception ; 
after which Cartior ascended to tho top of tho mountain, to which 
he gave the name Mont Real, or Royal Mount, a name subsequently 
given to the village which has become tho commercial ca])ital of 
tho Dominion, and which is destined to rival oven New York. 

Cartior's stay in Canada during tho winter was attended with 
much distress, and the loss by death of twenty-six of his men ; 
while most of tho rest were almost dying, being, it is related, saved 
by tho medical skill of tho natives. In tho Spring ho returned 
to Franco, carrying with him several Indians. It was five years 
later before another visit was made to Canada, owing to tho civil 
and religious wars existing in Franco. It was tho cruel laws 
enacted and put in force at this time in Franco that expatriated 
80 many noblo Iluguonots who wore dispersed throughout Groat 
Britain, Ireland, and afterward America, tho blootl of whom yet 
flows in the veins of many of tho doscondonts of the loyal refugees 
from the rebelling States of America. In the Summer of 1641 



6 FAILURE TO COLONIZE. 



• 



Cartior again sot sail for the St. Lawronco. He was to have boon 
accompaniod by ono Joan Francois do la Roque, a bravo and faithful 
servant of the king, to whom had been conceded the privilege of 
raising a body of voluntoors to form a permanent settlement upon 
the St. Lawronco. But unforsoon difficulties prevented his sailing 
until the following year. In the meantime Cartior, to whom had 
boon given command, with five ships, had, after a tedious passago> 
reached Canada, and ascended to Quebec, The intending colonizers 
immediately wont ashore and commenced tho work of clearing the 
land for cultivation. The winter was passed in safety, but in the 
spring, tii'od of waiting for tho Governor, who ought to have fol- 
lowed him tho year before, and discovering signs of hostility on 
the part of tho savages, ho determined to return to France. So he 
embarked all the men and set sail. Before ho had reached the 
Atlantic, however, he met la Eoquo, with some two hundred more 
colonists, who desired Cartior to return, but ho continued his course 
to France. Joan Francois landed safely at Quebec. In the autumn 
he sent home two vessels for provisions for the following year, 
while he prepared to undergo tho severity of the coming winter, 
a season that brought severe trials, with the death of fifty of his 
men. Tho following year he set out with seventy mon to seek 
fresh discoveries up the river, but he was unsuccessful. France > 
again immersed in war, paid no attention to tho request for succor 
in the New World, but ordered Cartior to bring back the Governor, 
whose presence as a soldier was desired. With him returned all 
the colonists. Thus the attempt to establish a settlement upon tho 
St, Lawronco failed, not, however, through any want of courage^ 
or ability on the part of Cartior, tho founder of Canada. The name 
thus immortalized and which disappeared from tho history of 
Canada for many years, again occupies a place. And, Sir George 
Etienno Cartior, of to-day, although not a lineal doscendent of the 
first Cartior, holds a position ")f distinction ; and, as one who 
has assisted in effecting the Cr ifederation of the provinces, Jiis 
name will ever stand identified, as his great predecessor and name- 
sake, with the history of our Canada, 

In 1549, Jean Francois a second time, set out for Canada with 
his brother, and others, but they all perished on the way. This 
disaster prevented any further immediate attempt at settlement in 
Canada. 

The comxQencoment of the seventeenth century found France 
again in a state suitable to encourage colonial onterprize, and she* 



CIIAMPLAIN — FOUNDATION OP QUEBEC. 7 

in common with other European nations was directing her attention 
to the yet unexplored New World. At this time one Poni-Gravu, 
a merchant of St. Malo, conceived the idea of establishing a fur 
trade between Canada and France ; and to this end ho connected 
himself with one Chauvin, a person of some influence at court, 
who succeeded in obtaining the aj)pointment of governor to Canada, 
with a monopoly of the peltry traffic, These two adventurers, with 
a few men, sot out for Canada, but arrived in a state of destitution. 
Chauvin died, while the others wore preserved alive by the kind- 
ness of the natives. Chauvin was succeeded by Do Chastes, 
Governor of Dieppe; and Ca])t*in Samuel Champlain, who had 
distinguished himself as a naval officer, was appointed to command 
an expedition about to proceed to the New "World. 

The name of Champlain is indelibly fixed u])on the pages of 
Canadian history. It was ho who traversed trackless forests 
ascended ,the most rapid rivers, discovered the Lake of Ontario, 
by way of Bay Quintd, and gave his name to another lake. It was 
in 1603 that Champlain set out upon his voyage, lie had but three 
small vessels, it is said, of no more than twelve or fifteen tons 
burden. He ascended as far as Sault St. Louis, and made careful 
observations. He prepared a chart, with which he returned to 
France. The king was well pleased with his report, and De Chaste 
having died, Governor de Monts succeeded him, to whom was 
granted, exclusively, the fur trade in Canada. But their operations 
were confined, at fii'st, to Acadia, now Nova Scotia. In 1607 De 
Monts abandoned Acadia and directed I'ir- attention to Canada. 
Obtaining from the king a renewal of his privileges, he appointed 
Champlain his lieutenant, whom he despatched with two vessels- 
The party arrived at Stadacone, on the 3rd of July. The party 
commenced clearing land where the lower town of Quebec now 
stands, and erected cabins in which to live. Having determined 
to make this the head-quarters of his establishment, ho proceeded 
to build a fort. Thus was founded the ancient capital of Canada 
upon the Gibraltar of America. The powers granted to Champlain 
were ample, whereby he was enabled to maintain order and enforce 
law. During the well nigh one hundred years that had passed 
av/ay since Cartier attempted to colonize, great changes, it would 
seem, had taken place among the Indians. Altogether different 
tribes occupied the Laurentian valley; and the former Indian 
villages of Stadocone, and Hochelaga had been entirely destroyed, 
Champlain found the Indians of this place, the Algonquins, at 



8 DISCOVERY OP LAKE ONTARIO. 

enmity with other tribes to the west, the Iroquois. The Algonquin? 
wore glad to form an alliance with him against their long standing 
enemy. It suited the purpose of Champlain to thus ally himself; 
but the policy may well be.questioned ; at all events it inaugurated 
a long course of warfare between the French and the Iroquois, 
which only terminated when Canada became a British depondenc}-. 
He, no doubt, was ignorant of the great power and superiority of 
the confederated five nations which formed the Iroquois people. 
The first encounter between Champlain and the Indians took place 
the 29th of July, 1609, by the lake Avhich now bears his name, 
which had been known by the Indians as Lake Corlar. The 
Iroquois, who had never before seen the use of fire-arms, were 
naturally overwhelmed with surprise at this new mode of warfare, 
by which three of their chiefs were suddenly stricken to the earth ; 
and they beat a hasty retreat, leaving their camp to the pillage of 
the enemy. The following year Champlain again set out with his 
Indian allies, and a second time drove them from the well contested 
field by the use of fire-arms. It was on this occasion he first met 
the Ilurons, which were to become such fast allies, until almost 
exterminated. But the time came when the Iroquois, supplied 
with arms and trained to their use, by the Dutch, became better 
able to cope with the French. In 1612 Countde Soissons succeeded 
De Monts. Champlain, who was again engaged in war, was at the 
same time endeavoring to advance the peltry traffic, a trade that 
had many vicissitudes, owing to the changing opinions at home, 
and the uncertain suppoi't of merchants. He commenced the 
erection of a fort at Montreal, and formed an alliance with the 
Huron Indians. 

In the year 1615, the Iroquois were collected near the foot of 
Lake Ontario, a body of water as yet unseen by Europeans. At 
the request of the Indians, it has been said Champlain set out to 
attack them, after having ascended the Ottawa. The course 
taken by him, and the disastrous result are given in connec- 
tion with the discovery of the Bay Quinto. The year 1628 saw 
Canada, as well as the colony of Florida, pass under the power of 
the "Company of the Hundred Partners." The same year saw 
Quebec in a state of great distress, the inhabitants almost starving, 
and a fleet of British war vessels at the entrance of the St. Law- 
rence demanding the surrender of the fort. War was then existing 
between England and France, arising out of the intestine war of 
Krance, between the Huguenots and the Catholics, which had 



FOUNDATION OP MONTREAL. 9 

resulted in tho subjugation of the former, many of whom had 
sought refuge in England and entered her nervice. Two of tho 
vessolH now threatening French Canada were commanded by 
Huguenots, one Captain Michel ; the other David Kertk. The 
latter demanded tho surrender of Quebec, butChamplain concealed 
tho great straits to which ho was reduced and bravely withstood the 
famine and cold through the long winter, in tho hopes of relief in 
tho spring, which was destined never to feach him. Instead of 
relief, tho spring brought three vessels of war, f-ommanded by 
Kertk's, two brothers, Louis and Thomas. Tho demand to sur- 
render could no longer be refused, and upon the 29th July, 1618, 
the English took possession of Quebec. Louis Kertk became 
Governor, while Champlain accompanied Thomas Kertk to Europe. 
Quebec remained in British possession until the treaty of St- 
German-en-Laye, signed 29th March 1632, by which England 
renounced all claims upon New France. 

Quebec was governed by Louis Kertk during the three years 
it was in possession of England, and he returned it to the French, 
it was alleged, a heap of ruins. On the ensuing year, the " Hun' 
dred Partners" resumed their sway, and Champlain was re-ap- 
pointed Governor, Avho came with much pomp and took possession 
of Fort St. Louis with the beating of drums. Hereafter emigration 
from France was accelerated. Even some of tho higher classes 
sought in Canada, repose from the troubles incident to religious 
and domestic war, although Catholics. The Jesuits were now 
superseding the order of Recollets, and were earnestly seeking to 
convert tho Hurons; and at the same to secure their trusty allegi- 
ance. For two years prosperity continued to smile upon tho pro- 
vince, and in 1635 the Jesuits laid the foundation stone of the 
College of Quebec. Bilt tho same year took from New France its 
chief and its greatest friend. Champlain died on Christmas day 
in Quebec, after " thirty years of untiring efforts to establish and 
extend the French possessions in America." This great discoverer, 
and founder of Quebec left no children, his wife remained in 
Canada four years, when she returned to Franco. 

Following the death of Champlain was the terrible onslaught 
by the Iroquois upon the Hurons, whom they entirely destroyed as 
a nation, leaving but a remnant under the protection of the French. 
In 1642 M. de Maisonneuve laid the foundation of Montreal, the 
village consisting of a few buildings with wooden palisades, was 
then called " Ville-Marie." Maisonneuve gathered here tho con" 
verted Indians to teach them the art of civilization. 



10 aOVERNOR FRONTENAO. 

Tho BUC(3088or to Champlain was M. do Chatomifort : but wo 
cannot continue to ovon sketch tho history of tho several Govornors, 
and tho successive stops in Canadian development only so far as 
they bear upon our subject. 

In 1663 tho population along tho St. Lawrence numbered to 
between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1G65 tho number was increased by 
emigration, and by tho arrival of tho Carignan regiment, a veteran 
body of men who becan^e permanent settlers, and who aided much in 
controlling tho Indians and maintaining the power of tho French. 
The same year live stock was introduced, and horses for tho first 
time wore soon in Canada. About this time commenced, in earnest, 
the struggle between England and Franco for the supremacy of the 
fur trade. The viceroy, M. do Tracy, began to erect regular forts 
upon the Richolou. In 1671 there was a rendezvous of Indian Chiefs 
at Sault St. Mario, and through tho influence of Father AUoucz, the 
several tribes consented to become subjects of Franco. In tho same 
year M. de Courcelles, now Governor, in pursuance of the attempt to 
govern tho fur trade, conceived tho idea of planting a fort at tho 
foot of Lake Ontario. But he left before the work had commenced, 
and was succeeded b}'' Louis do Buade, Conte de Frontonac, after 
whom the fort, subsequently erected, was called. 

As tho founder of the first settlement in Upper Canada, whoso 
name is now so familiar, as belonging to a County, we may make 
space to say of Frontonac, that ho was a gentleman of good birth, 
and Ijad gained groat distinction, having attained to tho rank of 
Brigadier-General. Ho was somewhat proud and haughty, but 
condescending to his inferiors. His instructions from his mastor.tho 
King, on coming to the Canada, were to secure the aggrandizement 
of France. Imigration in large numbers from France having boon 
forbidden, he was to seek the increase of numbers in New France 
by stimulating early marriages. And to this day, tho rate of 
increase by birth, among the French, is considerably greater than 
with the Anglo-Saxon. 

He was to foster agriculture, the raising of stock, to increase the 
fishing operations, and the trade abroad ; and ho was instructed to 
take measures to construct a lughway between Canada and Acadia, a 
plan which is only now about to be accomplished in the Intercolonial 
Eailroad. Frontenac, likewise received very explicit instructions as 
to his procedure towards the Jesuits and Recollects; and he was 
charged " to administer justice with the strictest impartiality." The 
Colony being at peace, Frontenac's principal difficulty was in dealing 



FIRST LAND-HOLDER OP U. 0. 11 

with the Church, and ho found it necessary to take high-handed steps 
to bring the Clei-gy into subjection to tlie State. There liad been lor 
years a struggle with respect to the liquor traffic among the Indians • 
the Bishops being opposed to it, while the Governor favored it for 
the purpose of furthering the trade in furs. The dissentions between 
parties became so great, and representations to tlie home authorities 
became so frequent and vexatious that Frontenac and the Intendant 
were both recalled in 1 682. But during the ingumbency of Frontenac, 
explorations had continued in the west, and the fort at Cataraqui 
had been fully established ; and the Mississippi had been discovered 
by Pdro Marquette and M. Joliet, in 1 673. That same year Frontenac 
set out 29th of June, from Montreal, with an expedition for Cataraqui, 
arriving there 1 2th July. There was at this time one Robert Cavalier 
de la Salle, a native of Rouen, who had come to Canada when a young 
man, full of a project for securing a road by a northwestern passage 
to China. He was a man of ability and energy, but without means. 
But he managed to obtain the favorable notice of Governor Frontenac, 
who regarded him as a man after his own heart. 

In the time of de Courcelles he opened a trading post near Mon- 
treal, now Lachine, so called from La Salle's belie! that a pathway to 
China would be found thence across the Continent by the waters of 
the Ottawa or Upper Lakes. The discovery of the Mississippi caused 
no little sensation in Canada ; and La Salle lost no time in asking per- 
mission and assistance to continue the western explorations, declaring 
his belief that the upper waters of the Mississippi would, if followed 
to there source, lead to the Pacific Ocean. He consequently submitted 
a petition for a certain grant of land at Cataraqui to the king, Louis 
X. (See under history of Kingston.) 

Thus it seems that La Salle, a name greatly distinguished in 
connection with the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, stands 
connected very intimately with the foundation of Kingston. For 
him a Seigniory was here erected, and from this point he went forth 
on his eventful voyage. He was a man of much energy and lost no 
time in setting out. His boats laden with goods, and likewise with 
material for constructing a brigantine, and a fort, set sail for the 
Niagara River. The first steps La Salle prepared to take was to erect 
a second fort at Niagara, and then to build his vessel upon the waters 
of Lake Erie. 

The construction of the defensive work of the fort, however^ 
suited not the views of the Indians, so he satisfied himself with a 
palisaded storehouse. In the winter the vessel was commenced, six 



12 TUB MISSISSIPPI. 

miloB above the Falls. By the middle of summer it was ready to be 
lauiiciied, which was done with a salute of cannon, and the chanting 
of a Te dcum, amid great rejoicing. There was also great demonstra- 
tion among the Indians, ^ho designated the French " Otkou," or 
** men of a contriving mind." The vessel was named Griffon, and on 
the Tth August, 1679. with seven guns, and small arms, and loaded 
with goods she entered Lake Erie. A few day's sail and Detroit, or 
the strait was reached}* and on the 23rd August, she was cutting 
the waters of Lake Huron. In five days Michilmicinac was gained ; 
then the voyageur proceeded to the western shore of Michigan,where 
he cast anchor. The wonder of the Aborigines, as they witnessed 
this mounted craft, and heard the thunder tones of the cannon, iuay 
be conceived. But this first vessel upon the western lakes, which had 
at first so prosperous a voyage, was doomed to early destruction. 
Men of enterprise and success invariably have to encounter enemies 
born of incapacity and jealousy, who in the absence of the victim, 
may sow the seeds of evil. La Salle had not a few of such enemies, 
it would seem, to encounter. After his departure his creditors had 
seized his possessions, and he, as soon as he heard of it, loaded the 
Griffon with peltries and despatched her for Niagara. But the Griffon 
never reached Detroit, the waters of Lake Huron swallowed her up, 
and all on board. La Salle proceeded with thirty men to the 
lower end of Lake Michigan, and laid the foundation of another fort. 
He then continued westward to the Illinois Eiver, and formed still 
another fort. But this chain of forts thus established by La Salle, 
was not destined to accomplish the great end aimed at. Among the 
opponents of La Salle, were not only those jealous of his success, but 
likewise rival merchants, who were ill pleased to see the fur trade 
monopolized by one ; and then, there was the growing trade by the 
English. These many obstacles and the loss of his vessel with its 
cargo, and of a second one, in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, about this 
time, valued at £22,000, had the eflfect of seriously crippling him; 
yet his was a nature not easily overcome. Leaving Father Hennepin 
to explore the Illinois River and the Upper Mississippi, he set out 
March 2nd, 1680, for Montreal, accompanied by four whites and an 
Indian guide. 

Two years later and the indomitable La Salle, nothing daunted, 
who had compounded with his creditors, and suffered repeated disap- 
pointments, is found traversing the f orest,for the Mississippi, to descend 
that stream to its mouth. He reached the Mississippi, 6th Feburary, 
1682. Descending the stream he stopped at the mouth of the Ohio 



FRENCH TERRITORY, 1684. 13 

to erect a fort. He then continued his easy course down the Father 
of rivers, and reached its mouth on the 5th April, and took formal 
possession of the territory in the name of the king, calling the place 
after him, Louisiana. The glory tlms won by La Salle, was not to 
be crowned with the success, financially, that ought to have followed. 
At this juncture Governor Fronteuac, seemingly the only friend La 
Salle had, was called home to be followed by M. do la Barre. A con- 
tinuation of the persecutions and misrepresehtations of his conduct, 
led to the sequestration of Fort PVontenac, as well as Fort St. Louis, 
and in the following year he was called upon to defend himself at 
fcourt, whioh he was able to do. The result was an order to reinstate 
the founder of Louisiana on his return, in Fort Frontenac, and to re- 
pair all damages which his property had sustained in that locality. 

La Salle was graciously received by the king on account of his 
discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, and was commissioned to 
begin a colonization of Louisiana. The same unfortunate luck con- 
tinued to attend him. He sailed July 24th, 1684, from La Eochelle 
mth two ships of war and two other vessels, having some 600 persons 
in all. The fleet was commanded by M. de Beaujeu. Between the 
commander and La Salle, a misunderstanding arose which ended in 
decided aversion. One of the 8hij)8 was captured by the Spaniards, 
and the others overpassed the mouth of the Mississippi by many 
leagues. The commander instead of assisting to carry out La Salle's 
object, did all he could to thwart him. One of the vessels was run 
upon the reefs and lost. Finally Beaujeu left La Salle with his people 
upon a desert shore without provision, and put out to sea. Although 
120 leagues distant from the Mississippi, in Texas, La Salle set some 
of his people to cultivate the land, and began to construct a fort. But 
the craftsmen were deficient. The seed sown did not grow, the 
savages became troublesome, and one evil after another rapidly suc- 
ceeded imtil his men were mostly all dead. As a last resort La Salle 
determined to set out for Canada to proceed to France. It was early 
spring and the indomitable discoverer found but sIoW progress ; at 
last some of those accompanying him, mutinied together and resorted 
to force, during which La Salle was mortally wounded. Thus per- 
ished the discoverer of the mouth of the Mississippi, the founder of 
Louisiana, as well as the first land owner of LTpper Canada. It is 
worthy of note here how great was the territory of France in America 
at this time. It was a vast region, embracing within its limits the 
Hudson's Bay lerritory, Acadia, Canada, a great part of Maine, por- 
tions of the States of Vermont and New York, with the whole of the 



14 FRENCH FORTB. 

valley of the Missisaipj)!. And a groat portion of this ought, to-day, 
to form part of Canada, Home of which would, were it not for the 
indifTeronce, or stupidity of English commissioners, and the con- 
temptible trickeiy of Americans, such as the act of concealing the fact 
of the existence of a certain map by Daniel Webster, Avhich would 
prove adverse to his pretentions. 

It has been deemed appropriate to follow La Salle in his steps, 
not alone because ho was the first settler in Upper Canada, who held 
land property; but because we learn of the way in which the French, 
originally struggling to gain a footing in the Lower St. Lawrence, 
gradtially extended westward, carrying in one hand the Cross, and 
with the other, planting forts for the purpose of trade, and erecting 
such defences as the uncertain character of the natives rendered neces- 
sary. Wo learn how it came, that fort after fort, whose ruins may 
yet be traced across the continent, were planted along a route which 
commenced at the mouth of the mighty St. Lawrence, extended along 
the western lakes, and then turning southward terminated at the 
mouth of the majestic Mississippi. 



>!! 












"■.{ U;^'\' y. >>' 






.# 



INDIANS DECEIVED. 15 



INTRODUCTION. 

(CONTISnBD.) 

? ':■ ' CHAPTER II. 

Contents : — Cntaraqni fovt stronntlicnod— Kcnte Indians seized and tarried cap- 
tive to France — MunHacro of Laeliinc — (.'omnieucing struggle between New 
England and Now France — Siege of (jui.bee 1)}' Sir Wm. Phipjjs — Destruc- 
tion of Fort C'atiuacpii — Its re-erection — 'I'leutv of Uyswicli — Death of Fron- 
tonac — Irofjuois in England — Anotlier attempt to eaptm-e Quebec — Decline 
of French power — Population of Canadii iind of New England — Continuation 
of the contest for the fur trade — Taking of Fort Louisburg — ("ol. Washington, 

• I dishonorable conduct — Inconsistency of Dr. Franklin — L'onnnencement of 
seven years' war — Close of first year — Montcalm — His iiresentinient — Taking 
of Fort Oswego — Of Fort William Henry — fearful massacre — The state of 
•'. Canada — Wolfe appears — Taking of Frontonac — Duquesne — Apathy of 
France — The spring of 1759 — Ilcduced state of Canaiia — The overthrow of 
French power in America — Tlie result — Union of elements — The capture of 
Quebec — Wolfe — Death of Montcalm — Fort Niagara — .Johnson — Effort to re- 
take Quebec — Wreck of the French army — Capitulation at Montreal — Popu- 
lation — The first British Uovernor of Canada — Tlie Canadians as British 
subjects — The result of French enterprise — Kebellion. 

In 1685 Marquis DoNonvillo became Govei*nor, and brought 
with him to Canada 600 regular troops. The Iroquois had become 
allies of the English, with whom they preferred to trade. DeNon- 
ville ascended to Cataraqui with two thousand men. Arrived at 
Cataraqui, he tried, by gentle means at firnt, to obtain certain 
terms from them, but the Iroquois were insolent, being supported 
by the English traders. DeNonville wrote to Paris for more 
troops, and, in the mean time, proceeded to accumulate stores 
at Cataraqui, and to strengthen the fort at Niagara. The King sent 
to Canada, in 1687, 800 soldiers, to assist in subduing the Iroquois. 
DeNonville becoming bold, and in his increased strength, pursued 
a course of trickery which has been branded by all w-iters as anti- 
christian, and more savage than anything pertaining to the savages 
(so-called) of America. Pdre Lamberville, a missionary among 
the Iroquois, caused a certain number of chiefs to congregate at Fort 
Prontenac, to confer with the governor, and when they were within 
the precincts of the fort they were seized and carried captive in 
chains, even to France, and there sent to the galleys. Draper says 
that these were Indians of the tribes called Ganneyouses and Kentes, 



16 INDIAN MA8MACRE. 

and that about 40 or 60 men, ntul 80 women and children wore 
Hoizod, who wort) forwarded to Franco. The attitude of the In<liann 
under Huch trying circumstances, towards the missionary among 
thorn, standw out in prominent contrast to the vih) conduct of the 
Froncdi governor. The missionary, summoned by the chief, was 
tlius addressed : " Wo have every right to treat thee as our foe, but 
we have not the inclination to do so. Wo know thy nature too 
well ; thine heart has had no share in causing the wrong that haw 
been done to us. We are not so unjust as to punish thee for a crime 
that thoii abhorrest as much as we." Then the aged chief informed 
him that the young men of the tribe might not feel so lenient, and 
that ho must leave, at the same time causing him to be conducted 
by a safe path from their midst. 

For a time DeNonville somewhat curbed the Iroquois; but in 
the end he failed completely to hold the ground which had pre- 
viously been acquired. For four years ho continued to govern ; 
matters continually growing worse, until, in the spring of 1689, 
1,400 Iroquois made an onslaught on the island of Montreal. 
The inhabitants, in the depth of sleep, knew nothing of their 
danger, until the fearful whoop and the bloody tomahawk and 
scalping knife were already at work. The butchery was most 
fearful ; the cruelties to women and children most revolting. 
Besides those in.stantly killed, 200 were burnt alive, and others 
died under prolonged torture. This was called the massacre 
of Lachine. The governor was paralyzed, and no step was taken 
to redress the groat evil. 

It was under such circumstances that he was recalled, and 
superseded by De Frontenac, who had again been requested to bo- 
come governor. Frontenac landed at Quebec on the 18th October, 
1689, and was received with every demonstration of joy. 

Frontenac entered upon his duties shortly before the renewal 
of hostilities between England and Franco. All of Protestant 
Europe, indeed, were enlisted in the war which had, to a great 
extent, arisen from the cruol course pursued by France towards the 
Huguenots. Frontenac, whose master foresaw the war, which was 
declared in the following year, brought with him full instructions 
to prepare for a vigorous warfare all along the frontier of New 
France, even to the Hudson Bay territory. By this time the Eng- 
lish settlements upon the Atlantic coast had attained to no incon- 
siderable strength, and were already engaging in trade by water, 
as well as with the Indians in peltries ; and already it had become 



FRONTIKR LIFK. 17 

a question of coiwjUOHt by Now Kn/^liind or by Now Frnnco. Tho 
proHont juncturo Hoomod one fhvorHl)lo fl-r bold monsuros on tho 
|mrt of tlic Afi^'lo-Anioricjuis. Tlioy bjid rapidly advanced in ma- 
terial Hli'cn^tli, wliik> tlio Krmudi had ratlior dcfdiiiod, owin^^ to tho 
want of immigration and to tbo fV(M|Uont <loHtrii('tivo incui-HionH of 
tho lio(|UoiH. Tliodocdaration of war botwocn Knglaiid and France, 
in Juno, 1(589, saw tho colon ist8 j)ro])arod to contoHl tho /ground for 
Hupr<*ma(!y, and monoj)oly of tho fur trade. Tho Krone h, notwith- 
Htandin/^ their limited nnmorical ntrongth, hoHitatcd not to enter 
tlio Hold, and made up their want of numbers by Huporior and do- 
terniinod bravery. JUd'ore Do Frontenac had arrived, overything 
was K"'"K ''" badly with the Caiuidians. M. DoNonvillo had, bo- 
fore hiH departure, instruetod Honor do Valrouvo, commandant at 
Catarar[ui, to blow up the fort, whieii had been acc,ordin<^ly done ; 
and the country abandoneil to tho fndiaiiH, who now rani^ed the 
country, to the very entrance of Montreal. Hut Fronteiuic deter- 
mined to take bold and active measuroM to carry the war into the 
onomicH country, notwlthHtandinic the odds against the FnMich. 
Organized planw of attack, at different points, were arranged, one 
of which, in its carrying out, was quite as cruel and barbarous as 
tho Lachine masHacro, which it was intended, as aftoi'wai-ds stated, 
it should revenge. A party of French and Indians wore led in tho 
irection of Albany. Ox\ their way,one night, about eleven o'clock, 
they attacked tho sleeping town of Scdienectady, and put. the de- 
tonceless inhabitants to the sword. Those acts cannot bo justified 
in Europeans, and show the fearful spirit of barbarity which reigned 
in those early days of America. Tho ottect produced by the bands 
of raiders that swept over tho British colonies along the frontier, 
and here and there, into tho very interior, was salutary to tho 
French interests, and the spring saw the French flag much more 
respected by the Indians than it had lately been : yet tho Iroquois 
earnestly and boldly strove to carry death to the door of every Ca- 
nadian hamlet. The energetic measures adopted by Frontenac 
Vustrated all their attempts; yet it was unsafe for the husbandman 
to go to the field, so that famine began to appear. The spring of 
1691 saw, however, instead of a repeated invasion of New England, 
extensive preparations in the latter country to invade Canada. Sir 
V7illiam Phipps was preparing to sail from Boston, with a squad- 
on, to capture Quebec, and General Winthrop, with forces from 
!Ionnecticut and New York, was mustering his militia, to invade 
)y land. The latter marched to, and encamped upon, the banks of 



16 FRUITLEIW HIBOE8 0¥ QUEBEC. 

IjaVv George, whoro ho waited for tho nppciiranco of Phipps, by tho 
St. Lawrence; Itiit, in tho moiintinu', diHoiiHO jittaokod hiw lroo|)«, 
and he wuh (>hli|rod to retrace hiH Hteps to Alhatiy. Kcarcoly had 
Winthrop (h*pnrtod when the fleet under PhippH entered the waterH 
of tho St. Lawrence, and UNoendod, to invoHt tho City of Quehoc, 
a})pt^aring in Hi|<ht on tho Idth of October. Phipps demanded n 
Burrender; but Frontenao, although with an inferior j^arrJMOn and 
but few trtKtps, j^avo a Kpirittnl refuHal ; and ultimately, before tho 
cloHo of tho month, Phipps found it expedient to retire. Thus tor- 
miiuited tho first Hioge of (iuobec. 

Tho ensuing four yearn prosenlod one continuouH Mcono of bor- 
der warfare. WhiU) hoHtilitioM in Europe wore exhauHtin/^ tho 
re»ourco8 of France, Cana<bi, under Frontenac, wan more than 
hohlinj^ itrt own. Tho British Americans vainly tried a^ain to bo- 
Hie^o (^uoboc, making an attack by land ; but each attempt was at- 
tended with diHaHter. PVontenac, recognizing tijo importance of 
Catara(|ui as a place of defence, sent 700 men to ro-oroct tho fort 
In this ho was opposed by the Intondant, M. do Champigny, and 
oven by tho home government; but ho had the work completed in 
1695, before orders camo to abstain Irom erecting it. Frontenac 
had submitted a report giving tho reasons why the fort should 
exist, namely: in time of peace for trade, and to repair hatchets 
and arms; and in time of war to atlbrd a place of retreat, and to 
give succor and provisions ; also a place to organize expeditions 
against the Iroquois, and to receive the sick and wounded on re- 
turning from expeditions. On the other hand, Do Champigny re- 
ported that the trade would not be much in time of peace, as the 
Iroquois would prefer to deal with tho English, who would give 
more ; that the Indian should carry tho beaver skin to tho French, 
not tho French go for it ; that the fort was out of the direct course 
of trade, some thirty or forty leagues ; that the force necessary to 
curr}' provisions would at any time bo cajjablo of proceeding against 
tho enemy. It would bo better to take a more soutliorl}' course 
from Montreal into the enemy's country, while Cataraqui is situated 
ui)Oii the opposite side of the lake ; that it was an unfit place for 
sick and wounded, being " very unhealthy, oighty-bovon having 
died there in one year, out of tho hundred who composed the gar 
rison." "Tho swamp poisons the garrison," which is so situated 
that it allords no protection except to tho men within it, who migl.t 
as vvoll lo in a prison, llo counselled thi^t the fort should be 
abandoned, as it was useless and cxijcnsivo. Frontenac, however. 



IlKATII or rRONTENAC. 19 

having ori>(tto<l Iho fort, ^nrriHoncd it with 4fi HoldiopH. Tho oxponno 
of ro-OHtul)IiHhin^ tlio tort iitid hupplyiii^ tho nocoHHary proviMions 
cOHt Homo £700. At thin juncturo tho Krcncli had ontorlHiriod tho 
idoA of calling in tho outpoHtH aion^jf tho wostorn inkoH and upon 
thu MiHHiHHippi, hut it was roprOHontod that tr> do no was to open 
tho way for tho oxeluHivo trade of tho IndianH witli tho Kii/^liwh. 
But Frontonac adviHod no Huch moaHuroH. llo, by hiH (U>tormifiod 
bravor}', Huccoodi'd in brin^in^ thr InxpioiH to rospoct tho French 
name, and ho ollon carried tiro and death into thoir very country. 
When tho war terminated, tho old lK)un(larioH of tlio ProvineoM had 
boon fully ro-OHtabliuhed, and honors were conferred upon tho gov- 
ernor by his royal master. In 1H97 tho war terminate*! by tho 
treaty of Kj'HwicIc, Hif^ned September 11, by which the French 
were to restore all ])laco,s taken froni the BritiHh in America; and 
it was Htipulated that a commiHsion whould bo appointed to deler- 
mino tho respective boundarie.s of the ProvincoH. 

In tho year 1698, on the 28th November, Count do Frontonac 
died, a^od 77, much beloved by tho Canadians, after havin;^ raised 
Now Franco from a low condition to a high state of material ad- 
vancement. J}nt against him was too truly said that ho encouraged 
the dreadful traftic of liquor among the Indians, in or<ler that 
advantageous trading, in winch tho governor allowed himself to 
meddle, might bo carried on. ■ ' 

On 2Gth May, 1703, M. do Calli6re, who had been the sjiccesaor 
of Frontonac, died, and tho governor oi Montreal, who was tho 
Marquis dc Vaudrcuil, was nominated as successor. 

This appointment, made at the instance of tho colonists, was 
conferred with hesitancy, the reason being that his Countess was a 
native-born Canadian ! Not only in that day but in later <lays, and 
under other circumstances, wo have seen tho belief obtaining that 
natives of Canada must, from tho natufo of thoir liirtli-])lace, lack 
those (jualifications for distinguished positions with which tlioso 
from homo are supposed to be so eminently endowed. 

Tho British Colonists by this time began to entertain desires 
to conquer Canada, and steps were taken to accomplish the talcing 
of Quebec. Among those who took an active part by raising pro- 
vincial troops, and in visiting England to obtain assistance, was 
General Nicholson, whoso descendants to this day live in the vici- 
nity of tho Bay Quinto, and in tho Lower Provinces. In 1710 
he visited England, in company with five Iroquois chiefs, who wore 
presented to Quoon Anne, and who received distinguished attention. 



20 TREATY OP UTRECHT. 

being convoyed to the palace in royal coachoH. It was following 
this that the Quoon proBonted those interesting pieces of Commu- 
nion plate to the five nations, part of which may bo seen at Tyen- 
dinagua, and part at the Grand Eiver. A futile attempt was made 
by Nicholson, with a floot under Admiral Walker, in 1711, to take 
Quebec. The whole enterprise not only failed but was attended 
with great disaster. General Nicholson, with his army at Lake 
Champlain, had to give up his desire to capture Montreal and 
Quebec. 

On March 30, 1713, was signed the treaty of Utrecht. In this 
treaty abridgement of French territory in America was eftected- 
Acadia, Hudson's Bay territory and Newfoundland wore ceded to 
Britain. French power was on the decline both in America, and 
Europe. Vainly the French tried to regain what they had lost in 
Newfoundland and Acadia, by founding an establishment at Cajje 
Breton, and in the foundation of the historic fort of Louisburg. 

In 1714 Governor Vaudreuil went to Franco, where he 
remained until September, 1716. He then returned to Canada, and 
set about improving the state of affairs generally. Quebec, at the 
present day such an impregnable fortress, was not, in any respect, 
regularly fortified before the beginning of this century. To the 
natural strength of the place was first added artificial aid, in 1702. 
To this again were added, in 1712, other defences, and in 1720, by 
the approval of the home government, the fortification was syste- 
matically proceeded with. At this time the colony was divided 
into three distinct governments, those of Quebec, Three Eivers, 
and Montreal ; and the whole was sub-dividided into eighty-two 
parishes. The whole population was estimated at 25,000 ; whilst 
at the same time the British colonies had 60,000 males able to bear 
arms. The governor, aware of this, already began to fear a success- 
ful invasion of Canada. ,,,.»..i, ., _ ,. ,,. ,, i,.. v.. .. , 

M. de Vaudreuil died October 10, 1725, having been governor 
twenty-one years. He was succeeded by the Marquis de Beauhar- 
nois, who arrived at Quebec in 1726. The contest for the supre- 
macy of the fur trade continued. The British seeing the advantage 
of the line of forts held by the Fi'onch determined to erect a fort 
also, and selected the mouth of the Oswego for its site. As an off- 
set to this aggression on the part of the British, against which the 
French vainly protested, the French fort at the mouth of the Nia- 
gara waa erected, with defences ; and orders were given that a 
stone fort sl^ould replace the one originally constructed of wood, at 



PORT LOUISBURG. 21 

Catnraqui. In 1731, Fort Frederick was also erected, at Crown 
Point, on Lake Champlain. This year, Varronnes, Sieur de la Ver- 
endrye, urged by the governor, sot about to discover a route to the 
Pacific ocean ; but ho only reached tho foot of the Eocky Moun- 
tains, being tho first white man to discover them. About this time 
the fort at Toronto (Lake) is, for tho first time, referred to. For 
more than a decade tho strife for the peltry traffic continued to be 
waged, yet without any actual warfare. It was seen by all that 
peace could not continue, and New England and New France were 
all tho time anticipating the conflict. In 1745 war broke out in 
Europe, and immediately extended to America. It will be remem- 
bered that tho Fi'onch were dispossessed of Acadia, but had subse- 
quently ei'ected a fort upon Capo Breton, Louisburg. From this 
naval stronghold they wore able to send privateers and men-of-war. 
The English, in the meantime, seeing this evil, and that this was a 
protection to the only entrance to French territory, determined to 
possess it promptly, if it were possible. To carry out this project, 
which originated with Governor Shii-loy, of Massachusetts, 4,000 
militia, levied in Mass., New Hampshii'o, Maine, and Connecticut, 
under Colonel Pepperol, sailed from Boston in March. The attack 
upon this strong fort was so well planned and carried out, that full 
success was the result. Admiral Warren arrived with ships to give 
assistance, and captured a French ship of 64 guns, with 560 soldiers 
and supplies. Already the Anglo-Americans were beginning to 
display the energy (derived from an energetic race) which was to 
overturn British domination in the Atlantic States. But in the first 
place it was necessary that England should extinguish French 
power. The brilliant nature of the attack and taking of Fort Louis- 
burg was recognized by the granting of baronetcies to Governor 
Shirley and Colonel Pepperol. This success hastened the determi- 
nation to conquer Canada — a desire already existing in the hearts 
of the Anglo-Americans ; and Governor Shirley applied to the 
British government for regulars and a fleet for that purpose. 
Meanwhile, a fleet, with several thousand troops, sailed from 
Franco, with a view of re-taking Cape Breton and Acadiu ; but tem- 
pest and disease destroyed the force, until it was no longer able to 
invade. . _ 

From the year 174S border warfare con tinuallj' blazed along 
the frontier. The French, with their savag? allies, carried the 
scalping-knifo and the torch into tho British settlements, captured 
Fort Massachusetts and Fort Bridgman, and gained other victories, 



22 MASSACRE BY WASHINGTON. 

and the luckless settlers liiul to seek safety in the more largely-set- 
tled parts of the country. 

Again came temporary peace to the colonists. In 1748, upon 
the 7th of October, the treaty, was signed at Aix-la-Chapelles, by 
the terms of which Capo Breton reverted to the French. This 
treaty was, however, but a lull in the struggle in America, which 
was destined to end in conquest. 

The French continued to strengtlion their outposts. Detroit 
was garrisoned, and forts of stone were built at Green Bay, Toronto, 
and La Presentation. . In 1756, Fort Duquesne, at Pittsburgh, was 
established. It was in this year that Washington first came before 
the public as an actor. He led a considerable force to the west, 
with the view of destroying Fort Duquesne, and encountered a 
small body of French. The man who subsequently became a hero 
by concurring events, as well as by his own energy, did not, on this 
occasion— if we may credit history — act a very honorable part. In- 
formed of the camping ground of the enemy, he marched all night, 
to attack them in the morning. Junonville, the commander, when 
aware of the proximity of VVasliington, made known to him by a 
trumpeter that he had a letter to deliver, and when Junonville had 
begun to read his letter firing was suddenly re-commenced. The 
painters of AVashington's character have tried to cover this stain; but 
unbiassed recorders think he was by no means blameless. But Wash- 
ington's humiliation rapidly followed this unmanly procedure.. The 
main force of the French, hearing of the massacre by Washington, 
advanced to revenge it ; and, attacking him in his own chosen posi- 
tion, succeeded, after ten hours' fighting with muskets alone, against 
cannon, in driving Washington from his position, and compelled him 
to make an inglorious retreat. 

At the beginning of 1755, England sent out additional soldiers 
and means of war, and appointed General Braddock, who had distin- 
guished himself as a soldier, to act as military chief. 

At this time, " Dr. Franklin estiniat d the whole English provin- 
cials at a total of 1,200,000; whilst the whole number of people in 
Canada, Cape Breton, Louisiana, &c., was under 80,000 souls."— 
QGameau). At the same time France was weak, by the presence of 
an indolent King, who allowed himself and kingdom to be governed 
by a courtesan, Madame de Pompadour. Religious dissensions and 
stagnation of trade, all contributed to place France in but a poor posi- 
'tion to engage in war. Great Britain, on the contrary, was in all 
respects prosperous. At such a favorable time it was that the Anglo- 



THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR. 28 

Americans urged the mother country to carry on, with tlie utmost 
rigor, a war for the subjugation of Canada. Franklin, a8 astute a 
politician as clever in science, was their principal mouthpiece. He 
who, twenty-five years thereafter, ^'epaired to Paris, to arouse the 
public feeling of France and entire Europe against Britain; tiie same 
who came to Canada to revolutionize it in 1770, was, in 1754, the 
greatest promoter of the coming invasion of the French [)ossession8 
in North America. " There need never be permanent repose expected 
for our thirteen colonies," urged he, " so long as the French are mas- 
ters of Canada." Thus was inaugurated what is known as the seven 
years' war. -.^i ■." f <•■[■:"■ .,,)• . , - c ,,,:,■'■-,■ 

The respective combatants marshalled their forces for the con- 
flict. The French, nothing daunted, took energetic measures to 
repel the foe, and strike blows here and there, as opportunity aflibrded. 
A force was sent to take Fort Oswego from the English, while John- 
son, a name to be mentioned hereafter, was despatched to attack Fort 
Frederick. The first great battle was fought in the Ohio valley, by 
General Braddock. Here the French gained a signal victory, with 
but a few men, and utterly put to rout their enemy. At Fort Ed- 
ward, the French, under General Dieskau, were less successful 
in an encounter with Johnson, the French commander being taken 
prisoner. 

The close of the first year saw Forts Frederick, Niagara and 
Duquesne, still in the hands of the French, while bands of savages 
and Canadians travei'sed the British settlements, massacreing and 
burning all before them. 

The ensuing year witnessed more elaborate arrangements to con- 
tinue the war. France sent to Canada soldiers, provisions, war 
material and money; and, also, the Marquis de Montcalm was selected 
to take charge of the army. Montcalm had seen i-ervice, and with 
him came other officers likeAvise experienced. ' . , , 

Proceeding to Montreal, he conferred with the Governor, and it 
was detei'mined to form two principal camps, one at Ticonderoga, 
the other at Frontenac, and a battalion was despatched to Niagara. 

The British, at the same time, made extensive prejjarations, both 
in the colonies and at home, and the Earl of London was appointed 

generalissimo, ii^ i<i';i fiui'' ;f-i:Jv<snn>n'wnf(p ..f'-/y >,>,u'a i•^l>.?<ln,fr .^, 
fT It is a remarkable fact that Montcalm had from the first a fatal 
presentiment as to the issue of the war ; yet he, all the same, took 
every step that prudence and energy directed, to secure the success 
of his army. There was also a cooluess bet>yeeo hiin and the Gover- 



24 CANADIANS IN DISTRESS, BUT SUCCESSFUL. 

nor, who manifested a determination and energy worthy of him. It 
was determined that fresh attempts should be made to possess Fort 
Oswego, and General Montcalm arrived at Fi'ontenac for that pur- 
pose on the 29th of July. Upon the 11th August they reached 
Oswego and invested the Fort, which was obliged to surrender on the 
14th, the commander, Colonel Mercer, having been killed. Tho Fort 
was razed to the ground. The Canadians then withdrew to their 
homos carrying the prisoners of war, and the guns of the Fort, and 
provisions with them. This was the principal event of this year. The 
winter saw the Canadians suffer from famine and small-pox. During 
the winter 175 7-8, there was continued hostility, and in the following 
year Montcalm succeeded in taking Fort William Henry, after a siege 
of four days. Colonel Munroe commanded the Fort, and he trusted for 
support to General Webb, who failed to afford it, but instead sent a 
message to Munroe to retire, which note fell into the hands of Mont 
calm. Munroe on the morning of the 9th, displayed his flag of truce 
The events of this capitulation have ever been held in remembrance, 
because of the fearful massacre which the Indians made of the Eng- 
lish, who had surrendered, and who marched out without their arms, 
in full confidence in the integrity of the victorious besiegei'S. Stern 
history has cast no little blame upon Montcalm, for at least I'c lissness 
of duty ; and the pen of historic fiction has found it a fruitful theme 
with which to weave a story, and record thrilling events. 

The ensuing winter was one of great privation to the Canadians) 
the harvest had failed ; and everything began to look dark indeed for 
the devoted French ; yet four years of war had given all the advantage 
to their arms. The continued ill-success of the British, caused them 
to raise inci'eased numbers of men, so that by numerical force they 
might overwhelm the French. In tho spring of 1758, 80,000 British 
combatants were residy to march. Wliile such was the condition and 
war-like sj)irit which obtained upon the British side, a far different 
state of afi:airs existed with the French. Success had so far attended 
the gallant feats undertaken by them. All along the lengthened 
border the foe had been defeated, or had gained but scant victory 
Again, the Iroquois nation, impressed with the success thus obtained 
by the French, and gratified to have the Fort of Oswego, always 
nnpleasent to them, destroyed, seemed inclined to take sides with 
them, certainly did not favor the English. But, when so much has 
been said the extent of French power in America has been stated. 
Canada was no longer receiving support from France. The colonists 
had been weakened by continual warfare and repeated crop-failures. 



THE STRUGGLE. 25 

But undeterred by the dark clouds that continued to tliicken, 
the Canadians buckled on their armor to fight till the very last. 
Says Montcalm to the Minister at home, " We shall fight and Ave shall 
bury ourselves, if need be, under the ruins of the colony." Again the 
tide of war ebbed and flowed with fearful power. Carillon was made 
red with British blood, as vain endeavors were made to capture that 
French strong hold. Against Louisburg, Cape Breton, Carillon, Lake 
Champlain, and Duquesno in the Ohio Valley, the English arrayed 
their fleets .and armies. In the attack now made upon Louisburg, for 
the first time appears the name of Wolfe, who distinguished himself 
by scaling a rock, with a hundred men, which had hitherto been 
regarded unaccessable. After a spirited defence, the French surren- 
dered the Fort, a perfect wreck, July 26. About this time Cape 
Breton passed into British hands, and thus was opened to the English, 
the Fort of Quebec. 

In the mean time the attack upon Fort Carillon by General 
Abercromby, with a strong •army, had proved a complete failure. 
The French, although few, desperately met the repeated assaults 
made during half a day, and Abercromby, cut up and ashamed, was 
forced to relinquish the matter. This battle was fought July 8thi 
in which 3,600 men struggled successfully for six hours against 
15,000 picked soldiers, (fiameau). De Levis, who had been in com- 
mand at Fort Frontenac, was called by Montcalm to take part in 
the defence of Carillon. This left Fort Frontenac comparatively 
weak, and Abercromby, having learned the fact, despatched Colonel 
Bradstreet, who had taken an active part in the battle, to capture 
the Fort. Bradstreet sot out with 3,000 men, 11 guns and mortars. 
The invading force reached its destination August 35. The Fort 
had been left with 70 men under the command of M. de Noyan, 
notwithstanding, the Fort was bravely defended for a time. " The 
victors captured many cannons, quantities of small arms, boats of 
provisions and nine nowly armed barques, — part of the trophies 
brought from Oswego wlien captured. After loading his barges to the 
waters-edge, Bradstreet released his prisoners on parole, burnt the 
Fort, also seven of the barks, and returned to his country." 
{Gamecm.) This was a severe blow to the struggling Canadians. 
The Governor had ordered the farmers from the field, and all the 

avages he could command, to march to the assistance of Fort 
Frontenac ; but when the party reached Fort Presentation, (Ogdens- 
burg), it was learned that Frontenac was already destroyed. To 

dd to the misfortune of the French, the same autumn, General 



26 THE BPRINO OF 1769. 

Forbes, notwithstanding a part of his force had boon previously 
defeated, secured the destruction of Fort Duquosno on the Ohio. 
This closed the engapjements for the year 1748, and everything 
looked for tho French, most discouraging. The winter was 
spent by tho English in preparing for a still moz'o determined con. 
tinuation of the war; while the French wasted their energies in 
domestic dissention. Tho GfovernorM. de Vandreuil and Montcalm 
ceased not to quarrel, and to charge each other with incompetency) 
and oven crimes. At tho same time the moans of tho country was 
absorbed by unpatriotic merchants, who availed themselves of the 
circumstances of the country to amass fortunes by illegal traffic in 
furs with the Indians. 

Tho Government at home, although informed by Montcalm that 
Canada would be conquered if help were not sent, took no step to 
assist the devoted Colonists, who, although disheartened were not 
disposed to surrender allegiance to their native country, even 
when all but forsaken. The spring of 1759 beheld them standing 
to thoir arms with calm detoi'mination, awaiting tho onset of the 
foe. The British as in previous years prepared to invade Canada 
simultaneously at three different points. There was no fortress in 
the Lower St. Lawrence to obstruct their advance by water, so 
Quebec was the point at which, to the oast, the attack would bo made. 
A corps of 10,000 men commanded by General Wolfe, who we have 
seen, distinguished himself at the taking of Louisburg, prepared to 
ascend tho St. Lawrence to invest the capital. Another force 
12,000 strong under General Amherst, a name we shall have to 
speak of hereafter, was to pass by Lake Chamjilain to descend the 
Richeleu and to join Wolfe at Quebec. And a third force, under 
General Prideaux, with savages under Sir William Johnson, wore 
to possess Fort Niagara,and then descend to tho capture of Montreal, 
Opposed lo tho numerous and well appointed armies of invasion, 
there was, according to Garneau, all in all of Frenchmen, between 
the ages of 16 and 60, capable of bearing arms, but a little over 
15,000. In the early sjiring, one M. de Corbiere, ascended with 
the view of rebuilding Fort Frontonac. 300 men were also sent to 
repair and defend Nirgara. But it soon was deemed expedient to 
recall them and to concentrate their forces. Every man from even 
the more remote parts, presented himself to tho nearest place of 
rendezvous. In the latter part of May, word came that the enemies 
ships were coming. 



(«.>.^.-U ' \-Ji 



WOLFE BEFORE QUEBEC, 87 

Tho events connected with the overthrow of French wupremacy 
in Canmla cannot fail to impress the student of Canadian history. 

Tho capture of Quebec, and, as an inevitable result, tho con- 
quest of Canada are events of great intei'est ; but the space cannot 
be allowed hero to more than refer to the thrilling scenes of valor 
displayed by tho victors and tho vanquished. As Canadians of 
British origin wo recognize tho event as one not to bo deplored, how- 
ever Franco-Canadians may regard tho question. The conquest of 
Canada, was to add a new element to that of the British American 
which was destined to grow, and to act no moan part in respect to 
British interests in America,and we believe, ultimately to completely 
amalgamate with a portion of the older elements, and thus to beget 
a race, under Confederation, none the less noble, none tho loss 
stable, and none the less glorious, than that race (a prototype of 
this) — the Original Anglo-Saxon derived from tho Norman, who 
came to England with William tho Conqueror, as well as tho Saxon 
elements. 

More than a hundred years have passed away since tho fall of 
Quebec. Tho centenary anniversary of tho event has been cele- 
brated with an amount of enthusiasm which probably Quebec never 
witnessed before. Since tho American Eovolution, when the 
French Canadians fought by tho side of the American Loyalist to 
defend Quebec, the former have ceased to be a conquered people — 
Sequestrated from Franco, they have escaped all the horrors which 
have since swept over that people, while they have I'etained their 
language, religion, and laws. A hundred' years has ei'adicated or 
rather changed all the feelings which burned so fervently in the 
French Canadian heart, except their love of Canada ; and they 
have joined heartily with the Anglo-Saxon to erect a joint monu- 
ment which commemorates at once tho heroism of Wolfe, and the 
gallantry of Montcalm. 

Although the forces invading under Wolfe, exceeded in num- 
ber those who defended tho citadel, yet, tho gi-eatest heroism was 
displayed in its taking. The British fleet of " 20 ships of the line 
with frigates and smaller war vessels," and transports, reached tho 
Isle of Orleans, June 25, where the land force disembarked and 
proceeded deliberately te invest the stronghold, finding a more 
difficult task than had been expected. Bepoated attempts and 
assaults were made with the result of showing Wolfe how strong 
was the po'-'i.ion his youthful ardor would fain secure. Not alone 
was he baffled thus, but a severe illness prostrated him to death's 



28 UPON THE PLAINS OP ABRAHAM. 

door, whoso portalH wore so soon to bo oponod to him, by another 
moans. In his moments of discouragemont he had written home 
in a spirit not calculated to att'ord liope. The plan which resulted 
in success, it is said was suggested by his three faithful Generals* 
Monkton, Townshend and Al urray. 

The night before the 13th of September, 1750, tlus day upon 
which Wolfe was to win imperishable kurols, and to hiy down hi s 
life, he felt a presentiment that his end was near, and carefully ar- 
ranged all his worldly affairs. On the evening of the l2th he invited 
Cai)tain John Davis (afterwards x\dmiral. Earl St. Vincent), of the 
Porcupine slooj) of war, to spend an hour or two on board the Suth- 
erland." "Wolfe, in the course of their conversation, said that he knew 
he should not survive the morrow ; and M'hen they were about to 
separate, he took from his bosoni the picture of Louther and delivered 
it into the hands of his friend, whom he requested, should his fore- 
boding be fulfilled, to restore the pledge to the lady on his arrival in 
England." 

Having previously made disposition of his forces to prepare 
the way for the final attack, and, as well in some instances, to 
deceive the enemy as to his intentions, Wolfe finally, at one o'clock, 
upon the morning of the 13th September, set out in flat bottomed 
boats to make his landing at Fuller's Cove, thereafter to be called 
after himself. The night was dark, and other circumstances being 
favorable the landing was safely effected, the heights ascended, and 
at the break of day Montcalm learned with the utmost astonish- 
ment that the enemy was upon the heights of Abraham in battle 
array. Montcalm hastened to drive away the venturesome foe, but 
this was not to be accomplished; a few hours brought a realization 
of his early presentiment. After a spirited struggle the French 
were to be seen running, the announcement of which made Wolfe 
die happy; and, Montcalm was wounded unto death. Ho died on 
the 14th. The defeat of Montcalm secured the capture of Quebec, 
yet it was not until the 18th September that the city surrendered, 
and French writers would make it appear that even then it were 
not necessary. 

The command of the Fionch army after the death of Montcalm 
devolved upon Gen. de Levis, who had been absent up the St. Law- 
rence. He returned to Montreal only in time to hear of Mont- 
calm's defeat. He hastened to the rescue of the beleaguered city, 
but ho reached the vicinity, not until Quebec had passed into the 
hands of the British. 



CAPTURE OF FORT NIAGARA. 29 

During tho time these exciting sconeH had been tranHpiriiig at 
Quebec, Gen. Ainheivt had been conl'ronting Boulania(juo, upon 
tho bhores of Luke Champlain; whom he had compelled to return, 
and to dotttroy Fort Frederick and to retire to Ule AuxNoin. Iti tlie 
west, at Niagara Gen. Prideaux and Sir Wm. Johnson had been 
succCBsful in taking tho Fort from Pouchot. By this, Lake 
Ontario with its northern shore, as well aw the region of tho Jiayof 
Quinto came into tho ponseHsion of tlie Uritinh. 

The expedition to capture Fort Niagara, taken at the urgent 
request of tho Governor of New York, was under the command of 
Generlfl Prideau.,:. The attacking party landed at Four Mile Creek 
almout four miles east of the Fort, on the Gth July, 1859. Fort 
Niagara was garrisoned by 48G men according to Pouchot, the 
French commander, but according to English statements 600. 
General Prideaux forces numbered, according to Capt. de Lancy, 
1,200, and 1,000 Indians, as said by Sir William Johnson. Pouchot 
discovered their approach the following day. " lie despatched 
couriers to Presquo Isle, to Fort Machault, at tho mouth of French 
Creek, Pa., and to the commander of tho Fort at the " Carrying 
Place " for assistance. Reinforcements were sent, numbering about 
600 French, and 100 Indians. They resembled when passing down 
the rapids, " a floating island, so black was the river with batteaux 
and canoes." They landed a few miles above the falls and pro- 
ceeded to Lewiston and thence to relieve Pouchot. In the mean 
time tho siege had been pressed with vigor. Prideaux, the English 
General, had been killed and the. command had devolved on Sir 
W, Johnson. The English learned of the approach of the reinforce- 
ments, and Captain James de Lancy was despatched to a position 
in ambuscade above the present site of Youngstown. Tho French 
discovering the English in ambush, made an impetuous attack upon 
them, but the English withstood the assault, and eventually turned 
tho tide against the enemy, who were put to flight, 200 being 
killed, and 100 taken prisoners. Pouchot learned of the disaster 
about two o'clock; and, two hours after Sir W. Johnson demanded a 
surrender. That same evening, or on the following morning he com- 
plied ; but he has stated that he would not have done so had it not 
been ^or the mutiny of the Germans who formed a part of the 
garrison. On the 26th the garrison left the fort to be transported 
to New York. Thus was the power of the Fi-ench broken in the 
west, and the English became masters of the key to the North- 
west. 



d6 



SURRENDER OF CANADA. 



Tho following spring CJon. do L<Svlfl dotormlnod to mnko an 
effort to rotako (Juoboc, nnd upon tho 28th of April, tho plains of 
Abraham wore again rod with Mood, and tho British, under Gon. 
Murray, woro compollod to sook Hafoty within tho walls of tho city, 
whoro thoy woro bosiogod until tho 9th, when a British frigate 
arrived and gave succor. 

On tho 14th July (Ion. Murray, with a largo sailing force, 
commenood tho ascent of tho St. Lawronco. At tho same time 
Gen. Amherst, with a considerable force was commencing a descent 
from Oswego. Tho two woro thus advancing toward Montreal, 
each subduing on tho way such forts and garrisons as were doomed 
of sufficient importance. By tho first of Soptomber, the city of tho 
Eoyal Mountain, containing tho wreck of tho French army was 
encompassed on either hand. Tho Governor, upon tho night of tho 
6th, hold a council of war, at whichit was determined to capitulate. 
Tho celobratod act was signed on tho 8th September, 1760, and tho 
Bamo day tho English took possession of tho city. Thus Cannda 
passed into the possession of the British. Tho terms of capitula- 
tion were more favorable to the French than thoy had any reason 
to expect, and those terms have over boon fulfilled. 

Tho Governor, Gon. de Levis, tho ofHcors, and a largo number 
of men, women and children returned to France. At tho ^imo of 
tho taking of Montreal, thoro remained at Detroit some throe or 
four hundred families. This Fort and others around the lakes yet 
held b}' the French were surrendered to Major Rogers, a person 
again to be spoken of. The population according to the Governor, 
left of l^Vench origin, was 70,000. 

Tho Canadians who did not" return to France repaired to their 
homes and renewed their peaceful avocations. 

The first British Governor, Sir Jeffry Amherst, entered upon 
his functions 1763. 

Wo have now very cuf'sOf ily indeed, noticed tho history of the 
French Canadians up to the time they became British subjects. 
Wo have seen they did not willingly become such ; yet scarcely 
fifteen years were to pass away before their loyalty to the British 
flHg was to be tested ; not indeed to decide whether they should 
again become a part of France, rather than remain British, but 
whether their condition as Bi'itish subjects was so intolerable that 
they should seek other protection of a foreign origin. 

Wo shall see that although promises were held out of great 
political advantage they preferred to remain as they were. There 



THE I'RENCH IN AMERICA. 31 

remained in tho hcnrtM of th« Canadian French, not ho much n (\i»- 
liko to England as u dotcHtation to the Now Knj^landor. llonce it 
was that when the rebel banner was unfurled in 1770, with tho 
declaration of Americon Independence upon it, no Canadian rallied 
around it. Although commiHsionorB from tho rebel congroHS viHited 
them with honied wordH and fair proniiHcs, they received no friendly 
welcome. Tho Canadians regarded their old enen>icH as onemiei* 
still, and they turned their backs upon the revolting provinces and 
their faces toward old England for protection. Tho commissioners 
to the Cantulians, composed of Dr. Bonj. Franklin, Samuel Chase and 
Charles Carrol, with his brother, a Jesuit Priest were appointed to 
this mission, on the 15th February, 1776. The same Franklin 
who now offered tho French " freedom," had urged upon tho 
British in 1753 tho expediency of reducing Canada ! I 

For a century and a half Franco endeavored in vain to erect 
a power in America ; but shall wo say that it was all in vain ? 

The monument although broken, so far as Franco is concerned 
yet stands a lasting memorial of French energy, of religious fervor, 
stern dotermination, and indomitable valor. And, when tho wave of 
revolution passed ovei 'ho thirteen British Colonies, the column was 
conspicuous enough to be seen by refugees ; the protection Canada 
offered was sufficient for the homeless families of U. E. Loyalists. 
Canada was a sacred spot, although French. Jt constituted a 
nucleus, around which collected those who preferred order to 
rebellion. Those who had fought as opi^oncnts at Duquesno, at 
Niagara, at Frontenac, at Tyconderoga, and upon the Plains of 
Abraham, were Joined together. Tho heol, which had assisted to 
crush the Canadian French, now sought and found a resting place 
among those who had been overcome. Thus was to be laid the 
foundation of the Dominion of Canada, whoso future is to bo great. 
Stretching from seaboard to seaboard, it is destined to become, ere 
it has reached tho present age of tho United States, the Russia of 
America, with tho purest principles of government the world has 
ever known. 

We now approach tho period of time whon another element of 
discord was to appeai" among the races which inhabited Amei,*ica. 
Bloody Indian wars had in the past swept back and forth across 
the woody land, liival colonizers had resorted to strife, to extend 
territorial power. European weapons had been transported to 
wage wars of extermination. Conquest and subjugation of Indians 
and rivals had been witnessed j but now Eobellion, a term that has 



32 KKUKLLION uv 177G. 

received fVowli Hi^niflciuico In the lato civil war in the TJnllod 
StatUH, wuH to 1)0 initiatod. The BriliKh bloo<liin(i nionuy which had 
boon Ittvirthly Hpoiit for tho An^lo-Ainoricans, hiui only proparod 
thoHo coloniHlH to Huck othor advantu/y^oH. Tho Indiana hold in Muh- 
joction, tho Fronch conquorod, tho mothor country itnolf must now 
bocoorcod to givo full roin to tho Hpoilod and waywai*d oll'Hprin^'. 



—9— 



DIVISION I. 

THK UEDELLION OP 177G— THE THIRTEEN COLONIES. 
CHAPTER III. 

Contents : — Flrnt AmoricJin lU^bcllion — Indopcndcncc — TmitorR maflo HcrocH— 
LoyaUstH driven away t<> found anotht^r Colony — Tlie roHponHil)ility of 
rebelling — Treatment of the LoyaliHtK — Tho Hoveral (JolonioH — The first 
EnglJHhman in America— UecoivoH jElO — EnKliHli Colonization — Virginia— 
ConvictH — Extent of Virginia — BMrst Oovernor — Virginians not willing to 
rebel— Quota supplied to tho rebel army — New York — Hudson — Tho Dutch 
—New Netherlands — Price of New Amsterdam (Now York) — First Legisla- 
tive Assembly — Not quick to rebel— Quota of rebel troops — Oave many 
settlcrB to Upper Canada — New Jersey — Its settlement — A battle ground- 
Gave rebel troops ; also loyal troops — Furnished settlers to Upper Canada — 
Massachusetts — Captain Smith — New England Puritans — The " Mayflower" 
—First Governor — Cruel treatment of Indiana — Massachusetts takes the lead 
in rebelling — Troops — Loyalists — New Hampshire — Troops — Delaware — 
Settlement — Quota of rebel troops — Connecticut — Education — Troops- 
Roman Catholics — Toleration — Khode Island — Providence — Inconsistency 
of the Puritans — Roger Williams — North Carolina — Inhabitants — Soutli 
Carolina — Many loyalists — Pennsylvania — William Penn — Conduct toward 
Indians — The people opposed to rebellion — Georgia — Oglethorpe — Policy of 
England — New England. 

In the introductory chapters a brief sketch has been given of the 
settlement of America. We now approach the important events 
which belong to the first great American rebellion, which culminated 
in the Declaration of Independence by the thirteen British American 
Colonies, and terminated in the recognition of their independence by 
the parent State. The rebellion had resulted in a revolution, and 
traitors were made heroes ! 



Tlir, TiriKTKKN COLONIES. X\ 

It foriiiN a purl of t.lic prcst'iii iin<lcrtiikiii^' to i-fcord noiiumiI' the 
factH rolutivti to thu hU\\)h l»y wh'uih tlio now powcifiil rnitt-d StiitoH 
wer«, BH a wliolo, iiNhert'd into the nrrna of imtiotiK, and hy which n 
nrj^t' v\niiH of Ann'ricanH, true to thi-ir Uritinh alh-j^iaiur, wtsro ooin- 
iplhjd to Icavi) lh«'ir native country to fomid another (polony in tho 
northern wil(h'rneHH. To he juHfifled in reheiiini^' aifainst tlie eonsti- 
tuted anthoriticH tlier«f nniHt he the most eoj^ent reaNoriH ; to take up 
irias a;j[ainHt th(! Slatt' — to iiiitiutc a civil war, it* asHUtnin^ tliu most 
fearful (!onNe<|uenuoH. 

To present even a brief a'K'ount of tlie cireumstanoes which h-tl 
to the settlement of Upper Canada, it l)eeomcH necessary to dwell for 
a time upon the great rebellion of 17Y0, the result of which was ad- 
verse to those Americans who adhered to tlu! old flai^ imder which 
they had been born, had come to the new world, and had prospered ; 
i rebellion which was att<'nde<| and followed by piirsecution and vio- 
lence, imprisomnent and confiscation, banishment, and, too often, 
loath; which caused a streatn of refugee loyalists to set in toward tho 
wilderness of ('anada. 

At the time of tin; rebellion of the English (iolonists in America, 
tlioy consisted of thirteen provinces. Massachusetts, with her colony 
t Maine, New IFampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, 
Xew Jersey, remisylvania, J-)elaware, Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. It may be well to briefly 
notice these several states, and the part eacli took in tho war for In- 
iependence. 

The first Englishman to set foot upon the continent of America 
was John Cabot, who discovered Newfoundland, and probably tho 
ailjacent nuiinland, June 4, 149Y. Tho event is noticed in the Privy 
Purse expenditure thus : "1497, Aug. 10 — To liym that foimd tho 
lew Isle, jEIO," which seems to Imve been a grant for his services. 

■ vmcftNTA. ' , 

In the year 1578, Sir II. Gilbert endeavoured to establish a set- 
lemeut at the mouth of the lloanoke. P^ailing in his undertaking, 
lis half brother. Sir Walter Raleigh, made a similar effort tho foUow- 
ug year, which likewise failed. It was Sir Walter Riileigh who gave 
ihe name to Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth, the virgin Queen. A 
bird and successful effort was made to coloni/e in 1607-8, at Jamos- 
own. This dates the coraraencoment of English colonization of 
America. Some time later, America was looked upon as » country 



84 VIRGINIA — NEW YORK. 

quite beyond tho ]»alo of civilization, even as IJotany Bay was at a 
still later period; and in the year 1621, tho British Government 
transported to Virginia 100 cDnvicts. But notwithstanding, "Vir- 
ginia," to use the words of Morse's Geograpliy, " the birth-place of 
Washington, has given six Presidents to the Union." 

Tlie colony of Virginia was originally indefinite in its boundary; 
and, judging from old maps, it would seem to have included all of 
North America. But a map dated 1614 shows the more northern 
part as New England. The first Governor of Virginia eutere«l upon 
his duties in 1619. 

This State was by no means quick to sever the connection with 
the mother country. Many of her sons stood up for the crown, and 
very many families became refugees. Washington said of Virginia, 
in a letter, that " the people of Virginia will come reluctantly into the 
idea of independence." But in time, by the specious representations 
of Washington and others, the State produced a certain number of 
rebels. The quota demanded by the rebel congress was 48,522, She 
supplied, in 17V6, 6,181 ; and afterwards 20,491. 

NEW YORK. 

In the year 1609 Hendrick Hudson, an Englishman, in the 
employ of Holland, first explored the great river running through 
Now York State, which now bears his name. He, on behalf of the 
Dutch took possession of the country. Settlement first took place 
in 1614, and by 1620, a considerable colony was planted. The 
island of Manhatten, where now stands New York City, was honestly 
purchased of the Indians for twenty-four dollars. The village thus 
founded was called New Amsterdam, and the colony was designated 
New Netherlands. 

Having been taken by the English in 1674, tho name of the 
territor}'- was changed to New York, aftar James, Duke of York, 
brother to Charles II. The first Legislative Assembly for this 
Province, met in New York, 17th October, 1683, just one hundred 
years before Upper Canada began to bo settled. 

The State of New York was not among the foremost in rebelling. 
Tho Dutch element which prevailed, was not given to change. 
Some of the most exciting events and battles of the war were 
enacted in this State. Eight royally did the people take iTp arms 
against the robolh and drive Wa.shington from Manhatten. Batta- 
lions and rogimonts were repeatedly raised and organized in this 
State. The valleys of tho Mohawk and Hudson became historic 



NEW JERSEY — MASSACHUSETTS. 35 

grounds, nero was witnessed the ignoble failure of Burgoyno's 
Campaign, which was the commencement of the decline of British 
power ; ami the City of New York was the last ground of the States 
occupied by British troops, until the war of 1813. New York 
furnished troops for the rebel cause, in 1775, 2,075 ; in 1776, 3,G2[) ; 
and subsequently 12,077. 

Of all the States, New York gave the largest number of 
pioneers to Upper Canada. 

NEW JERSEY. 

New Jersey was settled in 1620 by the Dutch and Swedes. 
Having been taken by the English, it was given by Charles II. to 
the Duke of York. Retaken by the Dutcirin 1673, it was bcmght 
by Wm. Penn and liis friends. At one time it was divided into 
East Jersey and West Jersey, East Jersey belonging to Penn. 
Ib 1702 the two Jersies were united under one government, and 
received the name of New Jersey. 

Upon the grounds of this State were fought some of the most 
decisive battles of the war. 

Of the Rebel troops Jersey supplied in 1676, 3,193. The quota 
required afterwards was 11,596-of which she granted 7,534. But 
Jersey also gave a large number of Royal troops. 

New Jersey furnished a good many settlers to Upper Canada, 
of whom one of the most distinguished is the Ryerson fan^ly 
Many of the settlers along the bay retain interesting traditions of 
their Jersey ancestry. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

The territory of this State was originally discovered by the 
Cabots in 1497, anJ visited by Capt. John Smith in 1614, by whom it 
Avassaid to have been named NewEngland. Itconsisted of the jiresent 
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connec- 
ticut, and Massachusetts. In 1620, upon 22nd December, the 
Puritan Fathers landed upon the Plymouth Rock, some 30 miles 
from Boston, and planted the first of the New England States. 
The " Mayflower," by which they had traversed the Atlantic was 
only 180 tons burden. She sailed from Southhampton with 102 
emigrants. Half of this number died from cold and hardship the 
first year. They selected for their first Elder one John Garner, 
who as chief officer had great control. He has consequently been 
called the first Governor of 'ifew England. The territory had been 
granted by James I. to the '< Plymouth Company." Althoucrh the 



36 NEW HAMPSHIRE — DELAWARE — CONN. 

Puritans had left their homes because they did not enjoy their 
rights, they forgot the Golden Rule in their forest homes. They 
failed to remember that the Indian had rights. The untutored 
native thought he had a right to the soil, and as the Puritans? 
unlike Ponn, were umvilling to recognize his rights, but undertook 
to appropriate the territory, there ensued bloody Indian wars. 
The Puritan revenged himself, and the native retail iated. So, for 
many years border massacres were common and terrible. 

Massachusetts with the other New England States, took the 
lead in rebellion, and by great pains succeeded in indoctrinating 
the midland and«Southern States. The first blood of the rebellion 
was shod in this State, at Lexington and Bunker Hill. The State 
supplied troops in 1775, 16,444 ; in 1776, 13^72. The quota subse- 
quently required was 52,728, of which 38,091 was furnished. 

But Massachusetts had not a few true-hearted loyalists of whom 
a considerable number became settlers in Upper Canada. At the 
evacuation of Boston " 1,100 retreated in a body with the Eoyal ai-my. 
Altogether there left Massachusetts at least 2,000 United Empire 
Loyalists." The Colony of Maine also had a good many adherents 
of the crown — (Sabine.) 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

This Province was first colonized by emigrants from Hamp- 
shire, England, in 1623. Subsequently it was peopled by English 
fron4 other parts, and by Scotch. 

New Hampshire supplied in 1775, 2,824 troops; in 1776, 3,012. 
Her quota was [10.194. Granted 6,653. We are at the same time 
assured by Sabine that New Hampshire had many and powerful 
opponents of rebellion. 

DELAWARE. 

Delaware was originally settled by Swedes and Finlanders in 
1627. Became a part of New Netherlands in 1655, and in 1664 fell 
■ to the English. It was included in the grant of Wm. Penn in 1682, 
In 1701 it was erected into a colony for legislative purposes. 

She supplied rebel troops in 1776, 609. Her quota fixed was 
3,974. Supplied 1,778. -vi;-.r -v ' ',\: ' 

.■,'..•,• -v. ,,-.Tvv.r.-> :-; CONNECTICUT. .'/"''' 

Connecticut was first occupied by emigrants in 1631. The 
Charter was granted by Charles II., which continued in existence 
until 1818, when fitjjyas superseded by the existing constitution. 
Connecticut " has uniformily been a nursery of educated men of 



MARYLAND — RHODE ISLAND. 37 

every class " for the Union. And, it may bo added, a number found 
their way to Ui)per Canada, as school teachers, subsequent to the 
Revolution. And there was a certain number of the people of Con- 
necticut among the Loyalists. Sabine says a good many. 

This State furnished for the rebel war in 1775, 4,507; in 1776. 
6,390. The quota fixed was 28,336, of which was given 21,142. 

MARYLAND. 

Maryland was granted to the second Lord Baltimore, a Roman 
Catholic, by Queen Mary, in 1632 or 4. He colonized the Province 
with a company of Co-religionists of the higher class of English 
gentry. It was named after the English Queen, Henrietta Maria. 
" In 1649, it was made, as has been well said, ' a land of sanctuary,' 
by the toleration of all religious denominations, but the Puritans, 
expelled from Virginia, made great trouble in the Colony." 

The State supplied troops in 1776, 637. Quota fixed by congress 
26,608, of which she supplied 13,275. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Massachusetts, planted by Puritans, who came to secure liberty 
of conscience, would not allow certain individuals in their midst to 
enjoy like religious liberty, and hence the foundation of Rhode 
Island. Providence, its original name, was^ thus significantly called, 
because here the Baptists, under Roger Williams (oppressed by the 
Puritans of Plymouth), found a pi'ovidential asylum. Tliis was in 
1636. In how short a time (16 years) had the oppressed learned to 
act oppressively ! 

A charter was granted to Roger Williams in 1642. The govern- 
ment continued to exist under this charter until 1842, a period of 200 
years. 

Rhode Island gave troops to the number of 1,193 in iTVo, and 
798 ill 1776. Quota demanded, 5,094 ; furnished 3,917. 

• •• NORTH CAROLINA. ;, ■ < • ■ 

This colony was planted in 1653 by the older colony of Virginia 
The colony at first included both North and South Carolina, which 
continued until 1693, when the south part was erected into a sejjarate 
colony, under the name of South Caiolina. The inhabitants of North 
Carolina consisted, in part, of refugees from England at the overthrow 
of the Stuarts. These mainly remained loyal to the crown, and were 
destined to again become refugees. At the commencement of the 



38 CAROLINA — PENNSYLVANIA. 

rebellion the peo})Ie of this colony were about equally divided between 
the adherents of the crown, and the rebels. The loyalists were a 
devoted band. At the same time, the rebels — at least some of them — 
took extreme steps. They formally demanded a separation from 
Great Britain in May, 1175, fourteen months before the 4th July 
declaration of 1776. The State provided, in 1776, 1,134 rebel troops. 
The quota asked for was 23,994, but only 6,129 was granted. 



rp 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

South Carolina was first settled in 1070. 

"The great body of the people were emigrants from Switzerland, 
Germany, France, GreatBritain, and the northern colonies of America, 
and their descendants, and were opposed to a separation from the 
mother country;" yet South Carolina furnished troops for the rebel- 
lion, in 1776, to the number of 2,069. Subsequently she gave 4,348 ; 
although her quota, as fixed by Congress, was 16,932. 

In this colony, were many who could not see the justice of a 
rebellion. Yankee descendants may say they "bowed their necks to 
the yoke of colonial vassalage," but it was a wise spirit of conserva- 
tism which is expressed in the desire to " look before you leap." 
" Persons who had refused to enlist muler the whig banner, flocked to 
the royal standard by hundreds." " Sir Henry Clinton informed the 
British Government that the whole State had submitted to the royal 
arms." This general attachment to the British crown made the rebels 
vindictive and bloodthirsty, and they sought to drive away the loyal 
and peacable by a vengeful shedding of blood. Consequently, the 
tories retaliated, and Chief Justice Marshall said, " the whigs seem 
determined to extirpate the tories, and the tories the whigs ; some 
thousands have fallen in this way in this quarter." " Being almost 
equally divided, reciprocal injuries had gradually sharpened their 
resentment against each other, and had armed neighbour against 
neighbour, until it became a war of extermination." Now, it is sub- 
mitted that rebellion can hardlj'' be justified when the people are so 
equally divided. Sabine remarks that *' after the fall of Charleston, 
and until the peace, the tories were in the ascendant." 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

This splendid colony was granted to AVilliam Penn, the Quaker 
-lid philanthrophist,who was the son of Sir William Penn, an eminent 
English admiral. Sir William held a claim against the British 
government for £'16,000 ; and, some time after his death, his son 



HYLVANIA. 89 

liavintr his attention dircclo.; lo llio new wDvld, ohtaincil. in lieu 
of tliat amount, the i-raiit of land now i'orniin<jf tliis State. The 
charter was granted by Charles II. in 1081. Penn songlit the new 
world to escape the persecutions inflicted upon liini at homo. This 
he had brouglit ujmn himself, by freely expressinji his decided sec-- 
tarian views, and by writings, disseminating tlie teachings of George 
Fox, also by attacking the Established Church. He was rei)eatedly 
imprisoned in the Tower, and even in Newgate for six months. I'enn, 
on procuring the grant of land, determined to make it " a home for 
his co-religionists, where they might preach and practice their con- 
victions in unmolested peace." To the territory he gave the name of 
Sylvania; but afterwards King Charles insisted that Penn should be 
prefixed, making it Pennsylvania. Penn sailed from England, with 
several friends, in August, 1682. On reaching America he found 
that some Swedes amd Finns had settled along the banks of the Del- 
aware. Although Penn had a charter by which he could possess the 
land, yet, as an European, he did not forget the original and rightful 
owners of the soil. Penn's conduct in this respect stands out in strik- 
ing conti-ast to the course pursued by the Puritans. It was on the 
30th November, 1682, that William Penn held his famous interview 
with the Indian tribes, when he ettected a straightforward treaty 
with them, never to be broken or disturbed, so that he secured per- 
petual peace and respect. By this humane course with the Indians, 
and by encouraging emigration of all classes, securing to them the 
fullest liberty of conscience by a wis constitution, he succeeded, 
with his co-religionists, in building up a most flourishing colony. 
Subsequently the population was enlarged by numerous accessions 
from Scotland and Germany. 

The government of Pennsylvania was proprietary, and continued 
such until the revolution swept away the charter, and made the chil- 
dren of WilUam Penn outcasts from the land they and their fathers 
had made fertile. At the time of the revolution, John Penn, son of 
Richard Penn, who was the grandson of William Penn, was the Gover- 
nor of the colony. He, with the masses of the people in the middle 
States, was opposed to tlie rebellion. It is said there were tliousands 
01 loyalists in this State who desired and offered to serve the crown, 
but whose services were lost through bungling by those in office. 
Yet the State gave troops to the rebel cause ; 400 in 1*775, and in the 
following year 5,519. The quota allotted was 40,416; granted, 
19,689. ..,1 ji: ..ui. .u-.i -....-,v-- . -.-Y.nr:vr- .. :v^,.,-v.. 



40 OEOROIA— NEW ENGLAND. 

OEOROIA. 

This was the last of the thirteen colonics CRtablisherl. The 
founder was Oglethorpe, who eiFected a settlement in 1773, and who 
lived to see the colony a State. The colonists landed at Charleston in 
January, 1733. 

When the rebellion broke out, this colony was " justly regarded 
as highly loyal." She refused to send delegates to the first rebel 
congress ; "and that she was represented in the second was owing to 
the zeal of a native of Connecticut, Dr. Seymour Hall. It required 
time and labour to organize a party of * liberty men ' to complete the 
Confederacy." The number of troops supplied in 1775 was 350 ; the 
quota was fixed at 3,974, and there was suppHed 2,328. 

The history of England between the periods when Virginia and 
Georgia, the oldest and youngest of the colonies bat rebelled, were 
founded, was one of turmoil and strife, of religic .is contentions and 
civil war ; and the colonists cast off during this hundred years car- 
ried with them, across the Atlantic, heartfelt bitterness, and many of 
them no little passion for evil. Notwithstanding, we have seen that 
the Southern States, with Pennsylvania and New York, did not seek 
to divide their connection with the parent State. It was generally 
admitted that the policy of England towards them "had been mild — 
perhu])s liberal." But, as we have seen, iMew England, with a few 
malcontents in other states — envious office-seekers, managed to dissem- 
inate the principles of rebellion — principles that New Englaiul has 
quite forgotten in her treatment of the South. 

NEW ENGLAND, 

Of the aforementioned colonies, they all had received and had 
secured to them by charter, from an indulgent mother country, gov- 
ernments of the most liberal nature. Civil and religious liberty were 
fully enjoyed. Says Mr. Sabine : " Virtually, republican cliarters ; 
subject only to the appointment of a governor on the part of the" 
Crown. Every colony was, practically, a State within itself ; and it 
is a suggestive fact that the very earliest assertion of legislative sujie- 
riority on the part of the mother country only operated negatively, 
by forbidding every colony to make laws repugnant to those of 
England." 

Certain of the British colonies were, together, called "New 
England," and since the Independence they are known as the New 
England States. They consist of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 



AMERICAN WRITERS. 41 

chusetts, Elu)(lo Island, Connecticut, and Maine, whicli was tlien a 
colony of MaasachuHotta. This region was granted by James I. to 
the Plymouth Company in 160(5. It was called North Virginia, but 
it was changed some years later, before it was actually settled. It 
wa« the people of those States to whom the term "Yankee" was ori- 
ginally applied ; and now, in the United States this epithet is used 
solely in reference to these States ; but in Canada and England the 
word is applied very generally to :ill Americans. The origin of the 
word Yankee is probably traceable to the Indian appellation " Yengee,'' 
for English, or Anglais, after tiie French. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

CONTKNTS :— American Writors—Sabine— Loyalists had no time to wasto—Inde- 
pencionce not Bought at first—AdaniB— Franklin— Jay— Jefforson—Washin'^- 
ton— MadiRon—The British Oovernment— Ingratitude of the Colonists-"- 
1 axation — Smugglers — Crown Officers — Persistance— Superciliousness— 
Contest between Old England and New England. 

It is most refreshing to one who has been accustomed to see 
American school books, and even religious American tracts thickly 
strewn with the most fulsome self-praise, and wordy accounts of Bri- 
tish tyranny, and of American purity and valor ; to read the speeches, 
and listen to 4th of July orators, who, with distorted history and 
hifalutin panogyi-ies, have not ceased to wrap their country in a 
blazing sheet of glory. After suffering all this, ad nmiseum, it is most 
agreeable to road the writings of one American author upon the 
Mibjoct of their Independence, who can do some justice to the 
Loyalists. Reference is made to Lorenzo Sabine, the author of 
"Royalists of the. American Revolution." Considering the 
prejudices which exist throughout the United States against every 
thing British, and the over-weening vanity of the people in respect 
to the success which crowned their ettbrts to dismember the British 
Empire; it is a matter for grateful recognition that a native of 
^ew England should take iTp his pen to write redeeming words on 
behalf of the Loyalists whom they had been taught to stigmatize, 
to be read by his fellow countrymen. Living upon the borders, 



42 WHAT THE PKOPLK WISHED. 

boyond which ho could soo tho Hcttlod rofuKooH workini^' out Ihoir 
destiny, under iwlvorso circuinstiuu'.os,und hiyin^ thu Ibuiidationot'ii 
nation, ho look up hin i)on, wliilo tho U|)|)or (JaiiudiunH were yol 
8trUf,'MiinK with tho forest, und without time to {gather uj) the ro(!oriis 
of their wroni^s, their losses, their persecutions, and inoro than all, 
the malicious charges aj^ainst them ; and hiu-1 them back at thoir 
Iniducers. On behalf of .those who will accept tho writer as a 
representative of tlu^ United Knii)ire Loyalists, ho thanks Lorenzo 
Sabine, iov what he has said, lle.has said nothing hut tho substantial 
truth in our favor, and in saying that, lie has said very much, hi 
his prefatory remarks, after referring to thoir deficiency of know- 
lodge of the " Tories " ho says . '< Tho reason is obvious. Men who, 
like tho Loyalists, separate themselves from ^thoir friends and 
kindred, who are driven from thoir homos, who surrender the hopes 
und expectations of life, and who become outlaws, wanderers, and 
exiles,— such men leave few memorials behind them. Thoir pajtors 
are scattered and lost, and their very names pass from human 
recollections." 

Before considering tho question, whether tho American colonies 
were justified in takingjan extreme stop ; it is most necessary to 
state that, at tho first there were but an insignificant number of th 
colonists who hold the belief that armed rebellion was demanded 
Even among those who, with no mild-toned language denounced th 
mother country for enacting laws oppressive to tho commerce and 
industry of tho Americans, no one was found to advocate separation; 
on the contrary to use tho words of Sabino " Tho denial that inde- 
pendence was tho final object, gwas constant and general. To obtain 
concessions and preserve the connection with England, was affirmed 
everywhere ; and John Adams,gyoars after the peace, went further 
than this, for ho said ' There waslnot a moment during the RevoMm 
when I ivouUl not have given everything J possessed for a restoration t) 
the state of things before the contest began, provided ice could have hada 
sufficient security for its 'continuance: Again, Franklin's testimony, 
a few days before the affair at Loxingto\i, wjis, that he had "more 
than once travelled from one end of tho continent to tho other, and 
kept a variety of company, eating, drinking, and conversing with 
them freely, and never had heard in any conversation from any person 
drunk or sober, the least expression of a wish for separation, or a hint 
that such a thing would be advantageous to America'' Mr. Jay is 
quite as explicit. "During the course of my life and until the 



le 



iC 



RELATION BETWEEN PARENT STATE AND COLONY. 43 

second ])cliti()n of Conpfross in 1775, / neoer did hear an American of 
any class, of any description, cvpress a wish for the independence of the 
colonics. It luvs ahvays, uiid .still in, my opinion and holiof, that our 
country wuh iM-ompted and inii)ollod to indopcndcnco by necessity, 
and not by choice." Says Mr. Jetioi-son, " What, eastward of Now 
Yorlv, might havo l)oon tho dis|)OHitions toward Enghmd bolero the 
comnuMiconiont of ho.stilitios, I Icnow not, but before that I novor 
hoanl a whisper of n disposition to separate from (Jreat Britain, and 
after that, its possibility was contomplated with aftliction by all," 
Washington, in 1774, sustainod these doclaratioi.H, and, in tho 
"Fairfax County Resolves" it was complained, that ''malevolent 
falsehoods'' were i)ropagated by tlio ministry toprejudico tho mind 
of tho king ; particularly that thoro is an intention in tho American 
colonies to set vp for independent States; and Washington expressed 
a wish that the " dispute might bo left to posterity to determine." 
Mr. Madison was not in public life until May, 177G, but ho says, 
"It has always been my impression, that a re-establishment of the 
colonial relations to tho parent country, as they were previous to the 
controversy, was tho real object of every class of tho people, till the 
despair of obtaining it." 

Tho testimony of these Fathers of tho Republic, cannot bo 
impeached ; and, wo must, therefore, seek for tho cause of tho 
rebellion in some other place. Wo havo soon how tho Jiritish 
colonies wore planted^ In connection with thom, two loading 
influences may bo discovered constantly at work, one of a personal 
nature ; tho other referring to tho State. Individuals would not 
sever the ties of homeship and bravo the wide ocean, to expose 
themselves to the varied dangers of tho wilderness, did they not 
have good reason'to expect due returns. Tho Governmont would 
not afford ships and means to send her sons to distant shores, unless 
the colony would become serviceable to tho parent State. Tho 
British Government had enabled many a hardy son to lay tho 
foundation for substantial wealth. More than all, tho colonies of 
America had been assisted to put under their foot their French 
rival. For their benefit tho Crown expected, and undertook to 
enforce some tribute. But tho colonists would not recognize the 
right of the Crown to tax them for their labor. For all tho British 
Government had done for the colonies, for all the money spent, 
she required that the colonists should bo taxed. Laws were 
enacted, and officers and revenue collectors appointed to enforce tho 
laws. It was required that these colonies should not trade, with- 



44 BMUOOLINO. 

out cortiiin rostrictionm, with foreign natioiiH; but tho inorcluvnlh 
of MasHftchUMcrts, huviriff fistod tho Hwootw of unrostrictod trado 
wore UTiwillin/^ to pay n>voniu> to tho Crown, although tradiiii.' 
nndor tho protjction of tho ({ritiwh flag. And ho it cumo that when 
royal col'octorn of ciiHtomH woro sont out; when mon of war 
coasted tho Nhoros of. MaHsachuwettM to provont smuggling, liy 
Hancock and others, there was no disposition to suhraitto Imperial 
taxation. For years the law relating to revenue had heen a dead 
letter almost, the smugglers having used hush money. Hut at last 
Government determined to put down illieit trade, it is true tlie 
co'onies did not object without a special plea, which was *' no taxa- 
tion without representation." But tho real point-* at issue were 
whether contraband commerco should continue and increaso, or 
tho Crown receive the duos- demanded by law. 'Nine-tentb 
probably, of all the tea, wine, fruit, sugar and niolasses, consumed 
in the colonies w<'i-o smuggled. To put this down was the dotir- 
mined purpose of the ministry. Tho commanders of the ships ot 
war on tho American station wore accordingly commissioned a> 
offlcers of tho cistoms ; and, to quicken their zeal, they wore tn 
share in tho proceeds of tho confiscations ; tho courts to decide 
upon tho lawfulness of seizures, were to bo composed of a sinfj'k' 
judge, without a jury, whwe emoluments were to bo derived from 
his own condeni'iations ; tho Governors of tho colonies and tin' 
military oiflcers were to be rewarded for "their activity by swear- 
ing also, either in the pi'operty condemned, or in tho penalties 
annexed to tho interdicted trado." And was not thei Crown correct 
in enforcing laws intended for the public woal ? Il'id hostile fleets 
approached Boston harbour to inviide, instead of smuggling crafts, 
freighted with liLxuries, would not the colonist have called loudly 
for Imperial help to protect ? B'lt if the Govoinmont had the bcs 
of rights to onforco the laws, it certainly displayed much want of 
judgment in the mode adopted to carry out its demands. Tl 
foregoing, from S ,bine, recalls to us at once the canse why resist- 
ance was strenuously male. Tho mode of pay'ng their Crown 
officers was \vell calculated to kindle feelings of the most deter- 
mined opposition on the part of the illicit traders, such as John 
Hancock, .'ohn Langdon, Samuel Adams, William Whipjdc, Cleorge 
C'ymer, Stephen Hopkins, Fi'ancis Lou's, Philip Livingston. 
Eldridge 'Tcrry, Joseph Hewes, George Tajior. Roger Sherman, 
Button Gurnett, and Robert Morris, all signers of the declaration 
of independence, — all smugglers I 



REAL OAUHK OF REUELLION. 45 

And thus it caino alxmt. Tlio Crown was dotorminod to exact 
taxos, and i^niorant of tho fooling of tlio colonists; and tlio 
colonists, grown rich by unroHlrictcd trade- by Hn»ug/,'IinK. ^'ntcrod 
into a contract, which was only to ond in diHniombcrnicnt of tho 
British Enipiro. Side issues wore raised, cries of oppression 
hhouted, tho love of liberty invoked and epithets bandied ; but 
they wore only for etfoct.to inllanie the public mind, of which there 
was much wavering. Of course, there were oiher things whic'i 
asHistod to ripen rebellion, at least were so represented, that they 
nddod to tho growing discontent. (.'olonios, when they have 
lecomo developed by age, and powerful by local circumstances, 
ivillnaturally lose the interest which animates the subject at home. 
It is in the nature of things that the love of country should gradu- 
ally ciiange from the old home to the new. The inhabitants of the 
colonies wore in iruvny cases but descondanls of J^^uropoan nations, 
who could not bo oxpet-ted to retain the warmest attachment to 
tho parent country. Tho tide of war had changed the allegiance 
of many a one. The heterogeneous whole could not be called 
English, and honco it was more easy to cast aside the noble fooling 
;illod patriotism. Then there were jealousies of rhe Crown oiHcors, 
and everything undertaken by the home government, having tho 
iippoarance of change, was promptly suspected as bcdng intended 
to degrade them. The e.xclusivoness of tho regular army and 
superciliousness to tho provincial troops, during the French war, 
aused nmny a sting, and the thought of insult to the provincial 
officer remained to rankle and fester in the mind of many a mili- 
tary aspirant. Tho proposal to introduce Episcopal Bishops, to 
^'ivo precedence to the Established Church, had its oftoct upon 
many, yot many of the non -conformists were equally loyal. 

Tho contest was originally between Now England and Old 
England. While the Middle and Southern States were for peace, 
or moderate measures, the north sedulously worked to stir up strife 
n- disseminating specious statoiiionts and spreading abroad partisan 
entiments. Massachusetts took the load. Founded by Puritans, 
[who, themselves were the most intolerant bigots and became the 
greatest persecutors America has seen,) these States possessed the 
proper elements with which to kindle discontent. 

Thus -,ve have learned that independence was not the primary 
object of revolt, and wo have seen that the leaders in rebellion 
ifere princii>ally New Englanders, and were actuated mainly by 
mercenary motives, unbounded selfishness and bigotry. 



46 TIIK MOTIVKM. 



('irAt»TKR V. 

(.'ontcnlc ; — Tim Hlf^noiH of tli«i Dctliimtloii <>( IrHli'inTidciui — Tliiir rmtivlty— 
Injimtlci^ (if AiiK'iii'ftn wrltfiH for ho vi-iirM — i'lwi Imck iiiiH-Mtiitcmt'ntH — 'I'lu' 
wliiKH liiid lutdi II. K. l.oyiiliMtM — llumcdk— Olllin-Mi-ckurN — MiilcoiittntM Htir 
lip Htiift — Whiit till! futlioiH of till! Ilt|iiil)lic fr)iij,'lit for— lli'lud conimittiu'H— 
IMiick nmil— OtiK, .lolin Adimis, Wiukmi, VViihliiiiKtoii, II«!iuy, l''riiiikliii— 
What cttiiHcd tlii'iii to rtilicl — VVliiit the Aiiirricaii rovohitioiiiiry Ihmih-h ik tii- 
ally wcri' — ('niclty, iliiriiin luid iiftor tlu' win— No frnodoiii — Tlio politiciil 
inJHtftk*' of till' rclii'lH iniilicimtijiK till' loynllNls — The coiiHoiinuncf! — Mi»tlv<n 
of tilt! loyrtliKtH — FiiIhi' rhurKi'M — ('oiiMrit-ntioiiH conHcrviitivi'H — KclM'lllon not 
wiiniinttid — Altiirliim-iit to tin- old IIuk — Loyalintu drivni iiwuy — Sup/irmntn 
i<,,i — Wiiiit of iioiili' rtpirit toNviirdrt tins Smith — Ktl'citH — CoiiipiiriHoii bi-twiii'ii 
loyaliBtH mid ri'beln — Ediuution — Utdlgion — Tlio noiitriil— Tho piofi'MnioiiH. 

Of the tifty-Hix rtignorH of tho Dpclanition of Trulopendomo 
niiio were born in Ma«Hat' lm.se LtH, Movon in Virj^iniu, nix in Miiry- 
liuul,Hvo in Connocticut, foui' in Now Jcrwoy, four in I'onnwylvuniii, 
four in South Curolinu, three in New York, three in Delaware, two 
in Ilhode Ishinil, one in Maine, three in Ireland, two in Kngiantl, 
two in Sc'othmd, and one in WaloH. Of these twenty-one were 
attornieH; ten niei-chantH; four phyMiciaiis; three farmers ; ono 
clergyman; ono printer ; and ten men of fortune. 

TIIK MO'flVKS. 

But lot us more carefully couHidor tho motives in connection 
with tho rebellion of '76. So awHiduously have our fathorS; tho IJ. 
E. Loyalists, been braruled by most American writers ns altogether 
base, that it becomes us to ca«t bacrk tho mis-statements — to tear 
away the specious covering of tho American i-ovolutionary heroes, 
and throw the sunlight of truth upon their character, and dispel 
tho false, foul stigma, which tho utterances of eighty years have 
essayed to fasten upon tho noble band of Loyalists. 

Up to 1776, tho whigs as well as the torios wore United Em- 
pire Loyalists ; and it was only when tho king's forces required 
taxes; wlion the colonists were requested no longer to smuggle; 
when they could not dispossess the tories of the power and emolu- 
ments of office — it Was only then that the Declaration of Indopcn- 
denco was signed by those more ]>articularly interested. John 
Hancock, whoso name stands first upon tho document, in such bold 
characters, had been a successful smuggler, whereby he had 
acquired his millions, and no wonder ho staked his thousands on 
tho issue. Evidence is not wanting to show that many of the 
leaders of tho rebellion, had they boon holders of office, would have 



REVOHrxioNARY HEHOK!*. ' 47 

l»con »H IriM' to tlio MritiHli Crowi) aw \vor« (Iiomo wlmin tlicy envied. 
Evi'ry nmn who took piirt on tho rolx'l hU\> has Ih'oii written ti 
[uM'o; hilt it in jiHkin^ too much to riKiiu'st uh to holievi' that all tho 
holdoi'H of'olHeo woro baHo, uiul h)st to tho t'oolin|i^H ot natural indo- 
piin<lonci! and patriotisni ; tnoro oHpct-ijillj' when a iar^e proportion 
of iheni woro, a<lniitto<ily, educated and relijuinus uwu; whiU', on 
the contrary, tho rehoU ah)no woro ucfuatod hy palriotinni and tho 
iKthler foolin^H of manhood. Apart from tho moritH or demerits of 
lliuir canso, it must ho udntittod that tho cireumstaneos of the 
times force upon us tlio thought that a comparatively fwvv needy 
otHcc-seokers, or lookors-after other favors from the Crown, not 
boin^' ahle to olitnin tho h)aveH atid Hshos, lio^an to stir up stilfo. 
A few, possessed of suflScient education, ijy the aid of the wealtliy 
contraband traders, woi'e (Muiblod, by jxtpular st«nsational speechos 
iiiui infhimmatory pamplilots, to arouse the feeling's of tlio unedu- 
cated ; and, finally, to create such a current of political hatred to 
tho Crown that it could not be stayed, and which swept away the 
tics that naturally attached them to (Ireat Britain. 

Wo may easily imagine the surprise which many ox])orienced 
in after days, when the war Iwul ended and their independence was 
acknowledged, to find thomselvos heroes, and their names c(jm- 
memorated as fathers of their country ; whereas they had foui^ht 
only for money or plunder, or smuggled goods, or because they 
had not office. In tiot a few cases it is such wlioso names have 
served for the high-sounding fourth of July orators ; for the bun- 
combo speochitier and tho tlii)pant editor, to base their eulogistic 
momoriams. Undoubtedly there are a few entitled to tho place 
they occupy in the temple of fame ; but the vast majority seeni to 
have boon actuated by mercenary motives. We have authenticated 
cases whoro prominent individuals took sides with the rebels be- 
cause they wore disappointed in obtaining oliice ; and innumerable 
instances whoro wealthy persons woro arrested, ostensibly on sus- 
picion, and compelled to pay large tines, and then set at liberty. 
No feudal tyrant of Eurojje in tlie olden times enforced black mail 
from the traveller with less compunction than rebel "committees" 
exacted money from wealthy individuals who desired simply to 
remain neutral. o '.»;>» f > u, . 

It has been said that Otis, a name revered by the Americans, 
actually avowed that he ** would set Massachusetts in a flame, 
though he should porish in tho tiro." For Avhat ? Not because he 
wanted liberty, but because his father was not appointed to a vacant 



48 ' REBELS AND TORIES IN THE BALANCE. 

judgeship ! It is alleged that John Adams was at a loss which 
side to take, and finally became a rebel because ho was refused a 
commission in the peace ! It is said that Joseph Warren was a 
broken-down man, and sought, amid the turmoil of civic strife, to 
bettor his condition, And the immortal Washington, it is related, 
and has never boon successfully contradicted, was soured against 
the mother county because he was not retained in the British army 
in reward for his services in the French war. Again, Eichard 
Henry vvjis disappointed in not receiving the office of stamp distri- 
butor, which he solicited. Franklin was vexed because of opposi- 
tion to his great land projects and plans of settlement on the Ohio. 
Indeed it is averred that mostly all the prominent whigs who sided 
with the rebels were young men, with nothing to lose and every- 
thing to gain by political changes and civil war. Thus it will be 
seen that the so-called American revolutionary heroes have not al- 
together clean hands, however much they may have been washed 
by their descendants. The clothing placed upon them may conceal 
the dirt and dross and blood, but they are indelibly there. 

It is not alone the motives which constituted the mainsprings 
of the rebels' action that we place in the balance, but their conduct 
towards thoso who differed from them. Individual instances of 
cruelty we shall have occasion to introduce ; but it may here be 
said that it was the tories wlio acted as the conservators of peace 
against a mobocracy, and consequently were made to suffei' great 
afflictions. It was because of this they were forced away to live 
and die as aliens to the land of their birth. The tories were Ameri- 
cans as well as the whigs ; and when at last Great Britain ceased 
to try to coerce the colonies, and their independence Avas secured, 
then a nobler spirit should have obtained among the conquerors, 
and no one, because he had conscientiously been a conservative, 
should have been treated with opprobrium. It always becomes the 
victorious to bo generous ; and we, with all respect to many Amer- 
ican friends, submit that, had patriotism alone actuated the revolu- 
tionary party, the American loyalists would have been invited to 
join with the whigs in erecting a mighty nation. Had freedom, 
indeed, been the watchword then, as it has flauntingly been since, 
it would have been conceded that the tory had a right to his opinion 
as well as the whig to his. Do the Americans descant upon the 
wisdom and far-seeing policy of those who signed the Declaration 
of Independence and framed the constitution of the Union ? Mon- 
roe, we doubt not, had a different opinion when he begot the doc- 



MOTIVES OF LOYALISTS. 49 

trijie "Amon'ca for tlio Amon'cans." Hud the U. E. Loyalists been 
treated honorably ; had they hcen allowed but thoir rights • had 
they not been driven away ; then the name British American would 
forever have passed away; and instead of a bolt of British province^ 
on thoir north, to constitute a ceaseless cause of misun.lerstandin.r 
with England, the star-spangled banner would, doubtless, long ago"* 
have peacefully floated over all our land. Looking at the subject 
from this (an Aj^ierican) stand-point, we see that a shortsighted 
pohcy-a vindictive feeling, a covetous desire for the property of 
the tones— controlled the movements of the hour; and when the 
terms of peace wore signed the birthright of the American tory was 
signed away, and he became forever an alien. But, as we shall see 
he, in consequence, became the founder of a Province which like a 
rock, has resisted, and ever will resist, the northward extension 
of the United States. 

MOTIVES OP THE LOYALISTS. 

Whatever may have been the incentives to rebellion, yielded 
to by those who revolted, there cannot rest upon the mind of the 
honest reacfer of unbiassed history a doubt as to the motives of the 
loyalists. The home-spun eulogists of the United States revolution- 
ary soldier have never ceased to dwell upon the principles which 
bred the ; roasts of the patriots, and nerved thoir arms to deeds' of 
danng and successful warfare; all the time observing Hileuce res- 
pecting the bravery of those who, from the same walks of life 
er^aged in the strife as the determined antagonists to rebellion' 
Ihey have again and again charged upon the "king's men " that it 
was because they were servants of the Crown and feeders at the 
government stall that loyalty was assumed and fought for But 
facts, when allowed to stand out uncovered by the cant of 
hberatists, declare, in words that may not be gainsayed, that there 
were a vast number who held no ajipointment under the Crown yot 
who, from first to last, were truo-natui-ally true-to their king and 
country. The great mass were essentially conservatives, Called 
tones. They held the opinion that to rebel was not only unne- 
cessary but wrong. They believed that the evils of which the 
colonists had just reason to complain were not so great as to justify 
the extreme step taken by the signers of the Declaration of Lide- 
pendence ; that any injustice existing was but temporary and Would 
when properly and calmlj- represented to the home government bo 
•emedied ; that to convulse the colonies in war was an unjustifiably 



«>1£i,. 



50 FEELINGS OF NATIONALITY. 

hai-Hh procedure ; and, entertaining such a bclict; it is submitted 
that they were noble indeed in standing up for peace-l.n- more 
moderate measures. Moreover, not unlilvcly, many were impressed 
with tlic view that the disaftccted were hiboring under an errone- 
ous idea of oppression ; that the training incident to pioneer liie, 
the previous wars with the Fi-ench Canadians, the constant conten- 
tions with the Indians, had begotten false views of their rights, and 
made them too quick to discover supposed wrongs. Candidly im- 
pressed with such thoughts, they could not be otherwise than true 
to the natural instincts of their heart, and refuse to take part, or 
acquiesce in throwing overboard the government of England and 
so become aliens to the flag under which they were born and had 
lived, and for which they had fought. Not r.iany may cast aside 
their feelings of nationality ; not many can forget the land ol their 
birth • not a lai-ge number will bury the associations of a liie-timc 
without the most potent causes. And, doubtless, tho Anglo-Ameri- 
can who faithfully adhered to the old flag possessed all the ardor ot 
a lofty patriotism. But the American writer has forgotten all thi.s. 
In the broad sunlight of national success he has not discovered the 
sacred longings of the U.E. Loyalists for tho Union Jack. Lookmg 
at tho events of '76 by the lurid glare of civil war, his eyes are 
blinded to tho fact that a noble band, possessing equal rights with 
the rebels, loved England, notwithstanding all her faults, and lor 
that love sacriflced their all of worldly goods. The citi.enH of tho 
United States would prefer to have it said in history that the \J.r. 
Loyalists, in every instance, voluntarily left their homes during the 
war, or at its close. The loyalists are thereby, no doubt, made to 
appear more devotedly attached to the British Crown But it i. 
r ght to have it distinctly stated that American writers mostlj 
make themselves guilty of suppressio verL The latest instance o 
This is seen in a report to the Hon. Hugh McCu lough, Soci-etary d 
the Treasury, prepared by E. H. Derby, Commissioner ot the Tie ■ 
sury Department, dated January 1st, 1866, who, m remarking upon 
thcRntlh Colonial policy from 1776 down to 1830, ^ake« occasion 
to say that, " at first there was little fellowship between the United 
States and the Provincialists, many of whom were descended from 
the loyalists who folhrced the British troops from our shores. Jh 
fact is, however, that many of them were driven away. The tone 
were not loyal without sense ; and when the fortune oi ;^'''^»- ^ad tune 
against them, they would, in'great numbers, have made the best o 
their changcHi condition, and have lived to become true ciUzens ot the 



THE EDUCATED, LOYALISTS. 51 

new-l)orn nation. But this was not to bo. Tho loyalists Avero to be 
made feel that thoy were outcasts. It is the same ignoble and nn- 
statesmanlike coin-se which is now being pursued toward the subdued 
South. They must needs be made to know they are rebels. It is a 
shortsighted policy, even as the former was. The former led to the 
establishment of a nation to their north, which will stand, even after 
the Union lies in fragments ; the latter fosters a feeling of ali(>nation, 
whicli will speak upon the first opj)ortunity, in the thunder tones of 
war. 

If a comparison is instituted between the rebels of 1776, and those 
who were conservators of peace, the contrast is foiuid to be very 
great. It is charged against the loyalists that all office-holders were 
tories ; but is this more worthy of remark than the fact that many 
became rebels because they could not obtain office. Nay, the latter 
is infinitely more heinous in its nature. If we look at the two par- 
ties, with respect to education and, it may be added, religion, it is 
found that the great bulk of the educated and refined, the religious 
classes, especially the clergy, the leading lawyers, the most prominent 
medical men, were all loyalists. It was not because they were office- 
holders, it was because they possessed a moral and elevated mind, 
educated to a correct standard. Then, again, there was a large class 
of citizens who loved retirement, and who begged to be allowed to 
remain neutral, but who were actually compelled to take sides with 
the rebels or be driven away. 

The peaceably inclined, who looked for guidance to their spiri- 
tual instructors, generally beheld them, if not actually advocating the 
interests of the crown, at least setting an example against rebellion, 
and they were thus strengthened in their feelings of loyalty, or deter- 
mination to remain neutral. The flame of patriotism was kei)t aglow 
in many a heart by the earnest prayer of the gospel minister. Says 
Sabine : "From what has now been said it is evident that a very con- 
siderable proportion of the professional and editorial intelligence and 
talents of the thirteen colonies was arrayed against the popular move- 
ment." Again : " a large number of the clergy were United Empire 
Loyalists." Also, " the giants of the law were nearly all loyalists." 
The physicians were mostly tories, but were, as a general thing, not 
molested. "A few were banished; others became surgeons in the 
army." 



■Vi Jfi,- 



&2 THE RESULT. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

Contonts : — RopiihlicaniRin — TIk; IcisKon of tho firHt rebellion — Tho late civil war 
— Tliu Loyaiints ; tlieir losses and hardshipH — Ignored by Amcri ans — Un- 
recorded — The world iiopt in ignorance — American glory — English- 
men — Question of Colonial treatment — The reason why Great Britain 
failed to subdue the rebellion — (/'liaraeter of the rebel bravery — The 
great result — Liberty in England and United States contrasted — Slavery — 
The result to U. E. Loyalists — liurgoyne — Mobocracy — Treatment from 
" Sons of Liberty" — Old men, women and children — Instances of cruelty — 
Brutality — Rapacity — Torture — The lowijr c^-'sses — "Swamp Law" — Fiend- 
ish cruelty — Worse than Butler's llangtMs — Seward and the Fenians — Infa- 
mous falsification — Close of the war — llecognition of independence by Great 
Britain — Crushed hopes of tlie Loyalists — In New York — Their conduct — 
Evacuation da)' — The position of the Loyalists — Confiscation — "Attainting" 
— Seizing estates — Paine — Commissioners at Paris — British Ministry — Loy- 
alists' petition — King's speech — Division of claimants — Six classes — The 
number — Tardy justice — Noble conduct of South Carolina — Impostors — 
Loyalists in Lower Canada — Proclamation — The soldiers' families — Journey- 
ings — Meeting of families. 

THE RESUIT. 

Almost a hundred years have passed away since the war-cloud 
arose which swept away thirteen of Britain's colonies upon the uncer- 
tain and tempest- tossed ocean of Republicanism. That storm is long 
since stilled, as well as the hearts of those ^vho took part therein. 

While the statesman and politician m.^y, with advantage, study 
the lesson then read, and which has been but lately annotated by the 
United States civil war, by the determined subjection of eight mil- 
lions of Southerners, who desired freedom to establish a new govei"n- 
ment, let it be our humble occupation to record some of the immediate 
individual results of that great tempest, of which American writers, 
with but few exceptions, have never spoken fairly. Writers among 
them are not wanting to give lively pen pictures of their revolutionary 
heroes ; not only forgetting the sufferings of the loyalists — tho devo- 
ted ones, who gave up all — property, homes, friends, all the associa- 
tions of a birth-place, rather than bow the knee to Baal ; but who have 
wilfully misrepresented them ; have charged them with crimes, at 
once atrocious and unfounded. The sufferings, the losses, the hard- 
ships, incident to pioneer life, with the noble purposes and undevia- 
ting loyalty of the British American tories, have never been fully 
related — never engaged the pen of the faithful historian. American 
writers, on the contrary, have recorded in glowing colors the deeds 
and actions of the " fathers of the Kepublic." To this no objection 
can be made ; but may we not charge those historians with unchari- 
tableness, with unnecessary neglect of the claims of the loyalists to 



CAUSE OF SUCCESS. 53 

pure motives, with i,£,moring their brax-e deeds, their devoted suffer 
ii.gs,and with unduly ancribing to the "king's men" motives base 
and cruel But the suffering.;, of the U. E. Loyalists are .mrecorded. 
Ihe world has rarely been told that they were i.ersecuted, their homes 
piliaged, their persons maltreated, their valuables seized, their housr^s 
made desolate, their n^al estate taken from them, without legal pro- 
ceedmgs. The world has been so flooded with the writinc^s of Ameri- 
cans, describing their own excellencies and eulogizing their own 
cause, that no space has been found to do simple justice to tlie noble 
ones who preferred British rule to the uncei'tain and untried. 
Indeed, so strongly and for so long a time has the current been flow- 
ing to swe 1 the ocean of American glory, that hardly a voice or pen 
IS found doing service for the unfortunate loyalists, who chose to 
endure a little rather than rush into the vortex of rebellious strife. 
J^ven Englishmen have so long listened to one-sided statements, that 
no one of them can be found to say a word for the old tory party of 
America Hence it is that the U. E. Loyalists are very imperfectly 
known; their history unwritten, their tales of sorrow unattended to, 
their noble doings unsung. Had there been a hand to guide a describ- 
ing pen,-.to picture the doings, the mifferings, the self-denying 
heroism of the loyal barty ; to recount the motives underlyin ' all 
they did; and had there been ears as willing to listen, and eye's to 
read, and hearts to receive the facts as those of a contrary nature have 
obtamed, then a far different impression would have been made, and 
nxed upon the world. 

That the British Government was right or wise in its treatment 
of the American colonies we now have every reason to doubt. At the 
same time that England might havc^ subdued that rebellion, had she 
put forth her midivided strength, there is but little reason to question. 
Had she not been engaged in a formi.lable Avar with France ; or even 
with that, had her statesmen acquired a correct knowledge of America 
as to topography, and as to the feelings and wishes of the people and 
their just complaints; or had able generals been entrusted with the 
command of the armies, instead of incompetent favorites ; or had a 
ittJe diplomacy been practiced, and the ringleaders of the whi- fac- 
tion-oft^n hungry agitators--been conciliated by office; in either 
event the rebellion might have been nipped in the bud, or easily over- 
come. The American ^public owes its independence to the circum- 
tancesm winch Great Britain was then placed, and the incapacity of 
a few of the British Generals, rather than to superior bravery, eJtZ 
ordinary mihtary talent, or any high-toned longing for liberty ' No 



54 EFFECT UPON THE LOYALISTS. 

doubt many oi the rebolling party Avere brave ; but it was often the 
bravery of (he guerilla, or the desperate adventurer. 

Of the great result— the recognition of the independence of the 
rebelling provincoH by the mother country— we design not to speak 
at length. It will always, remain a question, whether it would not 
liave been better for the Statesjthemselves, and the world at large, if 
they had renuiined a part of the British Empire. That the evils of 
which they comi)lained would, in due time, have been removed, upon 
proper representation, there is no substantial reason to doubt, ^ That 
the principles of true freedom would have advanced and spread quite 
as rai.idly, and that, to-day, liberty, in the broadest sense, would have 
reigned in the world fully as triuniphaat, the whole history of Eng- 
land and the United States sufficiently attest. It was many long years 
after Britain had struck off the chains of slavery bofore the United 
States reached the same point ; and then only because it became a 
"military necessity." Looking at the two nations to-day, and judging 
by the utterances of the two respective people, whether enunciated in 
the halls of legislature, by the head of the nation, by the bar, in the 
pulpit, by the press, or from the platform ; or if we be guided by the 
public deeds of each, it is submitted tliat the more genuine ring of 
the metal sounds from beneath the wide-spreading banner of old 

England. 

The effect of the successful rebellion, to Avhich it is intended to 
refer, has reference to the Unitedp^:mpire Loyalists of America. And 
first, the eflect upon them during the Avar. 

The defeat of Biu-goyne was the first event Avhich immediately 
led to severe disaster of the loyalists. This general, with more assu- 
rance than foresight, and perhaps more courage than military skill, 
succeeded, not only in leading his army to destruction, but in placing 
the friendly inhabitants on his. route in such a position that no mercy 
was subsequently extended to them by the ruthless rebels. When he 
surrendered, instead of securing for them immunity from any hafra, 
he entirely neglected their interests ; notwithstanding they had sup- 
plied his troops with provision. The relentless conduct of the rebels 
in arms and the Avhig government was bloodthirsty and vindictive. 
Their hate towards those who would not take sides with them, 
whether in arms for the Crown or not, was barbarous. Persons sus- 
pected of sympathy with the tories were subjects of continued moles- 
tation. Mobocracy reigned. Vagabond bodies of men were sent 
abroad to range the country, to lay waste and destroy the property of 
the loyalists, imprison the suspected, and seize the goods of the un- 



THE "SONS OF LIBERTY." 55 

protected. Tnrrinj; niid F<;illierinur wns of coinnioti occurrence. 
MusHaclr.i setts especially .i^aiiicd a name for cruelty fai' exceedlnsr ju,y 
whicli has been applicl to tlie Indians, witli all tlieir barbaHsni. 
Tiiero M'as a villainous band who called themselves the "Sons of Lib- 
erty," who carried fire and sword— not a,i>;ainst an open enemy in the 
light of day, but to peaceful firesides in the dai-kness of ni^ht. Their 
victims were the old nu-n, the women aii<l children, and the defence- 
less. Old men and children were driven to the woods for shelter, or 
I)Iaced in a closed room, and, with chimney stopped, smoked to sull'o- 
calion. Females were subject to insult and the most fiendish treat- 
ment. Dwellings were fired at night, and tlieir occupants left liouse- 
less, and ex])osed to the fncleniency of the weatlier. 

Suspected persons were arrested ajid i)ut to terrible torture, such 
as attaching ii rope to the neck and liauling the individual through 
the water till insensible ; or.suspending him to a tree till life was al- 
most gone. This was frecpu-ntly done with the object of extracting 
infoi-mation a.s to the whereabouts of a father or a bi-other, or a.s to 
the ])lace where money and valuables were concealed. The tales of 
cruelty the writer has lieard related concerning the treatment the 
loyal party were exposed to, would liarrow up the soul of any one 
possessing feelings of pity and commiseration. 

Tlie loyalists who immediately suffered, that is, while the war 
was in progress, were many. Military forts wei-e established liere 
and there, to which many fled precipitately from the several States. 
It is a matter of extreme astonishment how men who set 
up the standard of revolt under the sacred name of liberty, 
could so far ignore the lirinciples of liberty in the treatment of 
innocent old men, women and children, as wo find stated by honest 
witnesses. The darkest tales of savage dealing come to us from 
our fathers. Families, whose solo offence consisted in being unwill- 
ing to rebel, and in being desirous to remain faithfully neutral, 
were the objects of the rapacious prey ot a brutal soldiery. Their 
substance when not available for the rebel horde, was scattered to 
the winds. Devouring fire was cast into peaceful homes. How 
gross the hypocracy, how base the motives that actuated very many 
of the adventurers in rebellion. The most hellish means w^ere 
adopted at times, to force away persons of property, that the so- 
called " Sons of Liberty" might enjoy their substance and homes. 
Attending these scenes of desolation and refined crulty, their 
imprisonments and torture, were incidents of thrilling interest, of 
fearfui suffering, of hairbreadth escapes, of forlorn rescues. 



6G CRUELTY TO WOMEN. 

Tho lowoi' clawHOM of Ihoso who roboUcd wore moii of hold and 
lawk^sH nature : whothor wo pass aloii/,' tho HhorcH ofiVew Hn^land, 
arnon/^ tho fishcrmou, or travel thorough the woods oi" Maine and 
New Jlanipsliire, and become aerjuaintod with woodmen of the 
forest, or an they wore called "Lopj^ers and SawyerH." The Hpirit 
that animated tho merchanlH of Boston and Halem, in their extended 
operations of .sniug;:;ling, lived, also, in tho reckloss fishermen and 
woodmen ; and for years belbre the rebellion really commenced they 
had boon resisting, even by jjhysical force, tho reveniio officers, 
who were often expelled from the woodfi by what was called 
"swamp law." Men with such nature, finding that their lawlcss- 
ncsH had become popular, and that steps wore being taken to resist 
tho government on a general plan, were not slow to act their part. 
One result of the rel)ollion was a determined and systematic course 
of retaliation upcm those who had rocogni/Asd the majesty of the 
law. A continued and uncompromising persecution was entered 
upon toward them. 

No history can parallel the deeds of atrocity enacted by the 
villanious "Liberty men." Said an old lady, on the verge of the grave, 
and with voice trfcmulous in remembrance of fiendish acts she had 
witnessed. "The Rebels, on one occasion entered a house and 
stripped it of everything, even the bed on which lay a woman on 
the point of confinement. But a single sheet was loft to cover the 
woman upcm a winters night, who, before morning became a 
mother." In 1776, there arrived at Fort George, in a starving 
state, Mi's, Nellis, Mrs. Secord, Mrs. Young, Mrs. Buck and Mrs. 
Bonnar, with thirly-one children, whom the circumstances of the 
rebellion had driven away. Talk about the ci-uclty of Indians and of 
Tory oppression. The unprincipled rebels did well to try to hide 
their ignominious deeds behind the fabrications respecting the 
doings of Butler's Rangers, and the noble-minded Brant. May we 
notecase to wonder that the dcsccndents of the i-ebcls in the year 
1866, endeavour to hound on a pack of thieves and murderers to 
possess themselves of tho homos our fathers sought out for us. The 
self-applauding writers of the revolutionary war, found it convenient 
to forget the doings of the " Sonsof Liberty " and of Sullivan, while 
they laid to tho charge of Butler's Rangers and the Indians, acts of 
inhumanity (which we are informed on good authority are unfounded, 
Butler having never abused woman or child.) In the same manner, 
Secretary Seward found it desirable to falsify dates, by saying the 
Fenians invaded Canada on tho 6th of June, that it might appear he 



RECOflNlTION OV INDEl'KNDENCK. 67 

hod vlndifutoU promptly their nuutrnlity liiW8 ;" wl.emis tl.oy actu- 
ttlly croHsod, and ongu^rod ii, Imtdo, on tho morning of tl»o 2nd. 
But HH timo will fully bring out the fuct« connected with the fu-Ht 
Amcricun rebellion, und place them face to face with ono-sidod 
hiHtory, HO will faithful histo.-y record the whole truth of the 
infamouH invasion of our country hy a hand of American citizens 
with United States arms in their hands. Those deeds of blood 
enacted by men under the hypocritical cry of liberty have not been' 
forgotten by the United Empire Loyalists, but have been handed 
down to U.S, to place on record against the cruel actors. 

Hostilities ceased 19th April, USH, and on the 20th September, 
the independence of tho Ujiited States was acknowledged. 

The recognition of independence by Great Britain, was the 
(loath knell to the cherished hopes ol" the loyalists. Many had 
escaped into the provinces, and many were in the army, and not a 
im wore in England. Although the majority of them had been 
driven away, a few still remained in those places, yet held by the 
British forces, as New York. "When tho news of peace became 
known, tho city presented a scone of distress not easily described. 
Adherents to tho Crown, who wore in the army, tore the lappels 
from their coats and stamped them under their feet, and exclaimed 
that they wore ruined; others cried out they had sacrificed every- 
thing to prove thoir loyalty, and wore now left to shift for them- 
selves, without the friendship of their king or country. Previous to 
the evacuation, and in September, upwards of 12,000 men, womeft, 
and chidren, embai-ked at the city, at Long and Staten Islands, for 
Nova Scotia and the Bahamas,' and for Canada. "Some of these 
victims to civil war tried to make merry at their doom, by sayiug 
they wore bound to a lovely country, where there are nine months 
winter and three months cold weather every year, while otliers, in 
thoir desperation tore down their houses, and had they not been 
prevented, would have carried off the bricks of which they were 
built." The British luul possessed New York since 15th September, 
1776, and on the 25th November, 1783, yielded it up to tho 
Americans. This is " Evacuation day." 

When Cornwallis surrenderetl he vainly tried to obtain a 
promise of protection for the Loyal Americans", who, in part, formed 
his army. Failing in this, he sent an armed vessel away with a 
largo number. 

At this time, beside the many who had become refugees, there 



ft8 CONFIHOATINO PROPKRTY. 

vroro womo loyaliHtw Hc^ittc^cd llirou/rli tli»* Statos. Mnny of thoHO 
renmiricfl in tlio now IndcpoiKlont, StiiloH, und many of tliom 
would havoi'oluniod, to h»HM)mo faithAil citizotiH iindortlKMicw order 
ol'tliiii^H, hu«l tlioy boi'ii ullowod ho to do. Hut tlu^youu^ Kcfpuhlic 
know not how to bo ma/jfnannnouH to thoHO whom 1h«« I'ortunoH of 
war hud loft in ^roat dintroHH — whom thoy had conciuonid, and tho 
Unitod Kinpiro Lo3'uliHfs woro mado alioim from thoii- native 
honu^s. Thoir ]>ro])Ofty must ho confincatod, and many \n)ii\}f lar^o 
land ownoi'H, rioh pri/iOn woro thuH Kocunvj. Whilo tho conflict 
continued to i-a^o thoro was Homo oxcuho, hut wh<!n warha<l coaMod, 
and (^'orythin^ had hccMi accompliHhod that the moHt cravinf^ rohol 
could wish, it was a ruthless, an un/^enorous, nay, a l)aHO ]>ro('ood- 
\nfr on tho part of tho revolutionists, to force away thoir vory 
brothron, oflon rolatotl by tho ties of consanguinity. Hut it was Ji 
spirit as unprinciplod as this, which instigated tho i-ehollion, and 
which characterized the vast nuijority of tlu)so who fought 
under the sacrod name of liberty, and such was tho spirit of the 
conquerorH. 

Tho Huccossful rolnds determined to possess them.solvoH of tho 
lands and property of the loyalists, oven in violation of treaty. The 
action of Congress was sufftciontly high-hiinded and wanting in 
generosity ; hut tho proceedings of tho State Legislatures, with a 
fow exceptions, were oxocrable — characterized by ignoble and 
vindictive ])a88ion. 

Tho Legislatures of each state took oarly stop.s to punish the 
adherents of Britain, to dispossess them of their property, and to 
banish them. Massachusetts took the lead in dealing severely 
against tho loyalists. A rebel magistrates' warrant was sufficient 
to banish one. Hundreds of Massachusetts Loyalists woro prohi- 
bited from returning on penalty of imprisonment and ovon death. 
And tho other States woro active in " attainting " and confiscating, 
often without the form of trial. Each State carried on its function 
as a government, and trials ought to have boon granted, in common 
justice to every one. But tho Whigs woro intoloront, hot-hoadcil, 
malevolonc, unforgiving. It has boon said that " if it be concoded 
that rebellion against England wai* right, then every stop necessary 
to success was justittablo. Tf wo grant all this there remains the 
fact that after success had crowned rebellion, persecution and con- 
fiscation continued. Now York, on tho 12th May, 1784, passed " An 
act for tho spcody sale of the confiscated and forfeited estates 



TIIK TIIKATV (»!■' I'AIIIS. 59 

within tho HtatcH." TIki powors consiMtivl in tho appoinfmont of 
"coinmiHMionorH of (orCcilin-oK." Amoii/^' tlioHO who lost thoir land 
was ono Davoo. Ilo liad .'iOO lu-ros near Now York, twonty niiloH, 
which waH coiiflHcatod and ^Mvon to tho notoriouH Tom I'aino, tho 
intidoi, whoHo oxtroino lihoral viows oxproHHod in his work, «< Com- 
mon HonHo," mado him tho IViond of VVaMhiriKlon, and rovoliitioniHtB 
gom^ially. I'aino, aftoi- talcing' part in tho Kronch Ilovoiiitions, 
camo, in 1802, to his ](lac«> in Now York, whoro Ik^ onjoyod tho 
JoyaiiHtH' (HMiHsoatod proporty until his death, Mth Juno, ISUlf. 

In tho torms of poaco Hi^niod at Paris, tluii-o was no Hociirity 
ctfoctod for tho Iohsos Hustainod hy tho Amorican Loyalists. 

As Hur^royno at his in/^lorious surrondor at Sarato^'a, thou^'ht 
not of tho innocont inhahitants of tlio Mohawk and Hudson, who 
liad.indontit'od thomsolvoH with tho loyal causo, and suppliod hiH 
troops with provisions, and loft thorn to tho niorciloss "Sons 
of Liborty," to bo dospoilod of thoir all, and oxposod to foarful 
miolty, MO at tho last, whon tho Mritish (iovornmoni rolinquishod 
tho attompt to wulxluo robollion, tho Amorioan Jjoyalists woro of 
romoto considoration. Wo oan ^aithor now but tho ontlinos of tliis 
groat wron^ dono unto noblo mon. Tho partioulars aro buriod in 
tho wreok of fortuno, and of haj)pinoHs, ro8poctin<,' all worldly 
mattors. Tho aftor lifo of the loyalists was of too oarnost a nature 
to allow timoto place on record tho sut!(U'in^'s, and tho wandcu-ings 
of tho disiidioritod. Tho lost causo did not stimulate men to draw 
upon ima;L,Mnation, such as may be found in gaudy-huod descriptions 
of Amorican revolutionary heroes, male and fomalc. But there is 
sufficient of facts recorded, and engraven by the iron pen of 
extreme anguish upon hearts, that were of flesh, to stamp tho 
persecutors with infamy, andj mark the refugees, that clustered 
around tho border forts, and found homos at Sorol, Lacliino, and 
Montreal, with tho highest attributes of patriotism and love of 
country. 

The conduct of the ministry, and the commissionors at Paris is 
open to the soverost.censure. Thoy left the claims of tho loyalists 
to be decided by the Amorican Congress. We may allow them 
the credit of having hold the belief, that this body would bo 
actuated by a feeling of justice and right, but tho error was a 
frravo one, the wrong grievous and harti to bo endured. In pursu- 
ing this course, tho British ministry did not escape condemnation 
by members of Parliament, and a feeling of sympathy was evoked 



CO THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT. 

that led to a tardy dispensing of justice. Lord North said " that 
never were the honor, the principles, the policy of a nation, so 
grossly abused as in the desertion of those men, who are now 
exposed to every punishment that desertion and poverty can 
inflict, because they were not rebels." Mr. Sheridan *' execrated 
the treatment of those unfortunate men, who, without the least 
notice taken of their civil and religious rights, were handed over 
as subjects to a power that would not fail to take vengence on 
them for their zeal and attachment to the reUgion and government 
of the mother country," " and he called it a crime to deliver them 
over to confiscation, tyranny, resentment and oppz'ession." Lord 
Loughborough said that " in ancient nor modern history had there 
been so shameful a desertion of men who had sacrificed all to their 
duty and to their reliance upon British faith." Others, in terms 
of equal severity, denounced the ministry in Parliament for their 
neglect. The ministry admitted it all, but excused themselves by 
the plea that " a part must be wounded, that the whole of the 
empire may not perish " — that they " had but the_alternative, 
either to accept the terms proposed, or continue the war." '■' 

" A number of loyalists in England, came to the United States 
to claim restitution of their estates, but their applications were 
unheeded," except to imprison, and banish them. 

The treaty of peace signed, without any provision for the 
suffering loyalists, they at once took steps to petition the Imperial 
Parliament for justice. " They organized an agency, and appointed 
a Committee, composed of one delegate, or agent from each of the 
thirteen States, to enlighten the British public." " At the opening 
of Parliament the King, in his speech from the throne, alluded to 
the ' American sufferers ' and trusted generous attention would be 
shewn to them.' " An act was consequently passed creating a 
"Board of Commissioners " to examine the claims preferred. The 
claimants were divided into six classes. 

*' First Class. — Those who had rendered service to Great 
Britain." 

*' Second Class. — Those who had borne arms for Great Britain. 
'' Third Class.— Unitorm Loyalists." 

" Fourth Class. — Loyal British subjects residents in Great 
Britain." 

" Fifth Class — Loyalists who had taken oaths to the American 
States, but afterward joined the British." 



TARDY REMUNERATION. 61 

''Sixth Class. — Loyalists who had borne arms for the American 
States, and afterwards joined the British navy or army." 

The claimants had to state in writing, and specifically the 
nature of their losses. Great and unnecessary caution was observed 
by the Board. The rigid rules of examinations caused much dissat- 
isfaction and gave the Board the name of" Inquisition." "'-' 

The 26th of March, 1784, was the latest period for presenting 
claims, which was allowed, and on or before that day, the number 
of claimants was two thousand and sixty-three. A ''second report 
which was made in December of the same year, shows that one 
hundred and twenty-eight additional cases had been disposed of." 
In May and July 1865, one hundred and twenty-two cases more 
were disposed of. In April 1786, one hundred and forty more 
wore attended to. The commissioners proceeded with their inves- 
tigations during the years 1786 and 1787." " Meantime " and to 
her honor be it said " South Carolina had restored the estates of 

» 

several of her loyalists." 

Years passed away before the commissioners had decided upon 
all the claims, and great and loud was the complaint made by the 
claimants. The press was invoked to secure a more pi'ompt con- 
cession of justice, pamphlets were published on their behalf, and 
one printed in 1788, five j^ears after the peace, contained the 
following : " It is well that this delay of justice has produced the 
most melancholy and shocking events. A number of the sufferers 
have been driven by it into insanity, and become their own 
destroyers, leaving behind them their helpless widows and orphans 
to subsist upon the cold charity of strangers. Others have been 
sent to cultivate a wilderness for their subsistance, without having 
the means, and compelled through want, to throw themselves on 
the mercy of the American States, and the charity of their former 
friends, to support the life which might have been made comfortable 
by tne money long since due from the British Government, and 
many others, with their families are barely subsisting upon a 
temporary allowance from government, a mere pittance when 
compared with the sum due them." 

The total number of claimants w8s 5,072, of whom 924 with- 
drew or failed to make good the claim. The sum of money allowed 
was £3,294,452. We have seen there was, in addition, given to the 
widows and orphans, between 20,000 and 30,000 pounds. 

There is no doubt that a certain number of the claimants were 



62 LOYALISTS IN CANADA. 

impostors, while many asked romuneration above what their losses 
had actually been, and this caused the commissioners to examine 
more closely the claims proffered. But it is submitted that they 
ought, in dealing with the money already granted by a considerate 
Parliament, to have leaned on the side of clemency. 

At the close of the contest there were a large number of 
Eefugoes in Lower Canada, especially at Fort 8t. John, about 
twenty-nine miles from Montreal. In the main these were Ameri- 
can born, and principally from the New England States; yet there 
were representatives from England, Ireland, Scotland and Germany. 
Besides the Refugees, there were several Provincial Corps, which 
were no longer to be retained in the service, but to be disbanded. 
Of these there was the 84th, often called Johnson's regiment, this 
was 800 strong, mostly Dutch, from the Mohawk, and Hudson, 
descendants of the old stock. This regiment consisted of two corps, 
one under Major Jessup, stationed at St. John's, and the other 
under Eogers, a part of which at least, was stationed at Fort 
Oswego, Jessups corps became the first pioneers upon the St. Law- 
rence, and Rogers among the first along the Bay of Quints. Both 
settled in 1784. There were other troops stationed at St. John's, 
and likewise not a few who had discharged irregular, but important 
duties, as scouts, and in other ways. 

It has been generally estimated that at the close of the struggle, 
and as a result, there were distributed of American Loyalists upon 
the shores of Canada, about 10,000. At the first, most of these 
were in Lower Canada, but there were likewise a few at the 
frontier forts upon the Upper waters, and a few detached squatters. 
Then, " there was not a single tree cut from the (present) Lower 
Province lino to Kingston, 150 miles ; and at Kingston there were 
but a few surrounding huts; and from thence all around Lake 
Ontario and Lake Erie, with the exception of a few Indian huts on 
some desolate spot of hunting ground, all was a dense wilderness." 
(Ex Sheriff Sherwood.) 

"A proclamation was issued," says Croil in his history of 
Dundas, " that all who wished to continue their allegiance to Britain, 
should peaceably rendezvous at certain points on the frontiers. 
These were, Sackets Harbour, Carleton Island, Oswego and Niagara, 
on the Upper Canada confines ; and Isle Aux Nois, on the borders 
of Lower Canada. Jessup's Corps was stationed at Isle Aux 
Nois, and late in the autumn of 1783, the soldiers were joined by 
their wives and little ones, who had wandered the weary way on 



AMERICAN TROOPS. 0g 

loot, to Whitehall, through nwamps and foroHt,— besot with diffi- 
cultioH, dangers, and privations innumerable. The soldiers met 
them there with boats, and convoyed them the rest of their journey 
by water, through Lake Champlain. Imagination fails us when 
we attempt to form an idea of the emotions that filled their hearts, 
as families, that had formerly lived happily together, surrounded 
with peace and plenty, and had been separated by the rude hand 
of Avar, now met each others embrace, in circumstances of abject 
poverty. A boisterous jmssage was before them, in open boats, 
exposed to the rigors of the season— a dreary prospect of the 
coming winter, to be spe.it in pent up barracks^ and a certainty 
should they bo spared, of undergoing a lifetime of such hardships, 
toil and privation, as are insepcrablo from the settlement of anew 
country." As soon as the journey was accomplished, the soldiers 
and their fiimilies, wore embarked in boats, sent down to Eichelieu 
to Sorel, thence to Montreal, and on to Cornwall, by the laborious 
and tedious route of the St. Lawrenne. (See settlement of Ernest 
town.) 





,,■> ■...-- 


SJ.) 


; !!.»» 


l':X,:. 


i. t 








t. 



^ 



CHAPTER VII. 



ContcMits.— A «pint of stnfe-The French war-B'ritish American Troops-For- 
rnor comrades opposed-Number of U. E. Loyalists in the field-General 
Burgoyne-Defea^F irst reverse of British arms-The campaign-CoS 
bt.Leger-FortStanwix-Colonel Baume-Battle of Bennington-Gener^ 

?h?r'ir^**'lr'^'^"^^''-^.^''*^'°'^^ Heights- Saratogai Surrender _ 

* The result upon the people-Sir John Johnson-Sir William-Sketch-In- 

dian Chief— Laced coaf^lndian's dream— It comes to pass— Sir William 

frrTV* '"''^ ir ''> P'^'^'^''^ ^'^'•^ '^ <lream-Sir John-Attemp t™ 
arrest-Escape-Starving- Royal Greens- Johnson's losses- Living in 
Canada^Death-Pnncipal Corps of Royalists-King's Rangers-Queen's 

LS-^.^hrnesSr'^'"^^^-'^'^ "^"^^'-^ ^"'^pp- '-^^-^^- 

The seven years' war between Canada and New England, in- 
which a large number of the Colonists were engaged, had created 
not a few officers of military worth and talent, while a spirit of 
strife and contention had been engendered among the people gen- 
erally. The Colonial war, carried on with so much determination, 
was stimulated, not so much by the I'.nglieh nation at home as by 
New Englanders. It was they who wore chieliy interested in the 



d^ INCOMPETENT GENERALS. 

overthrow of French pf)wer in Canada. While money and men had 
been freely granted by the Imperial flovernment, the several colo- 
nies had also freely contributed. They "furnished in that war quite 
twenty-eight thousand men, in more than one of the campaigns, 
and every year to the extent of their ability." *'0n the ocean, full 
twelve thousand seamen were enlisted in the Eoyal Navy and in 
the Colonial Privateers." In this manner had been formed a taste 
for military life, which waited to be gratified, or sought for food. 
When, therofcro, the unsavory acts of England wounded the Colo- 
nial vanity, and demagogues traversed the country to embitter the 
feelings of the mass against the king, the hot-hea/lod were not slow 
to advise an appeal to arms. At the .sp.me time, the loyal in heart, 
the conservators of Imperial interest, viewing with wonder and 
alarm the manifestation of fratricidal war — of rebellion, felt it their 
duty to take up arms against the unprincipled (and often dishonest) 
agitators, and endeavor to crush oat the spirit of revolt. And thus 
it came, that very many who had fought side by side at Ticonder- 
ago, Crown Point, Du Quesne, Niagara, Oswego, Fi-ontenac, Mont- 
real, and arojnd Quebec, under a common flag, were now to-be 
arrayed in hv jtile bands. Not state against state, nor yet merely 
neighbor against neighbor, but brother against brother, and father 
against son I Civil war, of all wars, is the most terrible : in addi- 
tion to the horrors of the battle-field, there is an upheaving of the 
very foundation of society. All the feelings of brotherhood, of 
christian love, are paralyzed, and the demon of destruction and 
cruelty is successfully invoked. 

Behold, then, the British Americans divided into two parties; 
each buckling on the armor to protect from the other, and sharp- 
ening the weapons of warfare to encounter his kindred foe. The 
contest of 1776-83 is most generally looked upon as one between 
the English and Americans ; but in reality it was, at first — so far 
as fighting went — between the conservative and rebel Americans. 
In an address to the king, presented by the loyalists in 1779, it is 
stated that the number of native Americans in his service exceeded 
those enlisted by Congress. Another address, in 1782, says that 
" there are more men in his Majesty's provincial regiments than 
there is in the continental service." Sabine says that " there wer6 
25,000, at the lowest computation." If such be the case, the ques- 
tion may well be asked, how came it that the rebels succeeded ? 
Looking at the matter from our distant stand-point, through the 
light of events we find recorded, there seems but one conclusion at 



burqoyne's campaign. 05 

which wo may arrive, namely, that the diHaHtor to the Britimh arm« 
was duo— altogether due— to the incapacity of certain of the gen- 
erals to whom was intrusted the Imperial interests in America. 

,.( ,„,, : ,,, ! "THE COMBATANTS— BURGOYNE. 

The most notable instance of mistaken generalship was that of 
Burgoyne. His campaign in the summer of 1777, and the final 
overthrow of his army and surrender at Saratoga, will engage our 
particular attention; inasmuch as it was the first decided reverse 
to the British arms, and by giving courage to the rebels, assisted 
much to further their cause. Thereby their faith was strengthened, 
and the number of rebels increased from no inconsiderable class[ 
who waited to join the strongest party. Again, the scone of this 
campaign was close to the borders of Canada, and there followed a 
speedy escape of the first refugees from the Mohawk valley and 
the Upper Hudson to the friendly shores of the St. Lawrence. 

A year had elapsed since the Declaration of Independence, 
and England had sent troops to America, with the view of assisting 
the forcep there to 3ubdur> the malcontents. In the early part of 
July, Burgoyne sec out from Lower Canada with about 8,500soldiers, 
600 Indians, and 160 Canadians, intending to traverse the country 
to Albany, possessing himself of all rebel strongholds on the way, 
and thence descend along the river Hudson, to New York to 
form a junction witL General Howe, that city having been captured 
from the rebels the 15th September previous. Passing by way of 
Lake Champlain, he encountered the enemy on the 6th July, and 
captured Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, with 128 cannon 
several armed vessels, a quantity of baggage, ammunition and pro- 
visions. "This easy conquest inflamed his imagination." The first 
step towards the defeat of his army was the unsuccessful attempt 
of Colonel St. Leger, with 800 men, who ascended the St. Lawrence 
to Oswego, and thence up the river, to take Fort Stanwix (Eome), 
intending to descend the Mohawk and join Burgoyne -with his main 
force, as he entered the head of the valley of the Hudson. Colonel 
St. Leger arrived at Fort Stanwix on the 3rd August, 1777. For a 
time he was the winner; but for some reason, it is said that the 
Indians suddenly left him, and his troops, seized with a panic, fled. 
In the meantime. General Burgoyne was pursuing his way, having 
driven General Schuyler from Lake St. George to the mouth of the 
Mohawk river. 

Burgoyne, flushed with this renewed success, after his late cap- 



66 ... AT SARATOGA. 

turo of Ticondoroga and Mount Indopondonco, vainly supposed he 
could advance steadily down the Hudson. Ho sent a body of men, 
600 strong, under Colonel Baumo, into the interior, eastward, with 
the view of encouraging the inhabitants to continued loyalty, and 
of arresting the machinations of the rebels. Near Bennington the 
rebels had an important post, with magazines, and a large force 
under General Stark. Baume, ignorant of their strength, rushed 
headlong against the enemy. Nothing daunted, he led on his 600 
brave men. For two hours he contended with the unequal foe, 
when his troops wore almost annihilated, and he fell from his horse, 
mortally wounded. But few escaped to tell the tale. Meanwhile, 
Burgoyno, apprised of the danger surroimding Baume, had sent 
assistance under Colonel Breynan. Un fortunately, the/ had not 
much ammunition, and, after lighting until all was exhausted, they 
had to flee. These three reverses paved the way for the tinal over- 
throw of Burgoyne. He was still marching forward, bent on reach- 
ing Albany, to accomplish the object of the campaign— a juncture 
with the army of General Howe. But now in his rear, to the west, 
instead of Colonel St. Leger descending the Mohawk, was General 
Herkimer, who had dispersed St. Leger's force ; and to the east 
was General Stark, flushed with his victories over Baume and 
Breynan. Burgoyne met Gates at last on Braemar heights, and 
again, and for the last time, led his troops on to victory, although 
the contest was well sustained. General Schuyler had intrenched 
his forces at the mouth of the Mohawk, and Burgoyne, having 
waited until his provision was exhausted, at last resolved to make 
an assault.. It waf bravely made, but without success; and before 
night-fall the army was retreating. Night, instead of enabling 
them to regain their spirits and renew their ardor, only brought 
the intelligence of the defeats previously sustained at Stanwix and 
Bennington. This was the 7th October. Flight now was the only 
possible chance for safety. The touts were left standing ; his sick 
and wounded forsaken. But the en my now surrounded him ; the 
places he had taken were already re-taken ; and upon the 10th of 
the month he found himself helpless upon the fields of Saratoga, 
where he surrendered. The whole of the men were sent to Boston 
and other places south, there to languish in prison. 

Thus it came that the inhabitants in this section of the country 
came under the power of the rebels, and those who had adhered t» 
the loyal side were mercilessly driven away at the point of the 
bayonet. The writer ha« heard too many accounts of the extreme 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON. 67 

cruelty practiHod at this time to doubt that Huch took place, or 
question the fiondiwh nature of the acts practisod by tbo succoHsful 
rebels agaiimt, not foes in urmn, but the bolpIesH. Many thuH driven 
away (and these wore the first refugees who entered (Canada) suf- 
fered great hardships all through the winter. Most of the men 
entered the ranks subsequently, while not a few, from their know- 
ledge of the country, undertook the trying and venturesome 
engagement of spies. The families gathered around the forts upon 
the borders had to live upon the fare supplied by the commissariat 
of the army. A large number were collected at Mishish ; and the 
story goes that a Frenchman, whoso duty it was to deal out tho 
supplies, did so with much of bad conduct and cruel tx'eatmont. 

(','*" SIR JOHN JOHNSON. 

Among the officers who served with General Burgoyne was 
Sir John Johnson, who had been tho first to suffer persecution, the 
first to become a refugee, and who became a principal pioneer in 
Upper Canada. 

" His father. Sir William Johnson, was a native of Ireland, of 
whom it was said, in 1755, that he had long resided upon the Mo- 
hawk river, in the western part of New York, where he had acquired 
a considerable estate, and was universally beloved, not only by the 
inhabitants but also by the neighboring Indians, whose language 
he had learned and whoso alfections he had gained, by his humanity 
and affability. This led to his appointment as agent for Indian 
affairs, on the part of Great Britain, and he was said to be * the 
soul of all their transactions with the savages.' " 

Of Sir William's talents and shrewdness in dealing with the like- 
wise shrewd Indian, the following is found in Sabine : "Allen relates 
that on his receiving from England some finely-laced clothes, the Mo- 
hawk chief became possessed with the desire of equalling the baronet 
in the splendor or his apparel, and, with a demure face, pretended to 
have dreamed that Sir William had presented him with a suit of the 
decorated garments. As the solemn hint could not be mistaken or 
avoided, the Indian monarch was gratified, and went away, highly 
pleased with the success of his device. But alas for Hendrick's 
shortsighted sagacity ! In a few days Sir William, in turn, had a 
dream, to the effect that the chief had given him several thousand 
acres of land. 'The land is yours,' said Hendrick, 'but now. Sir 
William, ' I never dream with you again, you dream too hard for 
me.'" 



W HIR JOHN jnilNSON. 

At the breaking out of the revolutionary war, Sir John, who had 
succeeded to hiHf'nther'H title, appearH, also, to have inherited h\» inliu- 
enco with the Indians, and to have exerted that influence to the 
utmost in favor of the Royal cause. By this means he rendered 
liiniBclf particularly obnoxious to tlie continentals, as the Americans 
were then called. Accordingly, in 1776, Colonel Dayton, with part 
of his regiment, was sent to arrest him, and thus put it out of his 
power to do further mischief. Ueceiving timely notice of this from 
his tory friends at Albany, he hastily assembled a large number of 
his tenants and others, and made preparations for a retreat, which he 
successfully accomplished. 

" Avoiding the route by Lake Champlain, from fear of falling 
into the hands of the enemy, who were supposed to be assembled in 
that direction, ho struck deep into the woods, by way of the head 
waters of the Hudson, and descended the Raquette river, to its con- 
fluence with the St. Lawrence, and thence crossed over to Canada. 
Their provision failed soon after they had left their homes. Weary 
and foot-sore, numbers of them sank by the way, and had to be left 
behind, but were shortly afterwards relieved by a party of Indians, 
who were sent from Caughnawaga in search of them. After nineteen 
dayb of hardship, which have had few parallels in our histoiy, they 
reached Montreal. So hasty was their flight, that the family papers 
were buried in the garden, and nothing taken with them but such 
articles as were of prime npcessity." Soon after his arrival at Mon- 
treal he was '* commissioned a colonel, and raised two battalions of 
loyalists, who bore the designation of the Royal Greens. From the 
time of organizing this corps, he became one of the most active, and 
one of the bitterest foes that the whigs encountered during the con- 
test. So true is it, as was said by the wise man of Israel, that ' a 
brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city, and their 
contentions are like the bars of a castle.' . Sir John was in several 
regular and fairly conducted battles. He invested Fort Stanwix in 
1777, and defeated the brave General Herkimer; and in 1780 was 
defeated himself by General Van Eensselaer, at Fox's Mills." 

The result of his adherence to the Crown was, that his extensive 
family estates upon the Mohawk were confiscated; but at the close of 
the war he received large grants of land in various parts of Canada, 
beside a considerable sum of money. He continued to be Superin- 
tendent of Indian aSairs, and resided in Montreal until his death, in 
1822. 



TlIK ROYAL RE0IMEN1.<. 69 



TIIK LOYAL rOMIUTANTS. 



The following arc the principal corps an<l rogimeiits of loyalists 
who took part in the war against the rebels, and who wore mainly 
Americans: 

" The King's Rangers ; the Royal Fencible Americans ; the 
Queen's Rangers ; the New York Volunteers j the King's Aiuerican 
regiment ; the Prince of "Wales' American Volunteers ; the Maryland 
Loyalists ; Do Lancey's Battalions ; the Second American regiment ; 
the King's Rangers, Carolina ; the South Carolina Royalists ; the 
North Carolina Ilighlatul liegiment ; the King's Amari(;an Dragoons ; 
the Loyal American Regiment ; the American Legion ; the New 
Jersey Volunteers ; the British Legion ; the Loyal Foresters ; the 
Orange Rangers; ^he Pennsylvania Loyalists; the Guides and Pion- 
eers ; the North Carolina Volunteers ; the Georgia Loyalists ; the 
West Chester Volunteers. These corps were all commanded by colo- 
nels or lieutenant-colonels; and as DeLancey's battalions and the 
New Jersey Volunteers consisted each of throe battalions, there wore 
twenty-eight. To these, the Loyal New Englanders, the Associated 
Loyalists and Wentworth's Volunteers, remain to bo added. Still 
further, Colonel Archibald Hamilton, of New York, commanded at 
one period seventeen companies of loyal Militia." 

Respecting the oflicers and more prominent men of the corps, 
who settled in Canada, wc have succeeded in collecting the following 
aooount. 



■ »> — ' ■■ 

THE queen's RANGKR.S. 



This corps acted a very conspicuous part during the war. It 
was raised by Major Robert Rogers, of NewHampshire, son of James 
Rogers. He had served during the French war, with distinction, as 
commander of Rogers' Rangers, and was, "in 1*776, appointed 
Governor of Michilimacinac. During the early part of the rebellion 
he was in the revolting states, probably acting as a spy, and was 
in correspondence with the rebel Congress, and with Washington him- 
self. He was imprisoned at New York, but was released on parole, 
which, it is said, he broke (like General Scott in 1812), and accepted 
the commission of colonel in the British army, and proceeded to raise 
the corps mentioned." About 1777 " he went to England, and Simcoe 
succeeded him as commander of the Queen's Rangers." 

Sabine, speaking of John Brown Lawrence, says ho was impris- 
oned in the Burlington gaol, New Jersey, and that " Lieut. -Colonel 
John G. Simcoe, commander of the Queen's Rangers, was a fellow- 



70 Till rORRKtN LEGION. 

priH<)t»(!r, and when t'XclianKcd Haid, at parting, * I «hall never forpjet 
yotir kindiuiHH.' JIu did not: and when appointed Lieiitenant-Gover- 
nor of Ui>jH!r C'anuda, he invited Mr. liawronce to nettle there," and, 
through the (iovornor, he accpiirod a large tract of laniL 

Tlie Queen'H Jtjuigcrs were (]iHbande(l in 1802, having been awo- 
ciatc<l with the evontH of the firHt government of Upper Canada, their 
colonel (Siincoe) having been the first (Jovernor. A detachment of 
this regiment were Htationed upon the banks of the Don, before there 
was a Hiuglu white inhabitant where now stands Toronto. 

'": t 

I ■ r " ♦■■ 

' ." • ' FBRQUBON's RANOEnS. ' ' 

This corps formed a part of Burgoyne's army at the time of sur- 
rendering, and, " with other provincial prisoners, retired to Canada, 
by permission of Gates." 

THE HESSIANS. ' ' \\ 

The British Government, during tho course of the war, ])rocured 
some foreign troops from one of the Gorman I'rincipalities iipon the 
Ehine, mostly from Hesse-Hamburg. This foreign legion was under 
the command of General Baroti de Keidesel, of their own coimtry. 
It would seem from the testimony of their descendants in Marysburgh, 
that the British Government employed the men from the Government 
of the principality, and that the men did not voluntarily enter the 
service, but were impressed. These Hessians were drilled before 
leaving their country. They were comjjosed of infantry, artillery, 
and a rifle company, " Green Yongers. " They were embarked for 
Canada, by way of Portsmouth, and reached Quebec in time to 
join the British army, and meet the enemy at Stillwater. Conrad 
Bongard, of Marysburgh, informs us that his father was one of the 
company under General Reidesel. He was in the artillery, and 
accompiinied Burgoyne in his eventful campaign ; was at the battle 
of Tyconderoga ; and, with the rest of the Hessian troops, was taken 
prisoner at Saratoga. They were taken down to Virginia, and there 
retained as prisoners of war for nearly two years. Being released on 
parole, many of them, with their General, were conveyed back to 
Germany ; but some of them, having the alternative, preferred to 
remain in America, to share with the loyalists in grants of laud. (See 
Marysburgh, where the Hessians settled). Conrad Bongard became 
the servant of Surveyor Holland, and was with him as he proceeded 
up the St Lawrence, to survey. Bongard married a widow Carr, 
whose husband had been in the 24th regiment of Royal Fusiliers, and 



THE IROqCOIrt. ' 71 

had (lied while the pr'sonorH were retaimnl in Virpfinia. He eventually 
nettled in the fifth towi'Hhip, wliere h« <lied, January, 1840, ajfed 83. 
HiH wifv, SuHan, died Fthniary, 1846, a^ed U8. Hoth were nieniberB 
of the Lutheran church. Mrs. B. wa« n native of Philadelphia. ^. ■ - 
111© wife of the Genenl, Baroness de Keidosel, has left an inter- 
esting record of the battles prior to Burgoyno's surrender. "■', ,■ 



CllAPTiiR. VIII. 

C0NTBHT8.— Indian NftmeH— The Fiv« TribcH-The Sixth—Confederation— 
Government— SulxliviHlonH—OriKin—. Hendritk—Dcatli— Lnint—Biitli— 
Education— Married—TeacliinK— Christianity— Urant elected Chief— Com- 
misHioned a British Captain— ViHits EnnJand— KetumH— LeadH hiH warriorg 
to battle— Efforts of Rebels to Bediicc! Urant to their cause— Attempted 
treachery of the Rebel Herchimer— Border warfare— Wyoming— Attempt to 
blacken the charact<'r of Brant— Hi« noble eonduct— Untruthful American 
History— The inhabitants of Wyoming— The R.bels first to blame— Cherry 
Va ley— Van Hehaick— Bloody orders- Terrible conduct of the Rebels, 
Helpicss Indian familien— Further deeds of blood and rapine by the rebel 
I Sullivan— A month of horrible work— Attributes of cruelty more ronspl- 
CU0U8 in the Rebels than in the Indians— The Now Englander— Conduct 
toward the Indians— Inconsistent— The "down trodden "—Tiie Mohawks- 
Indian agricnlture— Broken faith with the Indians- Noble conduct of 
Brant— After the war— His family— Death— Miss Alolley— Indian usage— 
rho character of the Mohawk— The six Indians as Canadians— Fidelity to 
the British- Receiving land— Bay Quints— Grand River— Settling— Captain 
Isaac, Captain John— At present— Mohawk Counsel. . 

This onco powerful Confederacy styled themsolvos Kan-yo-a-ko ; 
also, they sometimes called themselves Aganuschioni ov Agnanuschioni, 
which signifies united people. The French designated them Iroquois, 
from a peculiar sound of their speech. The English knew them 
as the Five Nations, and Six Nations, more generally by the latter 
term.* The original five tribes that formed the Confederacy, 
were the Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Sonocas. 
Subsequently in 1712, the Tuscaroras camo from the south, North 
Carolina, and made the sixth nation. But according to some 
authority, there were six nations before the Tuscaroras joined them. 
However, we learn from several sources, that up to 1712, the Eng- 
lish, in speaking of them, referred to only five nations. The Oneidas 
seem, at one time, to have been omitted, and the Aucguagas 
inserted in their stead. The oldest members of the confederation 



72 ORIGIN OF THE SIX NATIONS. 

were the Mohawks, Onondagas, and Senecas. The union of those 
three ti'ibes took place prior to the occupation of America by the 
Europeans. The time at which the confederation of ijho five 
nations was formed is uncertain, but it is supposed to have been in 
the early part of the sixteenth century. The league binding 
them to|;other was rather of a democratic nature. 

Each tribe was represented in the great council of the nation 
by one principal sachem, with a number of associates. 

They wore always deliberate in their councils, considerate in 
their decisions, never infringing upon the rights of a minority, 
and dignified in their utterances. They were noted, not only as 
warriors, but as well for their agriculture, their laws, and their 
oratorical ability. 

Each tribe was subdivided into classes, and each of these had a 
device or " totem," namely, the tortoise, the bear, the wolf, the 
beaver, ^:he deer, the falcon, the plover, and the crane. 

They were for hundreds of years the terror of the various 
Indian tribes peopling North America, and most of the time could 
at will, roam the wide expanse between the Hudson Bay and the 
Carolinas. Other tribes, too weak to oppose them, were from time 
to time completely exterminated. Of these was the Erie tribe, 
which had enti" ely disappeared by the year 1653. Of those 
who stubbornly resisted the Six Nations, were the Hurons, the 
Adirondaoks, of the north, the Delawares, the Cherokees, and the 
Mohicans. 

Smith, an historian of New York, says that in 1766 "Our Indians 
universally concur in the claim of all the lands not sold to the 
English, from the mouth of Sorel Eivcr, on the south side of Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, on both sides of the Ohio, till it falls into the 
Mississippi ; and on the north side of those lakes, that whole 
territory between the Outawais Eiver, and the Lake Huron, and 
even beyond the straits between that and Lake Brie." 

" When the Dutch began the settlement of New York, ail the 
Indians on Long Island, and the northern shore of the Sound, on the 
banks of the Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, and Susquehannah 
rivers, were in subjection to the Five Nations," and in 1766, "a little 
tribe, settled at the Sugar-loaf Mountain, in Orange County, made 
a yearly payment of about £20 to the Mohawks." 

Among the traditions of this people is one that they had a 
supernatural origin from the heart of a mountain, that they then 
migrated to the west, where they lived for a time by the seashore. 



THAYENDINAQBA. 73 

Then, in time returned to the country of the lakes. A country 
now passed into the hands of the white man, who paid no just 
price. But the names of many places yot indicate the history of 
the ancient owners of the soil, 'n «iU? : 'ifii^i.*; i*;f -r .^h,*- 

'' Among the Mohawks, in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, was a chief known as Old King Hendrick, or Soi-eiigarrah- 
ta, renowned for eloquence, bravery, and integrity. Ho was 
intimate with Sir William Johnson, and it was between them 
that the amusing contention of dreams occurred, that has been 
narrated. 

In 1755, a battle was fought at Lake Georgo, between the 
French, under Baron Dieskati, and the English, under Johnson, 
resulting in the defeat of the French. The French and English 
were supported by their fespective allies. At this engagement Old 
King Hendrick, then seventy years old, but still full of energy and 
courage, was killed. Strangely enough it was at this battle that 
Brant, then only thirteen years ''Id, first took part with his tribe 
in the contest. The mantle of Soieagarahta fell upon the youthful 
Thayendinagea. " ■ ' ""*" " '' '*' 

Thaymdinagea, or Joseph Brant, wan born upon the banks of 
the Ohio, in the year 1742, while his tribe was on a visit to that 
region. According to Stone, his biographer, he was the son of 
" Tehowaghwengai'aghkwin a full-blooded Mohawk, of the Wolf 
tribe." 

After the battle at Lake George, Brant continued with his 
people under Johnson till the close of that bloody war. At its 
close, about 1760, Brant, with several other young Indians, was 
placed by Johnson at Moor School, Lebanon, Connecticut. After 
acquiring some knowledge of the rudiments of literature, he left 
the school to engage in active warfare with the Pontiacs and 
Ottawas. " In 1765, we find him married and settled in his own 
house at the Mohawk Valley. It is said he was not married, except 
in the Indian mode, until the winter of 1779, when at Niagara, 
seeing a Miss Moore, a captive, married, he was also thus married by 
Colonel John Butler, to a half-breed,the daughter ol Colonel Oroghan, 
by an Indian woman. Here he spent a quiet and peaceful life 
for some years, acting as interpreter in negotiations between his 
people and the whites, and lending his aid to the efforts of the 
missionaries who were engaged in the work of teaching and 
converting the Indians. th 



7tf GENERAL HERKIMER. 

"Those who viwitcd his house, spoke in high terms of his 
kindness and hospitality." Sir William Johnson died in 1774, and 
was succeeded by his son-in-law. Colonel George Johnson, as 
Indian agent, who appointed Brant his Secretary. The same year 
Johnson had to flee from, the Mohawk, westward, to escape being 
captured by a band of rebels. He was accompanied by Brant and 
the principal warriors of the tribe. The rebels vainly tried to win 
the Indians to their side ; but excepting a few Senecas, they pre- 
ferred their long tried friends. The regular successor of Old King 
Hendrick, was " little Abraham." It is said ho was well disposed to 
the Americans, probably through jealousy of Brant. At all events, 
Brant, by universal consent became the principal chief. He pro- 
ceeded with the other chiefs, and a large body of Indian warriors 
to Montreal, where he was commissioned as a captain in the British 
army. '* In the fall of 1775, he sailed for England to hold personal 
conference with the officers of government. He was an object of 
much curiosity at London, and attracted the attention of persons 
of high rank and great celebrity." Brant retiirned to Ameiica in 
the spring following, landed near New York, and made his way 
through his enemy's country to Canada. He placed himself at the 
head of his warriors, and led them on to many a victory. The 
first cf which was at the battle of " the Cedars." 
■ But the rebels did not cease endeavoring to seduce Brant to 
their cause. In June, 1777, Groneral Herkimer of the rebel militia 
approached Brant's headquarters with a large force, ostensibly to 
treat on terms of equality. Brant had reason to auspect treachery, 
and consequently would not, for some time, meet Herkimer. 
After a week, however, he arranged to see Greneral Herkimer, but 
every precaution was taken against treachery, and it appears that 
not without cause. Brant and Herkimer were old, and had been 
intimate friends. Brant took with him a guard of about forty war- 
riors. It would seem that Herkimer's intention was to try and 
persuade Brant to come over to the rebels, and failing in this to 
have Brant assassinated as he was retiring. Says an American 
writer, Brownell, " We are sorry to record an instance of such 
unpardonable treachery as Herkimer is said to have planned at 
this juncture. One of his men, Joseph Waggoner, afftrmed that 
the General privately exhorted him to arrange matters so that 
Brant and his three principal associates might be assassinated." 
Well does it become the Americans to talk about savage barbarity. 
Brant thwarted the intentions of his old friend by keeping his forty 



. WYOMINO. 75 

warriors within call. During all of tho repeated attempts to get 
the Mohawks they never swerved, but reminded the rebels of their 
old treaties with England, and the ill-treatment their people had 
sustained at tho hands of the colonists. ,., ^. 

The head-quartors of Brant was at Oghkwaga, Owcgo, upon 
tho Susquehanna. During the summer of 1777 while Bnrgoyne was 
advancing, tho Mohawks under Brant rendered important service. 
In the attempt to capture Fort Stanwix, they took a prominent part. 
In the summer of 1778 tho Indians, vrith Butler's Eangers were 
engaged principally in boi-der warfare. It was during this season 
that the affair at Wyoming took place, which event has been so 
extravagantly made use of to blacken the character of the Indians 
and vilify the " tories." That Brant was not inhuman, but that he 
.vas noble, let recent American writers testify. Brownell says : 
" many an instance is recorded of his interference, ovon in the heat of 
conflict, to stay the hand uplifted against the feeble and helpless." 

It was in tho latter part of June that a descent was planned upon 
the settlements oi Wyoming. Of this event, again we will let 
Brownell speak : — "It has been a commonly received opinion that 
Brant was tho Chief under whom the Indian portion of the army 
was mustered, but it is now believed that ho had as little share in 
this campaign as in many other sceAes of blood long coupled with 
his name. There was no proof that he was present at any of the 
scenes that we are about to relate." <miW.h- ni>m-'- 

"No portion of the whole history of the revolution has been so 
distorted in tho narration as that connected with the laying waste of 
the valley of Wyoming. No two accounts seem vO agree, and histo- 
rians have striven to out-do each other in the violence of their expres- 
sions of indignation, at cruelties and horrors which existed only in 
their imaginations, or which came to them embellished with all 
the oxageration incident to reports arising amid scenes of excite- 
ment and bloodshed. 

Wyoming had, for many years, been the scene of the bitterest 
hostility between the settlers under the Connecticut grant, and 
those from Pennsylvania. Although these wai-like operations were 
upon a small scale, they were conducted with great vindictiveness 
and treachery. Blood was frequently shed, and as either party 
obtained tho ascendency, small favor was shown to their opponents, 
who were generally driven from 4heir I ornes in hopeless destitu- 
tion. Wo cannot go into a history of thost early transactions, and 
only mention them as explanatory of th'i feelings of savage 



76 ENQAOKMENT AT CHERRY VALLEY. 

animo8ity which were exhibited between neighbors, andet^en nidm- 
bers of the Hamo family, who had espoused opposite interests in the 
revolutionary contest." Such, be it noted, was the character of the 
inhabitants of Wyoming valley, who have been so long held up an 
innocent victims of Indian barbarity. By the above, we learn that 
prior to this, there had been contentions between the loyalists and 
rebels. The party who entered Wyoming to attack the Fort, wore 
under Colonel John Butler, and was composed of some 300 
British regulars and refugees, and 500 Indians. Now, it 
would seem that the depredation which was committed after Colo- 
nel Zebulon Butler, the rebel leader, had been defeat* ', and the 
Fort had capitulated, was to a great extent due to retaliatory steps 
taken by the loyalists who previously had been forced away, and 
had seen their homes committed to the flames. Such was the bor- 
der warfare of those days. It was not Indian savagery, it was a 
species of fighting introduced by the "Sons of Liberty." And if 
we condemn such mode of fighting, let our condemnation rest tirst, 
and mainly upon those who initiated it. Not u]5bn the Indians, for 
they were led by white men — not upon Brant, for he was not there 
— not so much npon the loyalists, for they had been driven away 
from their homes ; but let it be upon those who introduced it. 

The rebel i were not slow {o seek retribution for their losses at 
Wyoming. Aided by a party of Oneidas who lent themselves to 
the rebels, " Colonel Wm. Butler with a Pennsylvania regiment, 
entered the towns of TJnadilla and Oghkwaga, and burned and 
desti-oyed the buildings, together with large stores of provisions 
intended for winter use." In turn, Walter Butler led a party of 
700, a large number being Indians under Brant, to attack a fort at 
Cherry Valley which was "garrisoned by troops under Colonel 
Ichabod Alden." It will be seen that the Indians and loyalists 
did not enter an unprotected place to burn and destroy. They 
attacked a garrison of troops. But the Indians exasperated by the 
cruel procedure at Oghkwaga, became ungovernable, and about fifty 
men, women and children fell by the tomahawk. This was the 
retaliation which the Indian had been taught to regard as justifia- 
ble for the wrongs which had been inflicted upon his dwn tribe— 
his little ones ; yet be it remembered, and later American writers 
admit it, that the commanders, Butler and Brant, did all they could 
to restrain the terrible doings of^ the exasperated men. " Specific 
instances are reported in which the Mohawk Chief interfered, and 
successfully, to avert the murderous tomahawk." 



THE REBEL SULLIVAN. 77 

And now begins the bloody revenge which the robolH deter- 
mined to inflict upon the Indians, without respect to tribes. In 
April, 1779, Colonel Van Schaick was despatched with a sufficient 
force for the purpose, with instructions " to lay waste the whole of 
their towns, to destroy all their cattle and property." " The 
Colonel obeyed his orders to the letter, and loft nothing but black- 
ened ruins behind him." It was merely a march of destruction, for 
the Indians were not there to oppose their steps. The villages 
and property that were destroyed belonged to the Onoudagas, 
although they had not taken a decided stand with the loyalist 
party. It was enough that they were Indians, and would not join 
the rebels. But this was merely a prelude to what was preparing, 
in pursuance of a resolution of the rebel congress. The infamous 
duty of commanding this army of destruction, town destroyers the 
Indians called them, was entrusted to General Sullivan, whose 
nature was adequate to the requirements of the command. 

On the 22nd ^August, 1779, five thousand men were concen- 
trated at Tioga, upon the Susquehanna. The men were prepared 
for their uncivilized duty by promises of the territory over which 
they were about to sow blood and tire. The Indians had no ade- 
quate force to oppose their march westward over the Six Nations 
territory. Brant with his warriors, with the Butlers and Johnsons 
made a gallant resistance upon the banks of the Chemung, near 
the present town of Elmira. But, after suffering considerable loss, 
the vastly superior force compelled them to flee, and there 
remained nothing to arrest the devastating rebel army, and during 
the whole month of September they continued the work of des- 
poliation. 

It has been the custom of almost all American historians to 
give the Indians attributes of the most debasing character. At 
peace, unworthy the advantages of civilization ; at war, treacherous 
and ferociously cruel. For this persistent and ungenerous proce- 
dure it is impossible to conceive any cause, unless to supply an 
excuse for the steady course of double-dealing the Americans have 
pursued toward the original owners of the soil, and provide a cov- 
ering for the oft-repeated treachery practised toward the credulous 
Indian by the over-reaching new Englander. To the Mohawk 
Nation particularly, since they proved true allies of the British, 
have American writers found it agreeable to bestow a (jharacter 
noted for blood and rapine. Nothing can be more untrue than the 
character thus gratuitously portrayed, nothing more at variance 



f^ CONDUCT rOWARD THE INDIANS. 

with the essential nature of the Indian, when free from European 
intrigues, and the cursed fire-water. The aboriginal races of 
North America are not by nature, blood-thirsty above Europeans. 
That they are honest, just and true, capable of distinguishing 
between right and wrong, with a due appreciation of well-kept 
faith, is well attested by the conduct which has ever been observed 
by them toward, not alone the Pennsylvanians, but every man 
found to be a quaker. No instance can be found recorded through- 
out the long bloody wars of the Indians, where a hair of the head 
of a single man, woman or child of that denomination was injured 
by the Indian ; and thus because the upright Penn never defrauded 
them. The Americans, while British colonists, with the exception 
alluded to, made themselves obnoxious to almost all Indian tribes. 
They never secured that hearty and faithful alliance that the 
French did. There seemed to be something in the air, especially 
of the New England States, which in a few generations blinded 
the eye, by which the golden rule is to be obsei^ed. 

The Americans, who have ever set themselves up as the cham- 
pions, par excellence, of liberty, to whom the " down-trodden of the 
old world " could look for sympathy, if not direct support, have 
signally failed to observe those lofty principles at home toward 
the natives of the soil, while they continued for eighty years to 
keep in chains the sable sons of Africa. They have found it con- 
venient and plausible to prate about the political " tyranny of 
European despots;" but no nation of northern Europe has shown 
such disregard for the rights of their people as the United States 
have exhibited toward the original owners of the soil. Avarice has 
quite outgrown every principle of liberty that germinated ere 
they came to America. The frontier men, the land-jobber, the 
New England merchant, as well as the Southern Planter, have 
alike ignored true liberty in defrauding the Indian, in sending out 
slavers, and in cruel treatment of the slave. Then can we wonder 
that the noble-minded Indian, naturally true to his faith, should, 
when cheated, wronged,— cruelly wronged, with the ferocity 
natural to his race, visit the faithless with terrible retribution ? 

The unbiassed records of the past, speak in tones that cannot 
be hushed, of the more noble conduct of the natives, than of those 
who have sought to exterminate them. The Mohawks, although 
brave warriors, fought not for the mere love of it. They even at 
times strove to mediate between the French and New Englanders. 

To the Mohawks, the American writer has especially bestowed 



TUB TOWN DEBTROYERS. 79 

a name bloody and ignoble. And all because they listened not to 
their wily attempts to seduce them to join the rebels, but pre- 
ferred to ally themselves with the British. No doubt the Indian 
had long before discriminated between the rule of British officers, 
and the selfish policy of local governments. And hence, we find, in 
every scrap of paper relating to the Mohawks, unfounded accounts 
of savage doings. But taking, as true, the darkest pages written 
by the Americans against the Six Nations, they present no parallel 
to the deeds of brutal vengeance enacted by the American army 
under Sullivan, when he travcx-sed the fruitful country, so long the 
home of the Iroquois. Says an American writer : " When the army 
reached the Genesee Valley, all were surprised at the cultivation 
exhibited, by wide fields of corn, gardens well stocked, their cattle, 
houses, and other buildings, showing good design, with mechanical 
skill, and every kind of vegetable that could be conceived. Beau- 
tiful as was the scene in the eyes of the army, a few daj's changed 
it to utter desola^on ; neither house, nor garden, grain, fruit tree 
'or vegetable, was left unscathed." 

Says Stone: "Forty Indian towns were destroyed. Corn 
gathered and ungathered, to the amount of 160,000 bushels, shared 
the same fate ; their fruit trees were cut down ; and the Indians 
were hunted like wild beasts, till neither house, nor fruit tree, nor 
field of corn, nor inhabitant, remained in the whole country." 
And the poor Indian women, and children, and old men, were thus 
left at the approaching winter to seek support at the British 
garrisons. Truly the rebels of '76 were brave and civilized I 

Thirteen years after, one of the chiefs said to Washington, 
"Even to this day, when the name of the town-destroyer is heard, 
our women look behind them and turn pale, and our children cling 
close to the necks of their mother ; our sachems and our warriors 
are men, who cannot be afraid, but their hearts are grieved with 
the fears of our women and children." Thus the brave Sullivan, 
with his thousand rebels, made wai* against old men, women and 
children, who were living in their rightful homes. This was 
fighting for liberty ! 

The blood of the Indian, as well as the slave, has risen up to 
reproach the American, and it required much of fresh blood to 
wash away the stains remaining from their deeds of cruelty and 
rapine, inflicted dui-ing their revolutionary war, under the name of 
liberty. The soldiers of Sullivan were stimulated in their evil 
work by promises of the land they were sent to despoil j and the 



'00 INDIAN OIVIUZATION. 

cloBO of tho war saw them return to claim their promises, while the 
rightful owner was driven uway. A c ortain portion of tho Six 
Nations havinpf received piodgos from the United StRces Govora- 
ment for their welfare, remainer' to become subjects of the new 
nation. But excepting Washington himself, and General Schuyler, 
not one heeded thoir promises made to tho Indian. The most 
unjust proceedings wore begun and ruthlessly tarried on by indi- 
viduals, by companies, by legislators, by speculators, to steal every 
inch of land that belonged by all that is right, to the Sonecas. 
How unlike the benignant and faithtVil conduct of tho British 
Government in Canada. 

Brant continued during the war to harass the enemy in every 
possible way, and in the following year, August, planned a terrible, 
. but just retaliation for the work of Sullivan's horde. It was now 
the turn of the rebels to have thoir houses, provisions and crops, 
despoiled. 3ut all the while "no barbarities wore permitted upon 
the persons of defenceless women and children, but a large number 
of them were borno away into captivity." Again, in October,' 
Johnson and Brant, with Corn Planter, a distinguished Seneca 
chief, invaded the Mohawk Valley. In this foray, the same conduct 
was observed toward women and children. On one occasion, 
Brant sent an Indian runner with an infant, that had boon uninten- 
tionally carried from its mother with some captives, to restore it, 
Still, again the following year, the Indians under Brant, and 
the Royalists under Major Eoss, were found over-running their 
old homes along the Mohawk and Schoharie. On this their last 
expedition, they were met by the rebels in force under Colonel 
Willet, with some Oneida warriors, and defeated them. Colonel 
Walter N. Butler, whom the rebels have so often tried to malign, 
waa shot and scalped by an Oneida Indian, under the command of 
the rebel Willet. 

We learn by the foregoing that the Iroquois were not only brave 
as warriors, but they had attained to a much higher position in 
the scale of being then other tribes inhabiting America. They 
' were not ignorant of agriculture, nor indifferent to the blessings 
derived therefrom. The rich uplands of the country lying to the 
north of the Alloghanies, were made to contribute to their wants, as 
did the denizen of the forest. They are equally at home, whether 
upon the war path, the trail of the deer, or in the tilling of land. 
The plow of the Anglo-Saxon has not in seventy years completely 
effaced the evidences of their agricultural skill. And not less were 



brant's death. 31 

thoir Hachoms noted for wisdom in council, and for eloquence Not 
only corn, but bcanHand olhor coroaJH wore cultivated, particularly 
by the Six Nations. Fruitn and edibles, introdued by the Euro- 
poauH, wore propagated by the natives, and when the rebel 
Sullivan, in accordance with orders from Washington, swept over 
thoir country, large orchards of excellent fruit, as well as fields of 
grain, were met with and ruthlessly destroyed, as wore the 
women and children, with their peaceful homes. 

According to Rochefoucault, Brant's manners were half 
European ; he was accompanied by two negro servants, and 
was, « in appearance, like an Englishman." Brant visited Kn'gland 
in December 1785, and was treated with groat consideration. 

After the close of the war, Brant settled at Wellington Square, 
upon land conferred by the Crown, where he lived after the English 
mode. He died hero 24th November, 1807. His wife, who never 
took to civilized life, after her husband's death, removed to the 
Grand River, and lived in her wigwam. Some of her children 
remained in the " commodious dwelling," and others accompanied 
her to the life of the wigwam. • According to Weld, Brant had at 
one time thirty or forty nogro slaves, which he kept in the greatest 
subjection. He also says that Brant's half pay as a captain, and 
his presents yearly received, amounted to £500. 

His last days were made unhappy by a debased son, who, 
after threatening his father's life, was at last killed by him, in self 
defence, by a short sword which Brant wore at his side. Eospecting 
another of his sons, the Kingston Herald, September 5th, 1832, says : 

''It is with unfeigned sorrow tiiat we announce the death of Captain 
JOHN Brant, Cliief of the Six Nations Indians. He died of Cholera, at Brant- 
lord on the 27tli ult after an illness of only six hours. Mr. Brant was the son 
01 tiu) celebrated Indian Chief, whose memory was unjustly assailed by Campbell 
the Poet, and for the vindication of which the subject of this notice some y.-ars 
ago purposely visited England. Possessing the education, feelings, and manners 
Ota gentleman, he was beloved by all who had the pleasure ofliis acquaiut^ince 
ana his death cannot fail to be deeply and very generally regretted." ' 

Wo have spoken of the intimacy that existed between the 
Mohawks and Sir William Johnson, the Colonial Agent of England. 
This, be it remembered, was more than a hundred years ago, and 
great changes have taken place in the opinion of many with 
regard to certain irregularities of society. We cannot excuse 
the conduct of Sir William, when he had lost his European wife, in 
taking the sister of Brant, Miss Molly, without the form of matri- 
monial alliance ; but we must concede every allowance for the 
times in which he lived. But while grave doubt may rest upon 



THE LOYAL M(mAWKK. 



the n,oral principle dinphiyod by him, wc boo no F«t "c'.so" to 
rofloctin any way up<.,. tho Indian fomale. M.h« Mo y took up 
her alxKlo with Hir William, and lived with him an uta.thful spouHe 
until ho died. Howovor. this must not ho roK'>"-dod an indicating 
depravity (m the part of tho Himplo-mindod native. It must b. 
remembered that the Indian's mode of marrying' eoimistH «>f b.it 
little more than tho youn^ squaw leavit.K thi, fathorH w.^wuni, 
and rcparing to that of her future huHband, and there is no rou8oi, 
to doubt that Mis« iVlolly was ever other than a virtuouH woman. 
And this belief is corroborated by the fact that four daughters, the 
i«BU*' of this alliance, were most respectably married. v^' ^ 

Of tho Six NationH, this tribe always wtood foremost m bravo 
and uncompromising adherents to the British Government, not 
withstanding tho utmost endeavors of the rebels to win them to 
their Hide. It becomes, consequently a duty, and a pleasing duty 
to refer more particularly to this race, a remnant of which ycl 
lives upon tho shore of tho bay. Among the Mohawks are, how- 
ovei-, remnants of some of tho other tribes. 

Tho tribe is so-called, after tho river, upon whoso banks they 
80 h)ng lived. Thoy did not formerly acknowledge tho title, but 
called themselves by a name which intorprotod, moans "just such 
a people as wo ought to be." This name is not known, unless it 
may bo Agniors, a name sometimos applied by the French. 

This tribo was tho oldest and most important of tho Six 
Nations, and supplied tho bravest warriors, and one of it^ chicf^ 
was usually in command of tho united warriors of all tho tribes. 

It must not be forgotten that tho Mohawks, who came to 
Canada, and other tribes of the Six Nations, were to all intents, 
Uni -I Empire Loyalists. At the close of the struggle, wo have 
soon olsowhero, that tho commissioners at Paris, in their unseoinlj- 
haste to contract terms of peace, forgot how much was duo to the 
loyalists of America, and urged no special terms to ameliorate 
the condition of tho many who had fought and lost all for the 
maintenance of British power. Likewise did thoy forgot the 
aboriginal natives who had equally suffered. Tho fact that the^e 
Indians were not even referred to, gave Brant a just cause of com- 
plaint, which he duly set forth in a memorial to the Imperial 
Government. But, as the British Government and nation subse- 
quently strove to relieve the suffering condition of the refugees, 
80 did they afford to the loyal sons of tho forest every possible 
facility to make themselves comfortable. Indeed, the BntisH 



LAND (JRANTH TO MOIIAWKrt. 98 

offlcorH in comnmud, at the first, ^uvo a j)l(>(l^ro that all that thoy 
lost Hhoiild 1,0 roHtorod. The promiHO tluiH ^ivcii hy Sir (iiiy 
Cftrlcton, vvuH nititlml l»y his HUccoHHor, (ioiioral llaldiniand, in 
1779, Captain (Jonoral and Conunandor-in-Chiof in Canada, and 
conflrniod l.y Patent, under tlu- (JrcMit Soal, January 14, 170;}, 
iHsuod by Governor .Simcoc. , 

At the eloso of tho war. a portion of die Mohawks wore 
temporarily roHidini,' on the Amorican nide of Niagara Rivor, in the 
vicinity of the old landing' place above the Fort. The Sonoc'as, who 
seem to have been at thiHtime more closely allied than other tribes 
to the Mohawks, ottered to them a tract of land within the territory 
of the United .StatCN. But the Mohawkn would not live in the United 
States. They declared they would "nink or swim with En^Mand." 

Brant proceeded to Montreal to confer with Sir John 
Johnson, General Superintendent of Indian affairs, "The tract 
upon which the chief had Hxod his attention, was situated upon the 
Bay do Quinte." General llaldiniand, in accordance with this 
wish, purchased a tract of land upon the bay from the Mississaugas, 
and convoyed it to the Mohawks. Subsequently, when Brant 
returned to Niagara, the Senocas expressed their desire that their 
old and intimate friends, the Mohawks, should live nearer to them 
than upon the Bay do Quinto. Brant convened a council of the 
tribe to consider the matter, the rosu.t was, that he went a second 
time to Quebec to solicit a tract of land less remote from the 
Senecas. Haldimand granted this request, and the land, six miles 
square, upou the Grand Eiver, was accordingly purchased from the 
Mississaugas, and given to them, forty miles off from the Senecas. 
The above facts are taken from Brant's MS. and History. We may 
infer from this fact, that the party who did come to the bay under 
Captain John, felt less attachment to the Senecas than the other 
portion of the tribe. The quantity of land on the bay originally 
granted was 92,700 acres ; but a portion has been surrendered. 

In the early part of the rebellion, the Mohawk families fled 
from their valley with precipitation. They mostly went to Lachine, 
where they remained three years. They then ascended the river 
m their canoes, and probably stayed a winter at Cataraqui, the 
winter of 1783-4. The whole tribe was under Brant. Second in 
command was Captain John, a cousin of Brant, and his senior in 
years. 

In the spring, a portion of the tribe entered the Bay Quinte, 



g4 MOIIAWKH CrON BAT QUINTE. 

and na«Hoa up tothoproMont township of Tymi.linaKa. The majority, 
led by Brant, paHHO.1 up ftlon^ tho Houth nhoro of Lako Ontivrio to 
Niagara. 

TUB MOHAWKH A8 CANAIHANH. , 

Do8Condttnt8 of tho bravoHt of all tho hravo Indian warrlorn of , 
Amorica, wo tind thorn poacoablo and in most roHpootHinibihinK tho 
Hpirit of tho day. Evor sinco tho party nottlod on tho bay, 
thov havo maniloHtod no turbulont npirit, nono of thono wild 
fttti-ibutos natural to tho wil.l-woods Indian, toward thoir white 
noighborH. Among thomHolvort thoro has boon ono occaHion ol 
diHturbanco. This aroHo from tho quarroUomo nature ot one 
Captain Isaac Hill. This Chief, with his people, formed a part ot 
Brant'K company that settled on the (Jra.ul lliver. Alter a few 
years, having disagreed with his nation, and become exceedingly 
disagreeable from his ottlcious an<i selfish conduct, ho removed to 
tho bay, and united himself with Captain John's party, which 
received him. But he failed to live peaceably with them. 
Eventually the disagreement resulted in a serious hostile 
entragement between tho two branches, who fought with tomahawks 
and knives. But one person was killed, a chief of Capain Jolui s 
party, Powles Claus, who was stabbed in tho abdomen. But 
subsequently Captain Isaac Hill became a worthy inhabitant, llis 
house still standing, then considered large, was frequently open to 
the more festive, across the Bay in Sophiasburgh. 

Out of tho six hundred Indians, now living upon the Eeserve, 
there is only one with pure Indian blood. His name is David 
Smart It has been elsewhoro stated, that the custom pre- 
vailed'among the Mohawk nation, to maintain the number of the 
tribe, by taking captive a sufficient number to fill the vacancies 
caused by death of their people. The result was, that those 
captives marrying with Indians,thoy gradually underwent a change, 
and the original appearance of tho Mohawk has lost its character- 
istic features. The circumstances of tho Indians during the 
revolutionary war, and subsequently in settling in Canada, led to 
frequent unions between tho white men of different nationalities 
and the Indian women. Therefore, at the present day there 
remains but little more than a trace of tho primal Indian who 
lorded it, a hundred years ago, over no inconsiderable portion of the 
North American Continent. 

When visiting the Indians, on our way, we mot some eight or 
ten sleighs laden with them, returning from a funeral. We were 



INDIVIDUAL C0MBATANT8. 85 

which "'Zf l"""' "'" "I'l*-"™"™ "f "Oli'l. «"-,n...|ik. <.„,„f,„.i 
which Mwu K,.™, un,l ,„„voynnr,.« oxhihilcd, «, well m Ihov 
lhorn»olve« .11,1 i„ il,.,i,. huirca,„„|i„„ <in.»H ^ 

Wh.lo .lrunko„n,.»» h.„ |,r<,v,uU,l ..moiiK th„ „l,l„r l,„li«„, it 
.« ,.U.~..nK t„ l<„„w that tho y.,„„«„,. „„„, „J; „„ ,„„„, ^ ^ .' 

Zi T '"■ ";""■ '""' '"■"""'" ''""^"•'- They huvo I«oo „cr„, of 
land. They „u.„U,i- li.Kl, „,„| ,„.„ i„„,„„i„„ ..o,,rly 

The «,„l „(■ ,!,„ M„hn„l< ()„„„.d ,„„y h„ „om, with tho Rov 
Mr And.,™,,,. Th„ ,.,„,„ri„| t„„ri„K« L,»i.t „f ,1,., w I, t^J 
bear «„d ho turtle, Theno «„in,nl-, in the order here g v„ " 
mheate, not tnho-, „„r (Umili„„ oxaetly, but rnnU. The w!l U 
U^h.gho«t el««., the boar next in rank, and the turtle tho owe 



grade. 






' ;I',V <,.'(■• .,. .•....•:. ♦,«,..■... . . . 

. ' vi1«V.', " -vr > »^, CHAPTEK IX. 

INDIVIDUAL COMBATANTS. 

1 17^^ i™'"«f«t«Jy following notices of the CDmbatants who settled 
m Upper Canada are extracted from Sabine. 

"At the beginning of the revolution, Samuel Anderson, of New 
York, went to Canada. He soon entered the service of the Crown 
and was a captain under Sir John Johnson. In 1783 he settled nea; 

c V 1 offices : those of Magistrate, Judge of a district court, and asso- 
oiate Jus ice ot the Court of King's Bench, were among ^hem. He 

nt 1 T f "P'" *'" "'""^ "^^^ ^^^"^^«"' ^« UPP«^ Canada, 

until his decease in 1836, at the age of one hundred md one. His 

property in New York was abandoned and lost " 

Af , '7'"'"^^^"'^"':'°"' "«"*«°a"t in the King's regiment. New York. 
At the peace he retired to Canada. He died near Cornwall, Canada 
West, m 1853, aged ninety. He drew half pay for a period of about 

W2ts''"- """' '' ^'^ '^' ^™^^' '^ ^^^ United Emp 



JOHN BUTLER. 



"John Bethune, of North Carolina, chaplain in the Loyal Militia. 
Taken prisoner in the battle at Cross Creek in 1776. Confined in 
Halifax gaol, but ordered finally to Philadelphia. After his release, 
his continned loyalty reduced him to great distress. He was appointed 
chaplain to the 84th|reginient, and restored to comfort. At the peace 
he settled in lT))per Canada, and died at Williamstown in that colony, 
in 1815, in his sixty-fifth year." 

"James Burwell, of New Jersey, born atEockaway, January 18, 
1 764. Our loyalist enlisted in his Majesty's service in the year 1776, 
at the age of twenty-two, and served seven years, and was present at 
the battle of Yorktown, when Lord Cornwallis surrendered, and was 
there slightly wounded." 

" Came to Upper Canada in the year 1796, too late to obtain the 
King's bounty of family land, but was placed on the United Empire 
list, and received two hundred acres for himseU and each of his child- 
ren. He removed to the Talbot settlement in the year 1810. He 
died in the County of Elgin, Canada, July, 1863, aged ninety-nine 
years and five months." 

"John Butler, of Tyron, now Montgomery county, New York. 
Before the war, Colonel Butler was in close official connection with 
Sir William, Sir John, and Colonel Guy Johnson, and followed their 
political fortunes. At the breaking out of hostilities he commanded 
a regiment of New York Militia, and entered at once into the mili- 
tary service of the Crown. During the war his wife was taken 
prisoner, and exchanr,ed for the wife of the whig colonel, Campbell. 
Colonel John Butler was richly rewarded for his services. Succeeding 
(in part) to the agency of Indian affairs, long held by the Johnsons, 
he enjoyed, about the year 1796, a salary of £600 stg. per annum, 
and a pension, as a miUtary officer, of £200 more. Previously, he 
liad received a grant of 500 acres of land, and a similar pro\ ision for 
his children. His home, after the war, was in Upper Canada. He 
was attainted during the contest, and his property confiscated. He 
lived, before the revolution, in the present town of Mohawk." 

'♦Joseph Canliff, in 1781 a lieutenant in the first battalion Nev/ 
Jersey Volunteers." This person is probably of the same lineage as 
the writer of this work, great confusion often existing with regard to 
the spelling of names in the eariy days of America. 

•' Daniel Claus. He married a daughter of Sir William Johnson, 
and served for a considerable time in the Indian Department of 
Canada, under his brother-in-law. Colonel Guy Johnson.*^ 



COFFIN — DOANE. ' ' 87 

"William Clans, Deputy Superintendent General of Indian affairs, 
was his son." 

Coffin— There were several of this name who took part in the 
war against the rebellion. Of these, the following are connected 
with Canadian history : ' 7 ; '• ' 

" Sir Thomas Aston Coffin, baronet, of Boston, son of William 
Coffin. He graduated at Harvard University in 1772. At one period 
of the rebellion he was private secretary to Sir Guy Carleton. In 
1804 he was Secretary and Comptroller of Lower Canada." After- 
wards Commissary General in the British array. 

"Nathaniel Coffin, of Boston. After the revolution he settled in 
Upper Canada." Served in the war of 1812. " For a number of 
years was Adjutant-General of the Militia of Upper Canada. Died at 
Toronto in 1846, aged 80." 

" John Coffin : was Assistant Commissary General in the British 
army, and died at Quebec in 1837, aged 78." 

" Doano, of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Of this family there 
were five brothers, namely : Moses, Joseph, Israel, Abraham, Mahlon. 
They were men of fine figures and address, elegant horsemen, great 
runners and leapers, and excellent at stratagems and escapes. Their 
father was respectable, and possessed a good estate. The sons them- 
selves, prior to the war, were men of reputation, and proposed to 
remain neutral : but, harassed personally, their property sold by the 
whigs because they would not submit to the exactions of the time, 
the above-mentioned determined to wage a predatory warfare upon 
their persecutors, and to live in the open air, as they best could do. 
This plan they executed, to the terror of the country around, acting 
as spies to the royal army, and robbing and plundering continually ; 
yet they spared the weak, the poor and the peaceful. They aimed at 
public property and at public men. Generally, their expeditions were 
on horseback. Sometimes the five went together, at others separately, 
with accomplices. Whoever of them was apprehended broke jail . 
whoever -^f them was assailed escaped. In a word, such was their 
cours'-., aut 'I .vard of £300 was offered for the head of each. 

" I ! ^in ?.[ ly, three were slain. Moses, after a desperate fight, was 
shot by his captor ; and Abraham and Mahlon were hung at Phila- 
delphia. 

" Joseph, before the revolution, taught school. During the war, 
while on a marauding expedition, he was shot through the cheeks, 
tell from his horse, and was taken prisoner. He was committed to 
jail to await his trial, but escaped to New Jersey. A reward of $800 



88 JARVI8 — jr.NES — m'donald. 

was offered for his apprehension, but without success. He resumed 
his former employment in New Jersey, and lived there, under an 
assumed name, nearly a year, but finally fled to Canada. Several 
years after the peace he returned to Pennsylvania, ' a poor, degraded, 
broken-down old man,' to claim a legacy of about £40, which he was 
allowed to recover, and to depart. In his youth he was distinguished 
for great physical activity." 

The only separate mention of Israel is, that "in February, 1783, 
ho was in jail ; that he appealed to the Council of Pennsylvania to be 
released, on account of his own sufferings and the destitute condition 
of his family, and that his petition was dismissed." 

" Stephen Jarvis, in 1782 was a lieutenant of cavalry in the South 
Carolina Eoyalists. Ho was in New Brunswick after the revolution, 
but went to Upper Canada, and Jied at Toronto, at the residence of 
the Eev. Dr. Phillips, 1840, aged eighty-four. During his service in 
the revolution he was in several actions." 

" William Jarvis, an officer of cavalry in the Queen's Hangers. 
Wounded at the siege of Yorktown. At the peace he settled in Upper 
Canada, and became Secretary of that Province. He died at York in 
1817. His widow, Hannah, a daughter of the Eev. Dr. Peters, of 
Hebron, Connecticut, died at Queenston, Upper Canada, 1845, aged 
eighty-three." 

" David Jones was a captain in the royal service, and is supposed 
to ' have married the beautiful and good Jane McCrea, whose cruel 
death, in 1777, by the Indians, is universally known and lamented.' 
According to Lossing, he lived in Canada to an old age, having never 
married. Jane McCrea was the daughter of tiie Eev. James MoCrea, 
of New Jersey, loyalist." 

" Jonathan Jones, of New York, brother of Jane McCrea's lover. 
Late in 1776 he assisted in raising a company in Canada, and joined 
the British, in garrison, at Crown Point. Later in the war he was a 
captain, and served under General Frazer." 

McDonald — There were a good many of this name who took 
part as combatants, of whom several settled in Canada. 

Alexander McDonald was a major in a North Carolina regiment. 
" His wife was the celebrated Flora McDonald, who was so true and 
80 devoted to the unfortunate Prince Charles Edward, the last Stuart, 
who sought the throne of England. They had emigrated to North 
Carolina, and when the rebellion broke out, he, with two sons, took 
up arms for the Crown." 

Those who settled in Canada were •* Donald McDonald, of New 



M'aiLL — MERRIT — ROBINSON. 89 

York. He served under Sir John Johnson for seven years, and died 
at the Wolfe Island, Upper Canada, in 1839, aged 97." 

" Allan McDonald, of Tryon, New York," was associated with 
Sir John Johnson in 1776. "He died at Three Ei vers, Lower Canada, 
in 1822, quite aged." 

" John McGill.— In 1782 he was an officer of infantry in the 
Q'.een's Rangers, and, at the close of the war, went to New Bruns- 
wick. He removed to Upper Canada, and became a person of note. 
He died at Toronto, in 1834, at the age of eighty-three. At the time 
of his decease he was a member of the Legislative Council of the 
Colony." . y 

" Donald McGillis resided, at the beginning of the revolution, on 
the Mohawk river. New York. Embracing the royal side in the con- 
test, he formed one of a 'determined band of young men' who 
attacked a whig post and, in the face of a superior force, cut down 
the flag-staff, and tore in strips the stars and stripes attached to it. 
Subsequently, he joined a grenadier company, called the Eoyal 
Yorkers, and performed efficient service throughout the war. He 
settled in Canada at the peace; and, entering the British service 
again in 1812, was commissioned as a captain in the Colonial corps, 
by Sir Isaac Brock. He died at Eiver Eaisin, Canada, in 1844, aged 
eighty years." 

" Thomas Merrit, of New York, in 1782 was cornet of cavalry in 
the Queen's Eangers. He settled in Upper Canada, and held the 
offices of Sherift of the District of Niagara and Surveyor of the 
King's Forests. He received half pay as a retired military officer. 
He died at St. Catharines, May, 1842, aged eighty-two." ^^ 

"Nathaniel Munday, in 1782 was an officer in- the Queen's 
Rangers. He was in New Brunswick after the revolution, and 
received half pay ; but left that oolony and, it is believed, went to 
Canada." 

" John Peters, of Hebron, Connecticut ; born in 1740. A most 
devoted loyalist. He went to Canada finally, and raised a corps, 
called the Queen's Loyal Hangers, of which Lord Dorchester gave 
him commanfi. with the rank of lieutenant-coloneL" 

" Christopher Hobinson, of Virginia, kinsman of Beverley. En- 
tered William and Mary College with his cousin Eobert ; esci|>ed 
with him to New York, and received a commission in the Loyal 
American regiment. Served at the South, and was wounded. At the 
peace he went to Nova Scotia, and received a grant of land at Wilmot. 



90 SINGLETON — ROSS — M'NAB. 

He soon removed to Canada, where Governor Simcoe gave him the 
appointment of Deputy Surveyor-General of Crown Lands. His 
salary, half pay, and an estate of two thousand acres, placed him in 
circumstances of comfort. He was the father of several children, 
some of whom were educated in the mother-country. He died in 
Canada. His widow, Esther, daughter of Rev. John Sayre, of New 
Brunswick, died in 182V. His son, Beverley Eobinson, who was born 
in 1V91, was appointed Attorney-General of Upper Canada in 1818 ; 
Chief Justice in 1829 ; created a Baronet in 1854; and died in 1863." 

" Singleton — A lieutenant in the ' Royal Greens,' was wounded 
in 1777, during the investment of Fort Stanwix." Probably Captain 
Singleton, who settled in Tliurlow, Upi)er Canada, was the same per- 
son. 

" Finley Ross, of New York, was a follower of Sir John Johnson 
to Canada in 1776. After the revolution he served in Europe, and 
was at Minden and Jena. He settled at Charlotteburgh, Upper Canada, 
where he died, in 1830, aged ninety." 

"Allan McNab, a Lieutenant of cavalry in the Queen's Rang- 
ers, under Colonel Simcoe. During the war he received thirteen 
wounds. He accompanied his commander to Upper Canada, then 
a dense, unpeopled wilderness, where he settled. He was appointed 
Sergeant-at arms of the House of Assembly of that Province, 
and hold the office many years. His son, the late Sir Allan 
McNab, was a gentleman who filled many important offices in Up])er 
Canada." 

The Hamilton Spectator, speaking of the death of Sir A. N. Mc- 
Nab, says : "The Hon. Colonel Sir Allan Napier McNab,Bart., M.L.C., 
A. D. C, was born at Niagara in the year 1798, of Scotch extrac- 
tion, — his grandfather, Major Robert McNab, of the 22nd regi- 
ment, or Black Watch, was Royal Forester in Scotland, and resided 
on a small property called Dundurn, at the head of Loch Earn. 
His father entered the ai'my in her Hajesty's 7th regiment, and 
was subsequently pi'omoted to a dragoon regiment, He was 
attached to the staff of General Simcoe during the revolutionary 
war; after its close he accompanied General Simcoe to this country. 
When the Americans attacked Toronto, Sir Allan, then a boy at 
school, was one of a number of boys selected • as able to carry a 
muOTet ; and after the authorities surrendered the city, he retreated 
with the army to Kingston, when through the instrumentality of 
Sir Roger Sheaif, a friend of bis father's, he was rated as mid-ship- 
man on boaixl Sir James Teo's ship, and accompanied the expedi- 



CAPTAIN JOSEPH ALLEN. 91 

tions to Sackott's Harbor, Genesoo, and other places on the Ameri- 
can 8lde of the lake. Poinding promotions rather slow, he left the 
navy and joined the 100th regiment under Colonel Murray, and 
was with them when they re-occupied the Niagara frontier. He 
crossed with the advanced guard at the storming and taking of Fort 
Niagara. Fop his conduct in this affair he was honored with an 
ensigncy in the 49th regiment. He was with General Eyall at 
Erie, and crossed the river with him when Black Rock and Buffalo 
were burned, in retaliation for the destruction of Niagara, a few 
months previous. After the termination of this campaign. Sir 
Allan joined his regiment in Montreal, and shortly after marched 
with them to the attack of Plattsburg. On the morning of the 
attack he had the honor of commanding the advanced guard at the 
Saranac Bridge. At the reduction of the army in 1816 or 1817, 
he was placed on half-pay. 

It is impossible at this time to give anything like a history of 
the disbanded soldiers who settled on the shores of the Bay and the 
St. Lawrence. There could not be allowed the space necessary to 
do justice to the character of each. But even if such were possible 
we are wanting in the essential matter of information. We pro- * 
pose, however, to insert the names of every one known to have 
been a loyal combatant, whether an officer or private, with such 
statements relative to his history as we possess. Wo shall not con- 
fine ourselves to this particular region of the Province, but include 
those who settled at Niagara, and in Lower Canada. And while 
we may not supply a complete account of any one, it is trusted 
that the instalment will not be unacceptable to the descendants of 
those to whom we refer. We shall arrange them alphabetically 
without reference to rank or station. 

Captain Joseph Allen, formerly Captain Allen of New Jersey, 
hold a commission in the British Army at New York for some 
time during the war. Ho owned extensive mill property, and was 
regarded as a very wealthy person. All his possessions were f^on- 
fiscated, and he in 1783, found his way, among other refugees, first 
to Sorel, where he stayed a winter, and finally to Upper Canada. 
His family consisted of two sons, John and Jonathan, and three 
daughters, Rachel, Ursula, and Elizabeth. Captain Allen was one 
of the first settlers in Adolphustown, and his descendants still live 
in the township, among whom are Parker Allen, Esq., J.D. Watson, 
Esq., and David McWherter, Esq. Captain Allen had extensive 
grants of land in Adolphustown, and in Marysburgh, and else- 



92 ALLISON — ASHLEY. 

where ; as well m his children. Jonathan Allen, succoedod hi« 
father upon the homestead, and was for many years an acceptable 
Justice of the Peace. His brother, Joseph Allen, moved to Marys- 
burgh, and was a Captain of militia during the war of 1812. Cap- 
tain Allen brought with him several slaves, " who followed his for- 
tunes with peculiar attachment, oven after their liberation." 

We have seen that the rebellion led to the divisions of familiea. 
It was 80 with the Allison family of Ilaverstraw, New York. 
There wore seven brothers, two sided with the rebels. One Ben- 
jamin, being a boy, was at home, while the other four took part 
with loyalists. One settled in New Brunswick, probably the 
Edward Allison Sabine speaks of, who had been captain in Do 
Lancey's third battalion, and who received half-pay, and after 
whom Mount Allison is called. 

Joseph Allison was living at Ilaverstraw, New York. lie was 
for a time engaged in the navy yard at New York. At one time 
he and another entered the rebel camp, and after remaining a few 
days availed themselves of a dark night and carried off five excel- 
lent horses belonging to a troop of cavalry. They were pursued 
and barely escaped. Allison took these horses in return for the 
loss of his house and other property which the rebels had ruthlessly 
burned. He was at the battle of White Plains, and had narrow 
escapes, his comrade beside him was shot down, and his canteen 
belt cut in two by a ball. As he could not carry the canteen, he 
^ took time to empty that vessel of the rum which it contained. 

His neighbors at Haverstraw were exceedingly vindictive 
against him. After several years, he visited there to see his aged 
mother, when a mob attempted to tar and feather him, and he had 
to hide in the woods all night. Allison came to Canada with Van 
Alstine, and drew lot 17, in Adolphustown. A strong, healthy and 
vigorous man, ho contributed no little to the early settlement. 
Died upon his farm, aged eighty-eight. His wife's name was Mary 
Richmond, of a well-known quaker family. His descendants still 
occupy the old homestead, a most worthy family. Benjamin Allison, 
the youngest, came to Adolphustown in 1795. 

William Ashley, sen., was born in the city of London, Eng- 
land, in the year 1749, and joined the army at an early age. 

During the American Revolotionary war, he came out under 
General Howe, serving in all his campaigns until the close of the 
struggle. He had two brothers also in the army with him, one of 
whom returned to England, and the other settled somewhere in the 



THE ASH LEYS. 



United States, the exact locality not now bein^' known. General 
J. M. Ashley, llopublican member of Congresa from Ohio, is, so 
far as can be ascertained, a descendant of this brother. 

After the termination of the war, William Ashley came 1o 
Canada, and first settled in the township of Loborough, county of 
Frontenac, where he married Margaret Buck, the daughter of a 
U. B. L., and one of the first settlers in this part of Canada. He 
resided here until about 1790, when he removed to Kingston, 
whore he followed the employment of a butcher, and was the first 
butcher in Kingston, a fact he often mentioned in his old age. He 
built a house of rod cedar logs, cut from the spot, which continued 
to stand ui^til 1868, when it was taken down and a small brick 
building, the •' Victoria Hotel," built on the site. When removed 
the logs were found in a perfectly sound condition, they having 
been covered with clapboards many years ago, which preserved 
them from the weather. 

This house stood on Brock street, near the corner of Bagot 
street. At the time of its erection there were scarcely twenty 
residences in the place, and that part of the city now lying west of 
the City Hall was then covered with a dense forest of pine, cedar 
and ash. William Ashley lived to see this pass away and a flour- 
ishing city spring up. He died in 1835, leaving a family of ten 
children— Margaret, Maiy, Elizabeth, William, John, James, 
Thomas, Henry, Adam and George : all of whom are now dead 
excepting Thomas, who resides near Toronto. 

James also died in 1835, and Henry, who was the first gaoler 
in Picton, died in 1836, at the early age of thirty-one. 

William Ashley, Jun., married Ann Gerollamy, daughter 
of an officer in the British army, serving through the 
Revolutionary War, and acting as Orderly in the war of 1812. 
He left Kingston in 1830, and resided until 1842 near the mouth of 
Black Eiver, in the township of Marysburgh, and then returned, 
and continued to reside there, teaching, and filling various offices 
until his death, August 16, .1867. 

The British Whig newspaper when recoi-ding his death, 
remarked, "Mr. Ashley was one of our oldest citizens, and has 
lived to witness' many changes in his native place. He was born 
on the very spot where the British Whig office now stands." The 
last sentence is a mistake, he was not born in the city, but in the 
township of Loborough; although the building containing the 
British Whig office still belongs to the 'Ashley property' on Baeot 
Street." ^ i j s 



BELL — BURRITT. 



John Asliloy was ^aolor in Kingston for a number of years 
when the gaol Btood noar tlio site oi the present Post Office, and 
tilled public situations tVom the time ho was nineteen years of ago 
until his death in 1858. He was a prominent member of the 
County Council for nearly twenty years, and was Colonel of the 
militia at the lime of his death. 

Adam and (rcorgo Ashley both died in 1847. 
William Boll— We shall have occasion to speak of William 
Bell in different places in those pages. He was born August 12, 
1758, in County of Tyrone, Ireland. 

At the time of the Ilevolutionary War ho was a sergeant in 
the 53rd regiment of the lino. Some time after the close of the 
war, ho succeeded in procuring his discharge from the service, at 
Lachine, and came to Cataraqui, sometime in 1789. Ho was on 
intimate terms with John Ferguson, and, we believe, related by 
marriage. It was at Ferguson's solicitation that Bell came to the 
Bay. We have before us an old account book, by which we learn 
that Ferguson and B<^U commenced trading on the front of Sidney 
in the latter part of 1789. They remained hero in business until 
1792. Subsequently Boll became school teacher to the Mohawks, 
and seems to have done business there in the way of trading, in 
1799. In 1803 we find him settled in Thurlow. Ferguson, who 
was living at Kingston, had been appointed Colonel of the Hast- 
ings Militia, and Bell was selected by him to assist in organizing 
the body. He was commissioned captain in December 1798, Major 
in August 1800; and in 1809 Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel Bell 
was well known as a public man in Thurlow. He was appointed 
to several offices— Magistrate, Coroner, and finally Colonel of the 
Hastings Battalion. As magistrate he took an active part in the 
doings of Thurlow and Belleville for many years. Ho was also an 
active person in connection with the agricultural societies, until a 
few years before his death, 1833. The papers loft by Colonel Bell 
have been of great service to us. His wife's name was Rachel 
Hare, who died 1853, aged eighty-one. 

Colonel Stephen Burritt took part in the war against the 
rebels, being seven ^ ears in the army, in Roger's Rangers. He 
settled upon the Rideau, the 9th of April, 1793. In the same year 
was born Colonel E. Burritt, who was the first child bom of white 
parents north of the Rideau. This interesting fact was given to the 
writer by Colonel E. Burritt in 1867. Colonel Burritt is a cousin 
of the celebrated Learned Blacksmith. 



CA8BY — 0AR80ALLIAN — CHURCH. Vi 

VVillot Cusoy was born in Rhoclo Island. IHn father was killod 
in battle during the war. At the cIoho of the war lie Hottlod near 
Lake Champlain, upon what he supposed to be British territory, 
but tindin/.( such was not the case, and although he bad made con- 
siderable clearing, ho removed again. Turning his steps toward 
Upper (/anada with his aged mother and wife, ho reached in due 
time, the 4th township. Tho family, upon arriving, found shelter 
in a blacksmith's shop until a log hut could bo built. Three months 
afterwards the old mother died. VVillet Casey had a brother in a 
company oi^iiorsomen, who ibught for the Bntish. lie remained in 
the States and wont South. It is probably tho descendants of this 
Casey, who took an active part in tho late civil wai in the United 
States, 

The writer has seen the fine, erect old couple that camo to 
Canada, when on tho verge of eighty, and two nobler specimens of 
nature's nobility could not be imagined. 

Luke Carscallian was an Irishman by birth, and had served in the . 
British army; ho had retired and emigrated to the American colonies 
prior to the rebellion. He desired to remain neutral, and take no 
part in tho contest. The rebels, however, said to him that inas- 
much as he was acquainted with military tactics he must come and 
assist them, or be regarded as a King's man. His reply was that 
he had fought for thg king, and he would do it again, consequently 
an order was issued to arrest him ; but when they came to take him he 
had secreted himself. The escape was a hurried one,and all his posses- 
sions wore at the mercy of the rebels — land to the amount of 12,000 
acres. They, disappointed in not catching him, took his young 
and tender son, and threatened to hang him if he would not reveal 
his father's place of concealment. The brave little fellow replied, 
hang away ! and tho cruel men under the name of liberty carried 
out their threat, and three times was he suspended until almost 
dead, yet he would not tell, and then when taken down one of the 
monsters actually kicked him. 

Oliver Church was Lieutenant in the 84th regiment. He set- 
tled with the many other half-pay officers, on the front of Freder- 
icksburgh, three miles west of Bath. He had three sons, and three 
daughters, who settled upon the Bay, but are now dead except one 
daughter. Lieutenant Church died in 1812, and hie wife some 
-jears later. They were both very old when they died. 

A grand-child of the old veteran, Mrs.H. of Belleville informs 



99' OLABK — ORAWrOBD — DAHI. 

UH that hIio hftH ofYon hoani about hor j;frandfath«r havlnpf to crush 
grain hy hand, and spending a wook K^^in^ to tho KingHton mill. 

Robert Clark, lato of tho TownHhip of FrnoHt town, in 
tho County of Addington, was born March 15, 1744 on (Jiiakor 
Hill, DuchoHH County, Province of Now York. Ho loarnod 
tho trade of carpenter and millwright, of a Mr. Woolly. He lefl 
hiH family and joined the British ntandard in tho revolution- 
ary war, was in fJonoral Burgoyne's army, and was rofiuostod by 
tho General that ho and other Provincial volunteorH, Hhould leave 
the army and go to Canada, which place he reachodi'Bfler Home 
weeks of groat Huft'ering and privation. Tho day after he left 
(October 17, 1777,) General Burgoyne capitulated, and Hurrendorod 
his arms to tho American Generals Gates and Arnold. Robert 
Clark subsequently served two years in his Majesty's Provincial 
Rogiii, i called tho Loyal Rangers, commanded by Major Edward 
Jessup, and in Captain Sabastian Jones' company, and was diH- 
chargod on tho 24th Docombor, 1783. Ho owned two farms in 
Duchess County, one of 100, tho other of 150 acres, both of which 
wore confiscated. He was employed by tho government in 1782-3 
to erect tho Kingston mills, (then Cataraqui) proparatoiy to the 
settlement of the loyalists in that Koction of Upper Canada, at 
which time his family, consisting of his wife and three sons, arrived 
at Sorol in Lower Canada, where they all were afflicted with the 
small nox, and being entirely among strangers they were com- 
pelled to endure more than tho usual amount of suffering incident 
to that disease, their natural protector being at a distance, and in 
tho employ of tho government, could not leave to administer to 
their necessity. In 1784, his family joined him at the mills, after 
having been separated by the vicissitudes of war for a space of 
seven years. In 1785 he removed with his family to lot No. 74, 
Ist concession Ernest town, in which year he was again employed 
by government to erect the Napaneo mills. Ho was appointed 
Justice of tho Peace for the district of Mecklenburgh, in July 1788, 
and a ca2)tain in tho militia in 1809, and died 17th December, 1823. 

John C. Clark was married to Rachel Storer, and had a family 
of ten sons and three daughters. 

Captain Crawford, of the Rogers corps, settled on lot No. 1 of 
Fredericksburgh. Became a magistrate, and lived to bo an old 
man, was also colonel of militia. 

George Dame was the son of Theophilus Dame, evidently a 
veteran soldier, from the copy of his will now before us. He gave 



TUB DAMKS. q-j 

to hiH '< Hon Goorffo Dnme. the „„o-httlf of ,ny (hi.) .vnl ostato In 
)ovo,. h„^Man.l, t„ hohl to hi.n forov.r," hIho hiH vvoari,.^ nnparol 
bookM. goM wutoh, «iIt-hou.loa cn„o. ho.MOH, sloi^h a..d UaLsJ, 
unci one hundred d<.Ila,..." Jio bequoutho.l to hiH KrandHon, John 
Prodenck i>ame, Iuh camp hodsteml, and c.rtainH and valence foi- 
carriaKO of camp Mstcml, and hJH Hilvor-mounte.l hanger. To his 
KrandHon Augustus J^amo, hin fuHoe, gorget, arul Hmall Hoal skin 
runk. lo Another grandson he left his doublc-barrellcMl piHtoI 
l}y reference to those items wo learn that Thoophilus Dame must 
have been a British officer of some standing. 

His tun, George Dame, followed in the footsteps of his father 
in pursuing the proferision of arms. Wo have before us a docu- 
mont, dated 1765, which declares that "Ensign George Dame of 
the 8th or King's Own Eegiment of foot, was admitted burgess of 
the Burgh of Dumfries, with liberty to him to exercise and enioy 
the whole immunit.es and privileges thereof, &c." For some reason 
this commission in the 8th regiment was relinquished; but ton ■ 
years later wo find he has a commission from General Carleton 
Major-Goneral and Commander-in-chief of Ilis Majesty's forces in 
the Province of Quebec, and upon the frontier thereof, appointinir 
him "Ensign in the Hoyal Begiment of Highland Emigrants com- 
manded by Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Allan McLean " 
- Given under my hand and seal at the Castlo of Saint Lewis in 
the city of Quebec, 21st of November, 1775." In 1779 he received 
a commission from Frederick Haldimand, Captain-Goneral and 
Governor-in-Chief, &c, appointing him "Captain in a corps of 
Bangers raised to serve with the Indians during the rebellion 
whereof John Butler, Esq., is Major Commandant". 

After the close of the war, Captain Dame lived at Three Rivers 
Lower Canada, where wo find him acting as Returning Officer in 
1 «92, Mured Clarke being Lieutenant Governor. Ho died at Throe 
Kivers, April 16th, 1807. 

An official paper before us sets forth that « Guy, Lord Dorches- 
ter, authorizes Frederick Dame, 'by beat of drum or otherwise' 
forthwith to raise from amongst the inhabitants of Upper and Lowe'r 
Canada, as many able-bodied men as will assist the completing of a 
company, to be commanded by Captain Richard Wilkinson. This 
company to be mainly provincial, and for the service of Canada, and 
to serve for the space of three years, or during the war. This order 
shall continue in force for twelve months." Dated at the Castle of St 
Lewis, Quebec, 2l8t June, 1 7U6. This is signed « Dorchestbk " 



98 CAPTAIN DALY. 

The Bame yonr, bearing date tho 17th DMomhor, \n a oommifwion 
from Robert Prcscott, E«q., l.ioutonant-(Jovonior, appointing l'>0'»- 
crick Dmne onHJgn to the Hccon.I battalion Royal Canadian Vohint«<,rH. 
In th(^ year 1802 John Freaericl« Dame received hiH oonuniHsion 
an Surveyor of Lan<l« in Upper and Lower Canaila, from Robert Shore 
MihioR Lieut«-nantrGovernor, upon the certificate of Joseph Rouchotte, 
Esq., Deputy Surveyor-Genorul. Up to this time it would seora he 
had been living at Tliree Rivcrn. 

Allan Dame, a Hon of tlu; aforementioned, is now residing m 
MaryHburgh, not far from McDonald's Cove. He is now in the neigh- 
borhood of sixty : this is his native place. Ito is a fine specimen of 
an English Canadian farmer ; and well he may be, being a descendant 
of a worthy stock, of English growth. He is married to the ^grand- 
daughter of Colonel McDonald. 

Daly— P. K. Daly, Escj., of Thurlow, has kindly furnished us 
with the following interesting account : « r^ i 

Captain Peter Daly, my grandfather, was the son of Cai>t. Daly, 
of an Irish regiment, that was stationed in Now York for some years 
before the outbreak of the old revolutionary war, but was called home 
to Ireland before the commencement of hostilities ; and finally fell a 
victim to that cruel code of honor which oblige<l a man to fight » 

At the earnest solicitation of a bachelor friend, of tho name of 
Vroman,.ho had been induced to leave his son Peter behind. Mr. 
Vroraan resided upon the banks of the Mohawk, where the city of 
Amsterdam now stands. He was a man of considerate wealth, all ot 
which he promised to bestow upon his son, Peter Daly; a promise he 
would, in aU probability, have kept, had circumstances permitted; 
but he was prevented by the stern realities of the times-those stern 
realities that tried men's souls, and called upon every man to declare 
himself The subject of this sketch could not dishonor the blood 
that flowed in his veins, and, although but 16 years of age, he clung 
firmly to the old flag that, for " a thousand years had braved the bat- 
tle and the breeze.'.' He joined a company, and followed the destiny 
of his flag along the shores of Lake Champlain, where, in one night, 
he assisted in scaling three forts. He assisted in taking Fort Tycon- 
deroga, and gradually fought or worked his way into Canada. The 
war closing, he, in company with other loyalists, came up the Bay ot 
Quinte, and subsequently married and settled in the second concession 
of Ernest town, in the vicinity of the viUage of Bath, where, by culti- 
vating his farm, and by industry, he secured a comfortable living. 



DIAMOND — I.OYHT. 00 

He was ic'nmiko<l throuuh lifo for IiIn strictly hoix.ruMo .U.alinff, 
and IwH aahoroiim* to " th« oil rtag." In rullj^ion hu whm h tlini l»roM. 
bytoriuiL From his ol.l proti'ctor, Vroinun, \w twvvr liuanl anything 
definite. Ho oaro.l Imt littlo for tht. lan.l that had driven him into 
exUo, to dwell amonj.^ the wild lieaNtH of the unbroken foroHt. 

It \H HtippoHod that Vronian, in IiIh deelininj< yearH, gave IiIn pro- 
perty lo Honio other favorite. He timt as it may, Peter Daly Haw nono 
of it, but eame into tluM <!ountry naked, an it were; earved out of the 
foreHt hiH own fortune, and left a numerous and respecled family. 
There are now only two of Iun sour living, ThomaH and (Jharles, who 
live on the old farm, near Bath. IIIh oldeHt daughter, Mrs. Aikens, 
is still living, in Sidney. My father, Philip, was the eldest. lie died 
at Oak Shade, in Ernest town, in I HOI, in the tist year of his age. 
David, the next son, lived and dio.l at Waterloo, near Kingston ; and 
Lewis livo<l and died at Storrington. The first wife of Asal Rockwell, 
of Ernest town was a daughter of his. Jacob Shibly, Esq., ex M.P.P., 
married another daughter ; and the late Joshua Boatto another! 
Their descendants are numerous. 

John Diamond was born in Albany, with several brothers. An 
elder brother was drafted, but he tried to escape from a service that 
was distasteful to him ; was concealed for some time, and upon a sick 
bed. The visits of the doctor led to suspicion, and the hoiiso was 
visited by rebels. Although he had been placed in a bed, and the 
clothes so arranged that, as was thought, his presence would not be 
detected, his breathing beU-ayed him. Thoy at once require<l his 
father to give a bond for $1,200, that his son should not he removed 
while sick. He got well, and, some time after, again sought to escape, 
but was cauglit, and handcuffed to another. Heing removed from one 
place to another, the two prisoners managed to knock their guard on 
the head, and ran for life through the woods, united together. One 
would sometimes run on one side of a sapling, and the other on the 
opposite side. At night they managed to rub their handcuffs off, and 
fiually escaped to Canada. Of the other brothers, two were carried off 
by the rebels, and never more heard of. John was taken to tlie rebel 
army when old enough to do service; but he also escaped to Canada, 
and enlisted in liogers' Battalion, with which he did service until the 
close of the war, when he settled with the company at Fredericks- 
burgh. 

John Diamond married Miss Loyst, a native of Philadelphia, 
whose ancestors were German. She acted no inferior part, for a 
woman, during the exciting times of the rebellion. They married 



f(ij© JOHN FEROUSON. 

in Ix)\ver Canada. Thoy spent their first summer in Upper Canada, in 
clearing a little spot of land, and in the fall got a little grain in the 
ground. They slept, during the summer, under a tree, but erected 
a small hut before winter set in. 



CHAPTEE X. 

CoNTKNTS.-Fcrguson-B^iazcr-Gerollcmy- Goldsmith- Harrison— Hodgins- 
Hicl«-Howell-PIovcr— Hogle-Ham-Herkimer-Holt-.Jories-John8on 
—Ketcheson—Loyst— Myers— McArtlmr—Miller— Mordens— McDonald- 
McDonnell— McDonell—Ostrora-Pcterson. 

INDIVIDUAL COMBATANTS — CONTINUED. 

Among the early and influential settlers upon the bay, was 
John Ferguson, It has been our good fortune to come into pos- 
session of a goed many public and private letters penned by his 
hand, and invaluable information has thus been obtained. The 
following letter will inform the reader of the part he took in the 
service during the war. It is addressed to Mr. Augustus Jones. 

fr*^ KiNQSTGN, 22nd July, 1792. 

Dear Sir, — 

Inclosed is my old application for the land on the carrying 
place, which I send agreeable to your desire. I need not attempt 
to explain it better, as you know so well what I want. I wish, if 
consistent, that land, 200 acres, Mrs. Ferguson is entitled to, 
might be joined to it. If I cannot got a grant of the carrying 
place, will you be so good as to let me know what terms it may be 
had on. I have it in my power to settle the place immediately, 
had I any security for it. I am certain Mr. H; ailton will interest 
himself for me, but I am loth to apply to him .. present, as in all 
probability he has too much business to think of besides. hould 
it bo asked how and where I served, I will mention the particulars. 
The 24th June, 1174, I was appointed, and acted as barrack- 
master until 24th March, 1778, when I was ordered to Carleton 
Island, being also commissary at the post. Thirteenth 
April, 1782, 1 was appointed barrack-master of Ontai-io, where I 
remained until ordered to Cataraqui in September, 1783, and acted 
as barrack-master for both posts, until 24th June, 1785, when 1 



FRAZKR. 101 

was obliged to relinquish it, having more busineHK in the commis- 
Hary's department than I could well manage, with the other 
appointment, occasioned by the increase of loyalists settling in 
this neighborhood. Twentj'-fifth Feburary. 1778, my father then 
being commissary of Oswegotchie, delivered the stores to me, as 
he was unable to do the duty himself He died 13th Mnrch, 
following, when I was appointed his successor. 

The 13th April, I was ordered to Carleton Island to assist Mr. 
McLean in the transport business. In November, 1778, I was again 
sent to Oswegotchie, where I remained commissary of the post until 
24th June, 1782, when I was soi.t to Ontario to take charge there, 
from thence I was sent to this place, 24th September, 1783, where I 
remained until a reformation took place in the commissary depart- 
ment, and I was on the 24th June, 1787, served like a great many 
others, .^ent about my business without any provision, after having 
spent ' y best days in His Majesty's service. 

You see I was eleven years barrack-master, and nine years a 
commissary, I was also six years in the Commissary General's 
oflOice at Montreal (a clerk,) during which time my father was 
permitted to do ray duty as barrack-master. I will write you again 
by next opportunity. 

Your very humble servant, 

(Signed) John Ferguson. 

f 

Ensign Frazer, of the the 84th regiment settled at the point 
of Ernest town. Had three sons. His widow married Colonel 
Thompson. 

The Cornwall Freeliolder, notices the death of Mr. Frazer, of 
St. Andrew's, C. W., the discoverer of Fi-azer river, and of Mrs. 
Frazer, who departed this life a few hours afterwards. Mr. Frazer 
was one of the few survivors of the find old " Northwesters," and 
his name, as the first explorer of the golden stream which bears it, 
will be remembered with honor long after most of the provincial 
cotemporaries are forgotten. The Freeholder says : " Mr. Frazer 
was the youngest son of Mr. Simon Fi*azer, who emigrated to the 
State of New York, in 1773. He purchased land near Bennington ; 
but upon the breaking out of the revolutionary war, he attached 
himself to the royal cause, and served as captain, at the battle of 
Bennington ; where he was captured by the rebels. He died in 
Albany jail, about thirteen months afterwards, his end being 
hastened by the rigorous nature of the imprisonment. He was 



102 QEROLLAMY. 

married to Isabella Grant, daughter of Daldregan, and had issue, 
four sons and five daughters. The widow, with her children, came 
to Canada after the peace of 1783. vSimon Frazer, the older, the 
father of the object of this notice, was the second son of William 
Frazer, the third of Kilbockie, who, by his wife, Margaret, daughter 
of John McDonoU, ot Ardnabie, had nine sons : — Ist. William, the 
fourth of Kilbockie : 2nd, Simon, who came to America, as we have 
seen ; 3rd. John, who was captain in Wolf's army, shared in the 
honors of the capture of Quebec, and was subsequently, for many 
years, Chief Justice of the Montreal district ; 4th. Archibald, who 
was Lieutenant in Prazor's regiment, under General Wolfe, was 
afterwards captain of the Glengarry Fencibles, and served in Ireland 
during the rebellion in '98; 5th. Peter, a doctor of medicine, who 
died in Spain ; 6th. Alexander, who served as captain in General 
Caird's army, and died in India; 7th. Donald, a Lieutenant in the 
army, who was killed in battle in Germany ; 8th. James, also a 
Lieutenant in the army, and one of the sufferers in the Black Hole 
of Calcutta, in 1766 ; 9th. Eodcrick, who died at sea." 

Mr. J. B. Ashley, a native of Marysburgh, to whom much 
valuable information we possess is due, says: "Mygi'eat grand- 
father, James Gerollamy, was but seventeen years of age when he 
joined General Clinton's army in 1779, and remained in the service 
until the virtual close of the war in 1782, when he came from New 
York to Quebec, and thence to Bath, where he settled, on what was 
until lately known, as the " Hichcock Farm." He afterwards 
removed to the town, and settled on lot No. 11, 1st concession, lake 
side. He received from government certain farming implements, 
the same as before mentioned. A part of them coming into the 
hands of my father, Augustus Ashley, of Marysburgh. The 
hatchet, I have often used when a young lad in my childish 
employments. It is now lost. The share and coulter belonging to 
the plough, remain among a collection of old iron in my father's 
woodshed until the present day. James Gerollamy, married Ann 
Diilraage, the daughter of Thomas Dulmage, who came with him 
to Canada and settled near him at Bath, in the second town, and 
subsequently moved to lot No. " D," at the head of South Bay, in 
the township of Marysburgh, where he died. The graves of himself 
and wife being still under a large maple tree, close to the site of 
his house. 

James Gerollamy, and his two sons, James and John, served 
through the war of 1812, under General Provost, Brock and 



GOLDSMITH — HARRISON. 103 

Drummond. Tho old man holding the rank of Orderly, and his 
son James that of Lieutenant. The latter i-eceived a grant of 
1000 acres of land for services as a " spy," he was one of tho 
number who planned the successful attempts upon Oswego, Black 
Kock and Buffalo, and at the battle of Niagara, generally known 
as " Lundy's Lane." He fought in the company or regiment 
known as " Grenadiers," which, in their mancouvering were 
compelled to run and wallow over a field of corn with mud ankle 
deep. 

Tho whole family were remarkable for large size, being over six 
feet in heigh t,of great strength, and heal thy, with robust constitutions 
The old gentleman was acknowledged the surest marksman in this 
section of the country, and his "fusil," was his constant companion. 
He died about ten years ago, aged about ninety-five years, being 
in full possession of his faculties until the last. I can well remem- 
ber seeing him sauntering through the garden, bent with his 
weight of years, and leaning on his staif. 

Thomas Goldsmith, a native of Ulster Co., Montgomery town, 
New York. He was engaged as a spy, and discharged important 
and successful duties, in carrying information from Gen. Burgoyne to 
Lord Cornwallis, and returning with despatches. He frequently pass- 
ed the guards of the Continental army, and often was subjected to a 
close search, but succeeded in eluding detection. Goldsmith owned 
one thousand acres of land, on which was a flom-ing mill with two 
run of stones. Also, a sailing vessel launched, but. not entirely 
finished, for the West India trade. The boat was sacrificed. The 
produce of his farm was paid for in Continential bills. The maila- 
ble iron of his mill was taken to make a chain to put across the 
Hudson to stop boats. His neighbors, the rebels, catching him one 
day from home, covered him and his horse and saddle, with a coat of 
tar and feathers. After the close of the war, he was compelled to part 
with his land to get away. It was sold for a mere trifle. He came 
into Canada in 1786, bringing with him some cattle, most of which 
died for want of something to eat. He was accompanied by David 
Conger, and reached Kingston, June 24. Settled at first in tho 
fourth township ; but soon after removed to Holliwell, where he 
received a grant of 400 acres of land, 1st. con., lot 9. Here he 
lived and died, aged ninety. 

Sergeant Harrison was a native of Ireland, and served for 
many years in the fifty-third regiment. For some time during the 
revolutionary war, he was in the Quarter-master's store, and post 



' HObGINS — HICKS. ■' 

office. Ho was jiltogethor twonty-eight years in the service. At 
the close of the war, he settled in Marysburgh, with the first band, 
not connected with the Hessians, and was probably under Wright 
in the commissary department for the settlement. He settled on 
lot nine, oast of the Rock. 

William Hodgins was born on a small island, known as Ginn's 
Island, lying about three and a half miles from the Virginia shore, 
in Chesapeake bay, where his father, Lewis Hodgins, had a farm 
of two hundred acres. He joined the Eoyal army with his younger 
brother Lewis, in 1778, serving in the regiment known as the 
Queen's Eangers, under Lord Cornwallis; where he held the rank 
of sergeant, and his brother that of corporal. At the battle of 
Yorktown, he was wounded and taken pi*isoner, and his brother was 
killed. After his exchange he came to New Brunswick, and settled 
about thirty miles above Frederickton, on the St. John's river, 
where he lived until 1859, when he removed to Canada. First 
settling in Adolphustown, near what is known now as Cole's Point. 
He joined the incorporated militia during the war of 1812, serving 
under Colonel McGill, and Colonel Shaw. He received the right 
to considerable land ; but after the capture of York, now Toronto, 
by the Americans in 1813, and the consequent destruction of pro- 
perty, the documents pertaining to the same were burnt, and he 
could not, as a consequence, get his grant. Immediately after the 
war of 1812, he removed to Marysburg, where he remained until 
his death. 

The above infoi-mation is i*eceived from Mr. William Hodgins, 
son of the above mentioned William Hodgins, who is now an old 
man, he having served with his father in the war of 1812. 

" It would have done you good to have heard the old gentleman, 
with his silver locks flowing in the wind, whitened with the frosts 
of four-score winters, as he descanted upon scenes and incidents in 
connection with the war, through which he served, and to have 
witnessed his eye twinkle with pride, when he referred to the 
loyalty of his honored parent." — (Ashley.) 

Edward Hicks, who settled in Marysburgh, was placed in 
prison with his father. His father was taken out and hanged 
before his window upon an apple tree, (a piece of refined cruelty 
worthy a rebel cause). This aroused Edward to a state of despera- 
tion, who with manacled hands, paced his cell. To carry out 
his intention, he feigned illness, and frequently required the guard 
to accompany him to the outer yard. At night fall he went out 



UOWELL. 105 

accompanied by the guai-d. Watching the opportunity, ho drew 
up his hands and sti'uck a furious blow upon the head of the 
soldier with his hand-cuffs, which laid the man prostrate. Edward 
dai'tod away to a stream which ran near by, and across which was 
a mill-dam and a slide. He rushed under this slide, and before a 
cry was raised, he concealed himself under the sheet of water. He 
could hear the din and tumult, as search was everywhere made 
through the night. Cold, wet, benumbed, hungry and hand-cuffed, 
ho remained in his hiding place until the following night, thirty- 
six hours, when ho crept out and escaped to the woods. After nine 
days of fasting he reached the British army. Edward Hicks did 
not forget the death of his father. He " fought the rebels in nine 
battles afterward, and still owes them gx'udge." 

Joseph, Joshua and Edward, belonged to Butler's Rangers, and 
saw no little service. They were from Philadelphia, and left con- 
siderable property. They had granted them a large tract of land 
west of Niagara, whore sprung up Hicks' settlement. Joseph Hicks 
afterwards settled on lot six, Marysburgh, west of the Rock. — 
(Ashley.) 

Edward Hicks is represented as having been a voi-y powerful 
man, often perfoi-raing remarkable feats of strength, such as lifting 
barrels of flour and pork to his shoulders, and such like. 

He went to Boston in 1778, in the character of a spy, and was 
detected by the Americans, and taken prisoner. He represented 
himself as a young man searching for his mother, who had 
removed to that section of the country ; but it is supposed that his 
captors considered him as rather too smart looking a young man 
to be lost in any enterprise, he being of fine build, standing good 
six feet, and possessing an intelligent countenance, and at his trial, 
condemned him as a spy to be dealt with accordingly. — (Ashley.) 

John Howell, a son of Richard Howell, from Wales, was bom 
in New Jersey in 1Y53. When 24 years old he took up his residence 
at Johnstown, on the Mohawk river. At the commencement of hos- 
tilities, in 1776, he joined Sir John Johnson's 2ud battalion, and was 
raised to the position of serjeant-major. His name appears as such 
upon the battalion roll, now before the writer. He remained in the 
army during the war, doing duty at St. Johns, Coteau du lac, and at 
many other places. When his company was disbanded at Oswego, 
in 1782, he came immediately to Kingston, and tl.ance to Fredericks- 
burgh, where he settled upon his lot of 200 acres. By adhering to 
the loyal cause. Sergeant Howell suffered serious loss in real estate. 



106 THE WINDMILL. 

The pleasant town of Eorae now stands upon the land which was his. 
His valuable property was not yielded up to the rapacious rebeU 
without a legal effort to recover possession. The case was in coprt 
for many years, and Sergeant Howell spent $1,400 in vain efforts to 
recover. No doubt it was pre-judged before he spent his money, 
An event in Howell's life during the war is not without a touching 
interest. Before joining the regiment, he had courted and won the 
heart of a fair lady at Johnstown. While stationed at Coteau du lac 
he obtained permission during the winter, when hostilities were sus- 
pended, to go to Johnstown to obtain his bride. Guided by seven 
Indians, he set out to traverse a pathless wilderness, on snow-shoes. 
The wedding trip had its perils, and almost a fatal termination. On 
their return they lost their way in the interminable woods, and soon 
found themselves destitute of food. ,For days they were without 
anything to eat. One day they shot a squirrel, which, divided among 
them, was hardly a taste to each. The thongs of their shoes were 
roasted and eaten, to allay the pangs of hunger. At last they suc- 
ceeded in shooting a deer, which had well nigh proved the death of 
some, from over-eating. Two of the men were left behind, but they 
subsequently came in. 

Sergeant Howell's loss as a loyalist was great ; but, so far as 
could be, it was made good by Government. He drew 1,200 acres of 
land as an officer, and the same quantity for his family. At an early 
date after his arrival at the Bay he was appointed Commissioner in 
the Peace ; and subsequently he was made Colonel of the Prince 
Edward Militia. 

Soon after settling in Fredericksburgh he built a windmill, pro- 
bably the first mill built by an individual in the Province. He after- 
wards sold it to one Kussell. The remains still mark the spot. 

He finally settled in Sophiasbnrgh, while it was yet considered 
by the infant colony as the backwoods of the settlement. He was a 
man of liberal education for the times, and was conversant with the 
Dutch and French languages, and understood the Indian dialect. 
From his former connection with the Johnson settlement upon the 
Mohawk, and his close contiguity to the Mohawk Indians upon the 
Bay, he held a high place in their regard. He often visited them ; 
and their chiefs as often paid him state visits. They often called 
upon him to settle their disputes, which he never failed to do by his 
sternness and kindness combined. His presence was sufficient to in- 
spire awe amongst them when disposed to be troublesome, which was 
increased by his long sword which he would hang to his side. 



IIOVBR — HOGLK. 107 

Honry Hover was quite a boy when the rebellion was progressing, 
being about sixteen when the Declaration of Independence was signed. 
Living along the Hudson, near New York, he went out one day for 
the cows, when ho was caught by some rebels and carried to Lancas- 
ter jail. After being in prison for some time he Ava? released, and 
permitted to go to New York. Ho some time after, by some means, 
enlisted in Butler's Eangers, and set out, with four others (one his 
brother), to traverse the wide country on foot, from New York to 
Fort Niagara, the head-quarters of the company. Lying one night 
under the tiees, they were suddenly attacked by a scouting party of 
rebels, by being fired upon. One was killed, and the rest taken pri- 
soners. Henry Hover remained in prison, in chains, until the close of 
the war, nearly two years. The hardships and cruelties he endured 
were, indeed, terrible. When he was taken prisoner ho had on a pair 
of linen trowseis ; no others were ever given him ; and when he was 
released these were hanging in shreds upon him. They had nothing 
to lie upon but the cold brick floor, two persons being chained 
together. Years after, a stranger called one day at Hover's in Adolph- 
ustown. Hover not being at home, the man wrote his name, " Green- 
way," the man to whom Henry had been chained for many a weary 
day and month in prison. Hover being released at the close of the 
war, reported himself at Niagara, and was discharged with the rest 
of his company. He received all his back pay, while in jail, and a 
grant of land at St. Davids ; but his father, Casper Hover, a refugee, 
had settled in Adolphustown, having come in Major VanAlstine's 
corps. Henry wished to see his parents, from whom he had been so 
long separated, and sought a chance to go down from the Niagara 
frontier. He entered on board an old "hulk," an old French vessel 
coming down the lake, and so got to Kingston, which place he reached 
soon after VanAlstine's company had settled in the fourth Township. 
Henry set out from Kingston on foot, along the bay, through the 
woods. In time ho arrived at the third township. He was misdi- 
rected across to Hay Bay. Following its shores, he met Holland's 
surveying party, who told him that he was astray, and put him on the 
correct track. Henry Hover determined to remain at the bay, 
and was included among the original settlers under VanAlstine, 
drawing land like the rest, being the only one who did not belong to 
that company. He sleeps from his warfare — from his long life of 
well-spent industry, in the " old U. E. burying ground," at the front, 
in Adolphustown. « 

Among those who fought the unequal battle of Bennington waa 



108 IIARTMAN — HAM — HERKIMER. 

Captain Iloglo, who was Hhot dead. Ho was a native of Vermont. 
He loft a widow and three sons, who wore yet young. They were 
under the neceHsity of leaving their valuable posseRsions and removing 
to Canada. Theyi buried plate in the garden, which was never 
regained. At the expiration of the war they settled in Ernest town. 

David Hartman — was present at the battle of Bennington, and 
was shot through the chest. Notwithstanding, he lived for many 
years. He settled in Ernest town. 

John iram,^the founder of the Ham family of Canada, so well 
and so favorably known in different sections of the Province. He was 
boi'n near Albany. His father was a native of Crermany, although of 
English parentage. John Ham was a soldier during the war, and in 
one of several engagements ; was wounded in the leg. 'f he ball, lodg- 
ing in the calf, was cut out, and, at the request of the suffering but 
brave hero, was shot back at the foe. He was one of the company 
who settled in Ernest town. He had a family of ten children, eight 
of them being sons, namely : John, Henry, Peter, George, Jacob, 
Philip, Benjamin, and Eichard, all of whom lived and died in Canada. 

The name of Herkimer is engi'avod upon the history of America, 
both in the United States and in Canada. " Colonel Hanjost Herki- 
mer , or John Joost, was a son of Johan Jost Herkimer, one of the 
Palatines of the German Flats, New York, and a brother of the 
rebel general, Nicholas Herkimer." *' His property was confisca- 
ted. He went to Canada, and died there before 1787." — (Sabine.) 
Prior to the war ho had occupied several public offices. He served 
as an officer in Butler's Rangers. We find his name inserted for 
lot 24 of Kingston, on which now stands part of the city. His son 
Nicholas settled upon the Point now bearing the family name. He 
married a Purdy, and had several children. His end was a sad one, 
being murdered by a blacksmith, named Eogers, who escaped. A 
daughter was married to Captain Sadlier, another to an officer in 
the army, and a third to Mr. Wartman. 

The old family place in New York State is yet indicated by the 
name of Herkimer County. 

" William Johnson Holt was ensign in Ferguson's Eangers. This 
corps formed part of the army of Burgoyne at the time of his sur- 
render, and, with other provincial prisoners, retired to Canada, by 
permission of Gates. The subject of this notice settled in Montreal, 
where he held the lucrative office of Inspector of Pot and Pearl 
Ashes, and received half pay for nearly fifty years. He died at 
Montreal, in 1826. By his first wife (Euah Stevens, of Pittsfield, 



HOLT — JONES — JOHNHONU. 109 

MiiHHHchuHottH), ho was tho fathor of u lar^o family of Nons and 
(laughtorH ; by his sccoml wife (Elizabeth Cuylor) ho loft no isMue. 
ilJH Bixth Hon, Charles Ad()l[)hu8,alono has surviving nuilo chiklron, 
of whom tho oldest, Charles Gates Holt, is (18G4) a distinguished 
counsollor-at-law, and a gentleman of tho highest respectability, at 
Quoboc. In February, 1864, ho was appointed one of " Her Majesty's 
Counsel, learned in the law," and thus entitled to wear tho " silk 
roljo." 

" John Jones, of Maine, captain in liogers' liangors. Being of 
a (lark complexion, ho was called 'Mahogany Jones.' Prior to tho 
war he lived at or near Pownal borough, and was Surveyor of tlio 
Plymouth Company. As tho troubles increased, the whigs accused 
him of secreting tea, and broke open his store. Next, they fastened 
him to a long rope, and dragged him through tho water until be 
was ncai'ly drowned. Finally, to put an end to his exertions against 
the popular cause, he was committed to jail in Boston. He escaped, 
went to Quebec in 1780, and received a commission in the Rangers. 
In Maine, again, before tho peace, he annoyed his personal foes 
repeatedly. Among his feats was the capture of his ' old onemy,' 
General Charles Cushing, of Pownal borough. Jones, immediately 
after tho peace, was at tho Bay of Fundy, and interested in lands 
granted on that island to loyalists. In 1784 he resumed his business 
as surveyor, on tho river St. Croix. jg|f| At length, * his toryism 
forgotten,' he removed to the Kennebec. He died at Augusta, 
Maine." , 

Captain William Johnson, of the King's Eoyal regiment, after- 
wards colonel of the Militia of Addington. Besides the celebrated 
Sir John Johnson's family, there were a large number of combatants 
and loyalists of this name, and mostly all of them were conspicuous 
for their gallant deeds in arms. Captain William Johnson settled 
some miles west of Kingston, on the front. Loft one child, a daughter, 
who married McCoy. They removed to Toronto. It is said by Mr. 
Finkle that the first militia mustered in Upper Canada was by Col. 
William Johnson, at Finkle's tavern. 

•' The name of Johnson has become somewhat famous in Canadian 
history. James Johnson, an Irishman, was a soldier in Rogers' 
Battalion. He came to Upper Canada with the first settlers of 
Ernest town, and waa captain of the cattle-drivers that came at that 
time, or a year later. He got his location ticket at Carleton Island. 
He had a family of seven sons and six daughters. Six of the sons 
names were : Daniel, James, William, Matthew, Jacob, Andrew. 



110 , KBTOHESOIf. y- 

Tho lasi-raontionod Huppliuo uh with the abuvu information. IIo is 
now upwardH of ono hundred years of ago. — (Soo U. E. LoyalistH). 

"William Kotchoson, of Sidney, who waw born September, 1782, 
at Bedford, Now York, says that his father, William Kotchoson, was 
a native of England, and came to America with hiu grandfather, his 
father being dead. They settled in South Carolina, and lived there 
until tho rebvdlion broke out. William Kotchoson, sen., was then 
about Hoventoen ^lars of ago, and entered tho British service as a 
dragoon, under Lord Cornwallis. He served during the war; took 
part in many engageiaents, and was wounded in the thigh. Shortly 
before the close of hostilities ho was married to Mary Bull, daughter 
of John Bull, a loyalist. After tho peace ho went to Nova Scotia, 
and engaged in fishing for a while ; lived in a shanty at a rock-bound 
place, called Portoon. Afire ran over the place, burning up mostly 
everything, and almost our informant, who was then only about 18 
months old. He and his mother were put on board a boat and 
taken to New York. The father remained to settle his affairs at 
Nova ScDtia, and then came on into Canada, alone, in 1786. He 
worked a farm on shares, in the third township, belonging to John 
Miller. Raked in the grain ; went for his family, and then subse- 
quently worked Spence's farm on shares for many years. Finally 
moved to Sidney, in 1800, and settled in the fifth concession. 

" John Waltermoyer a tory partisan leader. He was noted 
for enterprise and daring, but not for cruelty or ferocity. In 1781, 
at the head of a band of Tories, Indians, and Canadians, he 
attempted to carry off General Schuyler, whose abode at that time 
was in the suburbs of Albany. The party entered the dwelling, 
commenced packing up tho plate, and a search for the General. 
But that gentleman opened a window, and, as if speaking to an 
armed force of his own, called out, — "Come on, my bravo fellows; 
surround the house, and secure the villians who are plundering." 
The happy stratagem caused Waltermeyer and his followers to 
betake themselves to flight." 

The foregoing statement is taken from Sabine, we shall now 
give information derived from Captain Myer's descendants, and 
others who knew him well. It is without doubt correct. 

Captain Myer's father and brother identified themselves with 
the rebel party, and we have heard it stated that he was at first, a 
rebel also, but not receiving promotion as he expected, forsook the 
cause, and upon the offer of a captaincy in the British forces allied 
himself to them. That this was the pure invention of his enemies 



OAPT. UYKRa. " > 111 

\n sufflcionli^ plain. At tho beginning of the robolllon CaptHin 
llyovH, with hiH luthor, was a farmor in the vicinity of Albany, 
and eouid have had no reason for promotion. Ah to the ca|.tain(!y*. 
wo find that ho did not receive it until 1782, when the war had 
virtually closed, m tho following HhowH : 

Frederick Haldimand, Captain-lienoral and (iovornor-in-Chiof 
of the Province of Quebec and torritorioM depending thereon, 
Ac, &c., &c. General and Commander-in-Chief of HiH MajeHty'd 
forces in said Province and territories thereof, &c., &c., &o. 

TO JOHN WALTER MVKU8, ESQ. : 

By Virtueor the power and authority in me vested, I do hereby 
constitute, appoint you to be captain in tho corps of Loyal Hangers 
whereof Edward Jessup, Esq., is Major-Commandant. You are 
therefore caroftilly and diligently to discharge the duty of 
captain by exercising and well disciplining both the inferior officers 
and soldiers of the corps, and I do hereby command them to obey 
you as their captain, and you are to observe and follow such orders 
and directions as you shall from time to time receive from me your 
Major, Major-Commandant, or any other of your superior officers, 
according to the rules and discipline of war. In pursuance of the 
trust hereby reposed in you. Given under my hand and seal at 
Arms, at the Castle of St. Imiis, at Quebec, this thirtieth day of 
May, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, and in the 
twenty-second year of the reign of our Sovereign, Lord George 
the Third, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, Prance and Ireland, 
King Defender of the Faith, and soforth. .J,,, 

(Signed) Fred. Haldimand. 
By His Excellency's Command, 

E. Mathews. * 

It is true that during the war he made the attempt to take 
General Schuyler a prisoner. He went with ten men to Albany for 
the purpose of seizing the General, and carrying him away cap- 
tive. On entering the yard at night, they looked through the 
window and saw the object of the expedition, but when they had 
entered the house he could no where be found, although search was 
made from cellar to garret. But in the garret were a number of 
puncheons turned up side down. Some of them were examined, 
but not all. After the war had closed, the Governor called on 
Myers and told him that had he turned over the other punch. 



112 m'aRTIITTR— MILLKn. 

eonN ho would have f'ouiul him. A i'nithHil fDinalo Hhivo hud 
phu'od him thoro. The mon with Myorn had inntrin^tion t<) touch 
nono of tho (rovortior'H proporty, ulXvir leaving th« pinco, Ijowovor, 
ho found ono of th(( mon in poHHCHHion of n Hilvor cup. This was 
sent liack lo th(< (Jovornor jiftorwurd. 

During tho war, Myor« on ono oc(;iwion, porhapH whon he was 
return in/^ from hin attempt to taico Hchuylor, wan iioarly Htarvod to 
doath. IIo had with him u favorite do^, which bocamo Hick for 
want of food. ]lo carried tho do>? for dayH, not knowing but ho 
would havoto kill him for food. But thoy all ^ot Hafoly out of it, 
and ho rotainod tho do/^ for many a day, and on ono occaHion ho 
Hhowod him to Schuyler. Aftor tho war Captain Myorn onjoyod u 
pension of 6h. 6d. a day. lie lived in Lower Canada two yoarH. A 
cortirtcate of Masonry informs us that ho was in Quebec in 1780. 
llo frequently carried despatches to Now York, in tho first years of 
tho war; upon ono occasion he was in a friend's house when tho 
rebels camo up, ho jumped out of tho back window and ran to tho 
woods, he was soon, and persons on horseback camo rapidly to tho 
woods, and tied thoir horses, to pursue him on foot, which they 
hastily did ; Myers had, howovor, hidden himself close by, and 
when thoy had fairly entered tho woods in pursuit of him, he 
jumped up and doliborately selected the best horse, upon which ho 
mounted, and so made an easy escape to New York. 

Ho came up tho bay at an early date, and it would seem 
squatted on tho front of tho ninth town before it was surveyed. 
He then moved up to Sidney where he lived until 1790, whon he 
returned to the Moira River. 

Captain Myers was a bold man, with limited education, but 
honest, and, like many others of the Dutch Loyalits, given to groat 
hospitality. He was a pioneer in mill building, in trading, and in 
sailing batteaux and schooners, up and down tho bay. 

Charles McArthur, a native of Scotland, came to America 
before the rebellion, and settled upon tho Mohawk Eiver. Took 
part in the war, in Burgoyne's army. Lived for some time atOswe- 
gotchie, when he removed to head of the bay. There were living 
then west of the Trent River only the following families : Peter 
Huffman, Donald McDonoll, John Bleekor, Esq., and John 
McArthur. A daughter of Charles McArthur still lives at Belle- 
ville, having been born at Oswegotchie, now aged 78, (Mrs. 
May bee.) 

Ensign Miller, of Jessup's corps, was a native of Duche.ss 



OODEN — MORDBN— m'DONAI,1». . 1|8 

0)iinty. JIo hftd a brother an vimf^u, who livo<l and died ut Moii- 
troBl. H«ttled in Frodorirlwh.irKh, udjaront AdclphuMtown ; drew in 
all 2,000 acroH of land, in .liHownl, phues. Diwl 1805, a^od thrty- 
«ov«n. Auothvr brotlior r.anu> u, tju) IVovinco tiio yoai- attci- tho 
U. K. liHt hiul dwtxi. H(< wiw tho lathyr of Jtov. Gilbort Miller of 
Picton, ami diud at tlio ago of ninety. Mr. (i. Millor informs us 
that two groat unclo«, uamod Oncden, woro with the iJriti«h troops 
At tho tal<ing of Fort Frontonnc 

All of thiH naniu (Ogdon) aro wnppoHcd to be relatod. Thoy woro, 
it \h thought, ol" WoUii origin. Ono of that namo aottled upon tho 
Dtdawai-o Rivor previ(.u.s to tho robollion. It in not quito oorUiin 
whether thiH iir«t Ogd^Ju died by tho bankn of tho Uolawaro, or as \h 
thought owno to tho j{ay Quinto. Jlo had throo Hon«, one of whom 
died bofbro thqir roir)oval, leaving four wdh. Thoy, with their 
unglos, vuine ata voryowly datoto UainiUon, but tho four nophews 
rpmovod to tho JJay (^uiuto ,ibout 1700. Thoir juanios were Jamon 
John, JvHoph wjd ]U(duu"d. The uunjorous body living around tho 
bay of this waino, Jiayo all wprung from tho«o four brothers. CMur- 
»h»l R. Moi-don.) 77 ' ^ 

Mr. JwneaMojidpn wasa private in Uis Majewty's Provincial 
Begiment, Kiqg'H lioyal of New York, Sir J. JphnMon Commander 
Discha;-god LI^S.^tiMpiitreial, at the age of ^we^ty, ^ftving served 
three yeai*8. 

, Cohujel McDonald, as ho was subsoqueutly called, as an ofticer 
of militia, served umlor Sir John JoJaison. Jlo was ono of the iirst 
settlors of the fifth towiiwhip at t^o Bay Quinto. Jlo landed first 
in tho cove bearing his name, npar Mount ,Plqasant, 1784. Wo 
havo stood upon tho, spot y^hore ho first set foot upon tlie ly^d, and 
pitched his teut. This ^ovo is marked japon some of tho old maps 
as Grog Bay, but in reality, Grog Bay was a small inlet from tho 
cove. CoU)jiol McDonald lived to be eighty-five years old. He 
<htow l^rgo quantities of lajid, besides receiving mapy other favors 
from govonxmont. Jlo loft l^ut one Qfisiiring, a d^uglj^ter, who 
married a native of Fj;anco named Prixiyoa, whose descendants are 
worthy inhabitants of the pli^co. 

We find the following newspaper record : " Died on tho 3rd 
October, 1815, Sergeant Alexander McJPpnald; in his 78th ypar. 
This worthy veteran enlisted in 1767 in the 78th or Frft^er's regi- 
raont, in which he served at the taking of Lquieburg «nd Quebec. 
In 1763 he waa .drafted into the 60th, and served in the active cam- 
paigns .during the Am«rican war, under the late General Provost 
8 > 



M^ J. m'donenll. 



in Carolina and Georgia. In 1799 ho was drafted from the 60th 
into the 41«t regiment, in which he served till August 1811. when 
he wan discharged, after a faithful service of fifty-five years .; . 

The Canadian Coiirant spoke of J. McDonnell, as follows :- 
"The subject of this memoir was born in Glengary, in the High- 
lands of Scotland, about the year 1750. His father was principal 
tackman on the estate. The spirit of emigration preyaied very 
much in Scotland, and particularly in the High ands a littl. befo^ 
the commencement of the American war. The father oi Mr. R. 
McDonnell partaking of the feelings of his clan, and anticipating 
many advantages in this new world, accompanied a considerable 
emigration from Glengary estate, of which he was «"« of the pnn- 
cipal leaders. Mr. E. McDonnell landed at New York with his 
father and a number of the same name, in 1773, but the dis- 
putes between Great Britain and the colonies having assumed a 
very serious appearance, it was thought prudent to send him into 
Canada. Being designed for commerce, he was placed m a count- 
ing house, but the war breaking out, the spirit of his ancestors burst 
forth vith an ardor which could not be restrained. He joined the 
Royal Standard, and was immediately appointed to an ensigncy, m 
the 84th regiment. In this subordinate situation he did not fail to 
distinguish himself by his bravery and good conduct, and on one 
Bingular and trying occasion he exhibited the greatest intrepidity 
and coolness. He was advanced to the command of a company in 
Butler's Rangers. Many of your readers still remember tha the 
services required by this regiment were of the most arduous kind 
Thev were sent out on scouting parties, and employed in pidaii< 
UP intelligence, and in harrassing the back settlements ot the 
enemy. As their marches lay through pathless forests, they were 
frequently reduced to the greatest necessities, nor had they evea. 
while on service, any of those comforts which are so common in 
regular camps. In the many expeditions and contests mwh.c 
this regiment was engaged, dui-ing the war, Captain McDonnell 
l>ore a distinguished part, but the great hardships which he had t. 
surmount, undermined a constitution naturally excellent, ami 
entailed upon him a severe rheumatism which embittered the 

remaining part of his life. „ , • f 

^{^ Daring some time he acted as Pay-master of the regimen 

:> and by his own care and attention he found himself at the end ol 

the war in the possession of a small independence. This he con 

sidered equally the property of his father, brothers and sister-s a- 



m'donnell. 115 

hi8 own, and proved by his generosity tl.at his filial love and 
brotherly affection were equal to his other virtues. In 1794 when 
It was thought proper to levy a regiment in this country to remedy 
the groat desertion which attended regiments Irom Europe he 
raised a company. ,,,v. ; ,,i, .,,,;. 

" In 1795 he was promoted to the majority, and the regiment 
baymg been divided intr. two battalions, he became Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the 2nd, in 1796. 

-HecommandedatNiagaraduringthebuildingofFortGeorge 
und in 1802 he again retired on half-pay, the Eoyal Canadian Regi^ 
ments havmg been mo.st injudiciously reduced daring the continu- 
ance of the ephemeral peace of Amiens. While at Fort George 
he married Miss Yates, a lady from the States, whose amiable and 
obliging manners gained the esteem of all who had the honor of 
her acquaintance. By this lady, in whom the Colonel enjoyed all 
that has to be wished in a companion and friend, he has a son a 
promising boy, who, it is to be hoped, will inherit the virtues of 
his father. The Colonel's active benevolence was known touU 
and experienced by many of his friends. 

" There was something so generous, so noble in his manner of 
doing a kindness of this sort, as to give it a double value. 

" In 1807 he was appointed Paymaster to the 10th Royal Veteran 
Battalion, a situation certainly far below his merits-but his cir 
cumstances, which, owing to his generous disposition, were by no 
means affluent, induced him to accept it. 

"He had been exceedingly infirm for many years, and perhaps 
he severe climate at Quebec was too much for his weak constitu- 
tion. Certain it is that this city has been fatal to several resnect- 

m in the beginning of November, 1809, accompanied with a 

olent cough and expectoration; he was not, indeed, thought 

dangerously ill, till within a short time of his death, but his feeWe 

ZTt^Zl ''"'"^ "'' '"^'^''' '^' ''"^^' '"^^ ^'^ '""^'''^ •^^ '^' 
" Such are the scanty materials which I have been able to collect 
respecting the life of a most excellent officer and honorable man 
who became dearer to his friends and acquaintances the longer he' 
(vas known to them. hunger ne 

" He was rather below the middle size, of a fair complexion, and 
n his youth, uncommonly strong and active. For some time past 
i>8 appearance was totally altered ; insomuch that those who had 



lit) NICHOLSON — OSTROM — PETERSON. 

not seen him for many years, conld not recognize a single feature 
of the swift and intrepid captain of the Hangers. » K'.r 

' An acute diweaHo made it frequently painful for him to move a 
liml>, even for days and weeks together, but though his body suf- 
fered, his mind was active and benevolent, and his anxiety to 
promote the interests of his friends ceased only with his life." 

Among those who took part in the unequal engagement at 
Bennington, was Alexander Nicholson, a Scotchman, who came to 
America shortly before the war broke out. He enlisted as a 
2)rivato under Burgoyne; but before the close of the war, receiveri 
a commission. He was one of a company which was all but anni- 
hilated at Bennington. He stood by his Colonel when that 
officer was shot from his horse. Vainly trying to get him re-horsed, 
that officer told him it was no use, that he had better flee. The 
day being evidently lost, he proceeded to escape as best he could. 
With his arm wounded, he managed to escape through a field ot 
corn to the woods. Coming to a river, he was arrested by an 
Indian upon the opposite bank, who, mistaking him for a rebel, firod 
at him. The Indian being undeceived, he forded the river. 
Making good his escape, he, with many others, wandered for days, 
or rather for nights, hiding by day, as scouts were ranging the 
woods to hunt out tiie tories. There were, however, friends who 
assisted to conceal them, as well as to furnish them with food. 
He often spoke of his sufferings at that fearful time; lying upon the 
cold ground without covering, and sleeping, to wake with the hair 
frozen to the bare ground. Subsequently Nicholson was attached 
to Eogcrs corp's. He settled in Fredcricksburgh, at the close of 
hostilities, and subsequently removed in 1809, to the township ot 
Thurlow. ,j,;.:j aaj'Mo,. K-iy?s.i^.-;4' 

Ostrom was engaged to carry despatches through the enemy'?' 
line. On one occasion he had the despatch in a silver bullet, which 
he put in his mouth. Having reason to believe he would be dili- 
gently examined, he took it from his mouth as he would a quid of 
tobacco, threw it in the fire and thus escaped, 
,^j, Nicholas Peterson, with his three sons, Nicholas, Paul and 
Christopher, were living near New York, and took a part in the 
war. 

They assisted in fighting one of the most remarkable battle-' 
of the revolution. It took place on the west side of the North Eiver, 
opposite the city of New York, when seventy-five British Militia- 
men resisted an attack made by 5,500 rebels, for several hours. 



THE ROGERS' FAMILY. 117 

The British had a Blook JIouHe, made of lo^^s, with a hollow exca- 
vation behind, and in tl)iH hollow they loaded their guns, and 
Avould then step forward and discharge them at the enemy. Only 
throe of the British were slain ; the rebels lost many. These 
Petersons lost everything of any importance, when they left Now 
York. Some of their valuables they bui-ied to pi'cserve them fj-on\ 
the enemy, and the rest they left to their use. 

Nicholas and Paul settled on lots No. 12 and 13, in the first 
coiicession of Adolphustown, south of Hay bay. 

,;,,H.i- "i:- ■ ■.■''t'«^' -/.i'.-/. ' ■>■■ I'r:- ■ .■^^■.^^■i. i i\, i ■'•■•'■■ ■ -t , ,. < ^. ■ v' •.• ; 

■:"S.^"', ■"■■"'', ",i' ''V' V.' .■'..'; I-;'';'-, ..,."■?■;-' ■" •■ <;." ( .' ' • : ,:'/ 

r. ■:'■'- .■•■.,rv - ' iA '' ^ , . ', - : 'l.T :', ■:'■'■ •'■:, ',■:■■ '^ ■ \ '■ ' '■.'. "" ■•■^r' -■_■ 

';.'..'..'!' !'..'"' t,'".? CHAPTER XI. ;.,,'"'' ''''''''\ 

Contents. — Rogers' family — Ryci-soii — Roduer — Sherwood — Taylor — Vfiii Jjiiscmi 
— Willi.amburgh — Wright — Wilkins — Young — Otlifcr.s wlio stttU'd in 
Niagara District. 

Under Queen's Rangers will be found some account of Major 
Rogers, derived from Sabine. We here give further information, pro- 
cured from Robert!). Rogers,Esq., and Di*. Armstrong, of Rochester, 
New York, who is a native of Fredericksburgh, and who, for many 
years, practised his profession in Picton and Kingston, i -; 

Robert D. Rogers, of Ashburnham, writes : " My grandfather, 
James Rogers, settled tirst in Vermont, and had several large tracts 
of land there, he, and his brotliors were officers in the Queen's 
Rangers, of which his brother Robert was the chief officer; they 
were employed in the wars of the French and Indians, until the 
taking of Quebec by the British, after which the said Robert Rogers 
was ordered by General Amherst to proceed westward and take 
possession of all the forts and places hold by the French, as far 
west as Detroit and Michilimicinac, which he did in the fall of 
1760; and he afterwards wont to England, whore he published a 
journal kept bj* him during the French and Indian wars, and up to 
1761, which was published in London 1765. HealsoAvrote another 
book, giving a description of all the North American Colonies. 
My grandfather continued to reside in Vermont, until the time of 
the revolution, when ho joined the British army, and after [jeace 
was proclaimed, settled near the East Lake in Prince Edward. 
I have heard that he was buried in Fredericksburgh, but do not 



118 ■■•'■ ROGERS. 

know tho place. My father roproscnted Prince Edward in the first 
Parliament of Upper Canada, of which he was a member for twenty- 
six years." 

From Dr. Armstrong, wo learn that " Major Eogers was born 
in Londonderry, Now Hampshire, about tho year 1728. His wife 
was the daughter of the Eov. David McGregor, pastor of tho Pres- 
byterian church, Londonderry, of which his father, tho Rev. James 
McGregor, formerly of Londonderry, Ireland, was tho founder, 
April 12, 1719. Major Eogers was the father of three sons and 
three daughters. Ho removed with his family to Vermont, 
where he had become the proprietor of a largo tract of lund, 
Hero he lived until tho breaking out of tho rebellion, (see Queen's 
Eangers.) Aftor the conclusion of the war. Major Eogers, aban- 
doning his property in Vermont, much of which had been destroyed, 
his herds of cattle driven off and appropriated to their own use by 
his neighbors, removed with his family to Canada and settled in 
Frodericksburgh. That he ha<l been there previously and explored 
tho countr}', and that he had taken with him a corps of soldiers, is 
altogether probable, for I Avell remember to have seen in my 
earlicHt boyhood, evidences of previous military strife, such as 
numerous broken guns, swords, and other worn-out weapons. At 
Fi'cdericksburg, Major Eogers erected, as he had done before at 
Londonderry, Vermont, the first frame house in the township. 
How long ho remained here I am unal)lo to say, but probably 
several years. My own birth place, August 29, 1789, was in a 
little village one or two miles below his residence, and as I was 
Qncof his legatees, he probably remained therefor some time after 
that event. I find no record of his death, but it probably took 
place about tho year 1792. He was buried in Frodericksburgh, as 
were his widow and eldest daughter (my mother), 1793. His 
eldest son James, returned to Vermont and recovered a con- 
siderable portion of the land in Londondeny. Ho afterward, in 
1819, removed with his family to Haldimand, where he died several 
years ago. His second son, David McGregor, familiarly known alf>o 
as " Major Rogers," remained in Canada up to the time of his 
death, about 1823. While quite a young man, he was elected a 
member of the first Parliament of Upper Canada. He then resided 
at Little Lake in the township of Hallowell. He aftcrwai*d3 
removed to Cramahe, whore I found him in 1803, engaged as a 
merchant, holding the office of clerk of the Peace, clerk of the 
District Court, and Eegistrar of Deeds, besides being a member of I 



PETERS — RYER80N. 119 

Parliament, and carryincj on a farm. His name is pretty closely 
identified with the early luHtory of Upper Canada. He was a man 
of groat energy of character and sound judgment, was highly 
respected and esteemed, and died greatly lamented. After remain- 
ing in Fi-edericksburgh several years, the family of the late Major 
(James) Rogers removed to the " Little Lake," so called. This 
was the scone of my earliest recollectionB. In the same neighbor- 
hood had resided Mr. Peters, and his family. He was a native of 
New England, remained loyal to the Crown, became an officer in 
the Queen's Rangers, and was among the early refugees to Canada. 
He afterwai*ds became sheriff of Newcastle, having removed from 
the Little Lake, first to the Carrying Place, and afterwards to 
Cramahe, about the year 1804, where he died many years ago. 

Joseph Ryerson, of New Jersey, one of the five hundred and 
fifty volunteers who went to Charleston, South Carolina. For his 
i^ood conduct in bearing despatches one hundred and ninety-six 
miles into the interior, he was pi-omoted to a Lieutenancy in the 
Prince of Wales' Volunteers. Subsequently he was engaged in six 
battles, and once wounded. At the peace he went to Ne a^ Bruns- 
wick, thence to Canada, Avhere he settled and became a Colonel in 
the militia. In the Avar of 1812, he and his three sons were in arms 
against the United States. He died near Victoria, Upper Canada, 
in 1854, aged ninety-four, one of the last of the "old United 
Empire Loyalists " — (Sabine.) 

One of Captain Ryerson's old comrades, Peter Redner, of the 
bay, says, he was " a man of daring intrepidity, and a great favorite 
in his company." He often related an instance when Captain 
Ryerson, commanding a scouting party, for which peculiar service 
he was eminently fitted, ventured to crawl up to a tent of American 
officers, and discovering one standing in the door who saw him, he 
walked boldly up, thus lessening suspicion, and drawing his bayonet 
immediately ran him through the body, and escaped before his 
companions had sufficiently recovered from the shock to give 
pursuit. He represented Captain Ryerson as being one of the 
most determined men he ever knew, with the service of his 
country xippermost in his mind, he often exposed himself to great 
danger to accomplish his desires. 

Samuel Eyerson, of New Jersey, brother of Joseph, joined the 
Royffl Standard, and received a commission as captain in the Third 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers ; went to New Brunswick at 
the peace, thence to Canada, where ho settled. 



190* REDNER — RUTTAN. . 

Potor Hcdiior, a native of Now Jersey, was connoctod with the 
service for some time. He was in the same division as Captain 
Eyerson, and during his subsequent life was always delighted to tell 
of the incidents in connection with the several campaigns through 
which ho passed, especially such as related to "his friend llyerson," 
to whom he was much attached. 

At the close of the war ho went to Nova Scotia, where he 
drew land ; but not liking the place, ho disposed of his land and 
came to Canada. He purchased lot ninety-four in Aiuoliasburgh 
for a small consideration, from William Fox, a United Empire 
Loyalist, of Pennsylvania, who had drawn it. — (Ashley.) 

Walter Hoss — He arrivetl, an emigrant from Scotland, at Que- 
bec, the night before the fall of Montgomery. He, with others 
from the ship, immediately toolc up arms, and assisted to repulse 
the enemy in a most distinguished manner. He subsequntly lived 
with Major Prazer, and became so great a favorite that the Major 
assisted him to an ensigney. After the close of the war he 
married Miss Williams, of Ernest town, and settled in Marysburgh, 
c»u the lake shore. 

The Kuttans were descendants of the Huguenots. Says 
Sheriff Ruttan : "My grandfather emigrated to America about the 
time of Sir William Johnson, Bart., in 1734, and settled at a town 
called New Eochelle, in Westchester county, New York. This 
town, or tract of land, was pui-chased in 1G89, ex])ressly for a 
Huguenot settlement, by Jacob Leister, Commissioner of the Admi- 
ralty, under Governor Dongan of New York. It soon increased, 
and in 1700 had a vast number of militia officers, loyal to the back- 
bone. To this settlement my grandfather repaired soon after hh 
arrival. My father and uncle Peter were l)orn here about 1757, 
and 1759. Both entered the army in the 3rd battalion of Jersoy 
volunteers, one as Lieutenant, the other as Captain. This was 
about the year 1778. In the year 1778, my uncle Peter accom- 
panied Brant from New York to Western Canada, on a tour of 
observation, being a great favorite, so much so that he named hi* 
son Joseph Brant Ruttan, as a token of his friendship. As a further 
token of his esteem. Brant, at parting, prosenteil him with a hand- 
some brace of pistols, which he valued highly. At his decease, 
they came into my possesion. My father and uncle had grant* of 
1200 acres of land each, at Adolphustown, in the Midland DisWrt. 
this was in 1783 or 1784." 

Sheriff Ruttan, when a child, met with a slight accident which 
probably turned the current of his life from one of comparative 



SCHEaMERIIORN — .SPBNOER. 121 

obscurity to notoriety. Ilonry Ruttan wont out with his brother 
one Hpring morning to tap trees for sugar raaici ng. Accidentally 
two of Honry'H fingers were severed from his hand by an unto- 
ward stroke of the sharp axe. This loss led his father to send him 
to school, as he could not perform manual labor. Ilespecting his 
education, the reader is referred to the division on "Early Educa- 
tion." With the education obtained in Adolphustown, ho wont to 
Kingston and was apprenticed with John Kerby, a successful mer- 
chant. By industry as well as talent, Henry advanced to bo a 
partner, and was entrusted to open a store in the "new township " 
near Grafton, in Newcastle. Subsequently, he distinguished him- 
self as a soldier, in 1812, then as a member of Parliament, as 
Speaker, and for a long time as Sheriff. Latterly his name is 
associated with Inventions for ventilation of buildings and cars. 

Captain Schermerhorn was among the first settlers upon the 
bay.Quinte. Respecting the nature of his services during the war wo 
have no record, nor have wo learned in what regiment ho served ; 
but most probably in Johnson's. The writer has in his possession a 
portion of an epaulet which belonged to this officer. He drew 
largo quantities of land in the western part of the Province, as 
well as a lot in I^^edoricks burgh. He died in 1788 when on a visit 
to Montreal to procure his half-pay. His widow and eldest son 
died soon after. His youngest son, John, settled on lot 95, 9th 
concession Ameliasburg. — {,J. B. Ashley.) vA i> j ;, ,r V' .■ 

" Colonel Spencer " was an officer in Roger's Battalion, settled 
on lot 9, 1st concesHion Fredericksburgh additional. He died 
shortly after the commencement of the war of 1812, having been 
Colonel of the militia, and active in preparing to meet the foe. He 
was buried, with military honors, upon his own farm. 
' His brother Augustus was an ensign, and settled at East Lake, 
on half-pay. His wife, Sarah Conger, lived to be ninety-four years 
old. ■■-.,.*.:-.. .r,.v:, . 

In the former part of last century there were born three 
brothers, Seth, Thomas, and Adiel Sherwood, in old Stratford, in 
the Province of Connecticut. The three brothers removed, 1743, 
to New York State, five miles north of Port Edward, within a 
short distance of the spot where Burgoyno surrendered. At the 
coinmencement of the rebellion, Seth and Adiel identified them- 
!»el^s with the rebel party, becoming officers in the army, while 
Thomas adhered to his Sovrveign. It was probably after the defeat 
of Burgoyne, when lie proceeded to St. John, Lower Canada, and 



128 HHERVVOOD — TAYLOR. 

was Bubsoquontly employed by the British (Tovornmont on Hocret 
service in the revolting State. His knowledge of the country 
enabled him to bring from the territory of the enemy not a few who 
were desirous of serving in the British army. In 1779 his family 
removed to 8t. Johns, and he received an appointment as subaltern 
in Major Jossup'fs corps. 

At the close of the war, Thomas Sherwood came with his corps 
to the St. Lawrence, and became the first actual settler in the 
county of Leeds. Ho was well known as an active public man, 
" he was over ready to give assistance and instructions to the new 
comers.'" He also assisted in the first survey of that part. He was 
among the first magistrates. He lived on his farm forty-two years, 
and died, aged 81, in peace. 

Adiel Sherwood, from whom wo receive the foregoing facts, was 
the son of Thomas, and was born at the homestead in New York 
State, 16th May, 1779, shortly before the family left for Canada. 
Ho says : " I remained with the family at St. Johns until May, 
1784, when wo came in the very first brigade of batteaux to the 
Upper Province, where my father pitched his tent, about three 
miles below Brockville, so that I may say I saw the first tree cut, 
and the first hill of corn and potatoes planted by an actual settlor." 
Mr, Adiel Sherwood at an early date, 1706, was appointed an ensign 
in the first regiment of Leeds Militia. He was promoted from 
time to time until he became Colonel. He was commissioned a 
Magistrate, Clerk of the Peace, Commissioner of Land Board, and 
finally Sheriff for the district of Johnstown. Ho was connected 
with the militia fifty years, when he retired on full rank. Was 
Treasurer of the District twenty-five years, and Sheriff thirty-five. 
Mr. Sherwood still lives, an active, genial, and christian-minded 
gentleman, and we take this occasion to express our feelings of 
gratitude for his assistance and sympathy in this our undertaking. 

There were a good many of the name of Taylor among the 
loyalists residing at Boston, New York, and New Jersey. They 
were all in the higher walks of life, and some filled high public 
stations. One family, consisting at the time of the rebellion, of a 
mother and three sons, has a tragic and deeply interesting history. 
For many of the particulars I am indebted to Sheriff George 
Taylor, of Belleville, a descendant of the youngest of the 
brothers. 

Sheriff" Taylor's father was named John, and was born upon 
the banks of the Hudson, of Scotch parents. He was fourteea 



A SPY OP Till: REVOLUTION. 128 

yours old when the robollion broke out. IHh two brothorH were 
officers in the British array, and were employed in the hazardous 
dutiew of spies. The only knowledge ho has of his uncles, is that 
they were both caught at diflforent times, one upon one side of tho 
Hudson and tlie other the opposite side ; both wore convicted and 
executed by hanging, one upon tho limb of an apple tree, tho 
other of an oak. John Taylor was at home with his mother upon the 
farm, at Kindorhook. But one day he was carried off while from 
the hou8«;. by a press gang, to Bnrgoyne's army. lie continued 
in the army for seven years, \intil the end of the war, when ho 
was discharged. During this time he was in numerous engage- 
ments, and received three wounds at least, one a sabre wound, and 
a ball wound in the arm. It is stated on good authority, (Petrie) 
that he once carried a despatch from Quebec to Nova Scotia, fol- 
lowing the Bay of Fundy. His mothei* in the meantime was 
ignorant of his whereabouts, and held the belief that hi! Avas dead, 
or carried off by the Indians. At the expiration of the war ho 
went to New Brunswick by some moans, subsequently he under- 
took to walk on snowshoes, with three others, from St. Johns to 
Sorel, which he accomplished, while the three others died on the 
way; ho saved his life by killing and eating his dog. He procured 
bis discharge at Sorel. In 1783 he came up the St. Lawrence to Cata- 
raqi*, and thence walked up the bay as far as the mouth of the 
Moria'Rivor, occompanied by one William McMullen. Ascending 
the Moria he chose tho land, where is now the 4*h concession of 
Thurlow, the "Holstojul farm." Ho lived here a few months, but 
the Indians drove him away, declaring the river belonged to them. 
He then bought lot No. b, at tlie front, of Captain Singleton, pro- 
perty which yet boars his name. John Taylor married the daughter 
of h U. E. Loyalist b}"^ the name of Russell. v.' KJ'-im. », >,i..: 

Two or three vears after he came to Thurlow, he visited his old 
home at Kinderhobk, to see his mother, who knew not he was alive. 
She accompanied him back to Canada, although hard on ninety years 
old. She did not live long in her new home. 

Two intiujute comrades of John Tiiylor irj the army, were 
Merritt and Soles, father of D. B. Soles, formerly of Belleville. 

Eespedting t}\e brothers of John Taylor, the following appeared 
in the Hastings Chronicle of Belleville, 13th November, 1861. 

"A Spy of the Revolution. — In the year 1776, when 
Governor Clinton resided in Albany, there came a stranger to his 
house one cold Avintry morning, soon after the family hsid breakfasted. 



124 <JEN. CLINTON AND TAYLOR. 

He WRH welcomod by thi* liouHehold, and hoH])itHl>ly <)nturtiiincMl. A 
hreakftiHt wtxs ordorod, and tiie Govenioi*, with lii.s wife and daui;htvi' 
cniployod in knitting, was Hitting iK'fore tho firo, and ontored into 
convcrHation with him about the a/RiirH of the country, whicli natui- 
ally led to the cn(|uiry of what waH his occupation. The caution 
and hcHitancy with which the stranger sjtokc, aroused the kcen-8ighte<l 
Olintoji. Ho conininnicated liiH suspicion to his wife antl daughter, 
who closely watched iiis civery word iuid action. ITnconscious of 
this, but finding that he ha<l fallen among enemies, the stranger wa.s 
seen to take something froiii his pocket and swallow it. Meantime 
Madam Clinton, with the ready tact of a woman of those troublesome 
times, went (piietly into the kitchen, and ordered hot cofteo to bo 
immediately made, and added to it a strong ilose of tartar emetic. 
The stranger, delighted with the smoking beverage, partook freely 
of it, and Mrs. Clinton soon had the satisfaction of seeing it produce 
the desired result. From scri[)tui-o out of his own mouth was he 
condemned. A siver bullet appeared, which upon examination was 
nnHcrewe<l and found to contain aw important despatch from 
Burgoyne. Ho was tried, condemned and executed, and the bullet 
is still preserved in the family." 

''The foregoing article we clip from the Boston Free Fla<j of the 
2nd November, 1861,thi8,thero is reason to infer, is a special reference 
to a relative of one of the oldest families in this part of Canada. 
John Taylor in his life time, well known to the first inhabitants of 
Belleville, had two brothers employed uj)on seci'ot service for the 
British Government during the American revolutionary war, their 
names were Neil and Daniel. At different l^mcs they were each 
apprehended and suffered the sca ere penalty of the l.aw. A tradi- 
tion of the Taylor family of this i)lace, agi'ees in all particulars with 
the above article, and points to one of the Taylor brothers as the 
person therein alluded to." 

Si^bino says that " Daniel Taylor in 1777, was disj)atched by Sir 
Henry Clinton to Burgoyne, with intelligen(!e of the capture of Fort 
Montgomery, and was taken on his way by the whigs as a spy. 
Finding himself in danger, he turned aside, took a small silver ball 
or bullet from his pocket and swallowed it. The act was seen, and 
General George (!)linton, into whose hands he had fallen; ordered a 
severe dose of emetic tartar to be adminis- ttn'od, which caused him 
to discharge the bullet. On being unscrewed, the silver bullet was 
found to contain a latter from the one British General to the other, 
which ran as follows : 



VANDUKEN — WILLIAMADirROII. 125 

Four MoMTOOMHRY, October 2, 1777. 

Nous uoiiU—nnd ii(>thins»betw(»tiii \\h Imt Gates. I Hinwrcly hope 
this littlo NiicooRs of ourH may facilitiite your**i||^ationH. In arwwer 
to yotir letter of 28th of Beptembcr, by C. C, I shall only siiy, I 
cftiinot prL'suine to order, or even adviHc, for. roasonn obxious. I 
h«'artity wish you huoo^hb. 

Faithfully yourn, 

H. Clinton. 

. .,>it .. i» ....:! » ••...111;;. ,ti , 1/ tin- . . . 

To General l^urgoyne. ;,..,.,,,.,,;., i,;^. ,.„., . 

Taylor wuh tried, conviotod, and oxccutod, shortly after his 
Aletoction." 

Conrad VanDuBon was a native of Duchens County, N. Y., 
born 23rd April, 1761. Ilia father was IJobert VanDuHen. At the 
commencement uf the rebellion he was in businoHS as a tailor, in New 
York City. He served during the whole of the war, seven years, in 
Butlei"'s Kaugerw. During this time, his wife, who was also from 
Duchess County, formerly a Miss Coon, carried on tlie tailoring 
business in New York, and succeeded in saving fifty-three 
guineas. On leaving for Canada with VanAlstine, they brouglit 
with them two largo boxes of clothing. They also had some 

jCWellry. ,, ^ , ... l ,u, ,,'. > :■, . : it ;.-• ■ .i[. ■'■,■■,,.>, ":.■•/,:■,; .V .J., 

During the war VauDusen Avas sometimes employed upon secret 
♦"jivioe, and upon one occasion was caught, and condemned to be 
hanged. Upon leaving the room in which he had been tried, he 
managed to convey to a woman present, whose earnest demeanor 
led him to believe she was friendly, a gold ring, a keep-sake of his 
wife. Uy some means VanDuson escaped, having concealed himself 
in a svvmnp under water, with his face only above water, and in after 
years he was surprised and rejoiced to receive by letter the i<lenticai 
ring, which ha<l been sent to him by the woman into whose hands he 
had so adroitly placed it. She had directed the letter to Catai'aqui. 

The close of the war found VanDusen at 'Sew York, and he 
joined VanAlstine's band of refugees, and settled in Adolphustown. 
Subsequently he removed to Marysburgh, lot No. 0, where he -died, 
aged seventy-six years and seven months.* Ho lies buried in the 
IT. E. burying ground, Adolphustown. 

Frederick Frank Williamsburgh, at the time of the war lived 
upon the Susquehanna, and owned a thousand acres of land. He 
was a sickly ttian. His family consisted of a' son eleven years old, 
and three da^hters. O&e day he went some distance to a mill, 



It6 WRKJIIT — WILKINH. 

talcing his ohiMron with him, and lenving hln wife nn<l inother At 
homo. That <lay tho rolx^li ituulo a raid, aiul he waH tal<on prinoiior 
from hlH cliildren ui^yie road ; and (roiniti^ to IiIh burn, it, witli all 
hiH )/ruin wan l>urnod up. 1 1 in wifu an<l old mother 8ouglit Hul'ety in 
.the woodH, and the Iiounc wanNtrippcd oi' overytliin)<. Tlu; children 
arriving homo without tlieir father, found no mother, or grand 
mother, only the Hinoking ruiuH of the liarn and the dismantled houHo. 
Frightened almoNt to death, and expecting to ho killed helore mor-n 
ing, tlioy lay down on tiio Hoor. About midnight came a knock at 
the door, after a time tliey Hunuuoned sut!iciont courage to ask who 
waH there, wiien it waH found to be neighbor who had been hunted 
in tho woods for three «hiys and who was almowt .starved, lie wa.s 
admitted, and having wlopt for a Hhort time, he proceeded to prepare 
a raft upon tlu; river ; upon this he pluce<l some flour he had con- 
cealed in the woodH, and the children, with himHclf, and floated 
down the river. Hut the morning brojight the enemy, and they were 
taken. The chihlron were conveyed to a place where tliey fotind their 
mother ; but tho father having been thrown into a prison, in three 
montliH his weak constitution succumbed to the cruelty of his prison 
house. 

Tlie family found their way to Lower Canada, after a time, livinij; 
upon tho rations dealt out from day to day from tho commissariat 
department. They, after a time, went to Montreal, and one son, 
when twelve year old, enlisted. For a time he acted as tailor to tho 
regiment, but subsequently became a favorite with tho Dolonel and 
was promoted. Tiie descendants of this William WiHiamslturgh now 
live in Belleville. 

Soigeant Daniel Wright was born Ui the city of London, 1741. 
He was sergeant in tho 74th regiment. Sergeant Wright was ))resent 
at the battle beiore Quebec, when Montgomery was killed. Ho 
settled in Marysburgh in 1784. He was commissary oflicer for the 
fifth townsliip, and was subsequently api)ointed magistrate and then 
registrar, which office he hold for upwards of thirty years. Was Lieut. 
Colonel in tho Prince Edward Militia. " Old Squire Wright " was jv 
man of education and gentlemanly deportment, strictly religious, and 
noted for his urbanity J*ho obtained the soubriquet of " Squire civil." 
It is said he was never known to smile. Unlike other retired officers, 
it is said, he did not seek to acquire extensive tracts of land. Died 
April, 1828, aged eiglity -seven. 

The following is from the Kingston Chronicle : " Died at the Car 
rying Place, 27th February, 1836, liobert Wilkins, Esq., in the ninety 



> COL. voirNo. 'it J HT 

fourth year of IiIh a.i<o. Wo vuUm'd tlu- army at tin* oarly a^o of 
■I'vontcen, in tlio iVtIi LiL;ht Dra^ooiiH, then o»niinnui»h)<l by tho lato 
Colonol Kale. Soon alter hu joiiu'd thv roj^iwcut it wan or<l«)n»<l to 
ScothuKl. Thoro it did not hnig roninin ; tlio " Wliitehoy " con- 
ii|>iraoy had boon fornuMl in Ireland. From Iifhuid h« Hailed with* 
tho samo diHtinguiHhed regiment for the British American ('olonios, 
then raining the Htantlard of revolt, landed at MoHton, and a few days 
nftor bore a conspicuonH part in the battle of Bunker'H Hill, on whioh 
occaHion he had two horHes Nhot tui<h>r him. He was present at 
moHt of the engagomcntH in the northern colonies. At the battle of 
White I Mains, he was one of tho forlorn hope, where ho recoive<l n 
Novoro conttision on the br(«ast, and lost the thnmb of his right hand. 
After recoveiing from his wonnds, he retired from the army, and 
entered into mercantile pursnits in the city of New York. There ho 
carried on a prosperons bnsinosH nntil ]>oace was concluded ; but 
whon that city was evacuated by tho British troops (in lY83)ho was 
too strongly attached to his king to remain behind. He then accom- 
panied thorn to Shelburno, Nova Scotia. In the imjirovements of 
that luckless place, he expended a largo sum of money, Imt finding 
that the place Avoiild not succeed, ho left, and in 17H9, returned to 
his native country, fnnn which, three years after, he was indticod to 
follow Governor Simcoe to this colony, just after it had received its 
constitution, and bccam(! a distinct government. From that time he 
remained in Upper Canada, and nu)st of the time at this i)lace. Of 
Christian doctrine and Christian duty, he had a much deeper sense 
tiian was obvious to occasi(mal visitors. His hospitality was prover- 
bial, and never under his roof was the ]ioor refused food or shelter. 
His ronniins w(a*o followed to the church, and thence to the house 
appointed for all living, by not less than 300 of his friends and 
neighbors." f(,.Mt-i ♦•ii«ii :aj''rf'i'-. Mirti»;.">.' 

For an account of the son of the above, see notices of U. E. 
Tioyalists. 

Col. II. Young — His father wa.s a native of Nottingham,England, 
and came to Now York whon eighteen years old, and settled at 
Jamaica, Long Island. He was a gunsmith by trade. Subsequently 
ho lomovod to Husack, northern Now York. Ho had four sons, 
George, Henry, William, John, and two daughters. His second son 
Henry jWas born at Jamaica, 10th March, 1737. At the age of eighteen 
lie joined tho British army, as a volunteer. He was present at tho 
Imttlo of Tyconderoga, under General Aborcrombie. He was also 
with tho army under General Amhei*st, which wont from Albany 



'128 FIRST SETTLRRS IN UPPER CANADA. 

to Montreal, to Join the nrmy from Quebec, under General Murray. 
Continued in the army until 17(31, when he returned home, married 
a MissCampman, and lived in peace until the rebellion broke out. 
Ho again joined the Britinh army an a private, and was at the 

, battle of Bennington, but lie ko distinguished himself that he was 
promoted to an onsigncy in the King's Eoyal Keglment, of New 
York. During the war ho took part in seventeen battles, but 
escaped with one wound in the hand. In the year 1780, he wa« 
sent with Major Boss to Carleton Island. For three years he was 
at this place, or Oswego. In 1783 he wjis discharged on half pay, 
and received grants of land — 3,000 acres, with the privilege of 
selecting the place. Immediately after his release he set out, 
sometime during the summer or autumn of 1783, to prospect for 
land. In a small canoo, he, with a brother officer, named, it is said, 
McCarty, proceeded up the bay Quinte, and into Picton bay to its 
rhead, thence to East Lake. Having decided to take land here, he left 
his son during the winter. In the following spring 1784, he brought 

I his family from St. Johns, where they had been staying. (See 

Y,.sottlement of Prince Edward). Colonel Young died at East Lake. 

,.3rd December, 1820, aged eighty-three years and nine months. 

Daniel Young was in the Engineer Department during the 
latter part of the revolutionary war. He died at East Lake, 30th 
September, 1850, aged eighty-five. v'vf ;■>,. >.VCr"v •,,!., 

Henry Young was Ijioutenant of Militia in the war of 1812. 
Went to Kingston on duty, where ho died, latter part of December, 
1812. 

Among the first settlers of the Upper Province, especially upon 
the St. liawrence, and who took part in the war, may be mentioned, 

I Captain Thomas Frazer, Captain William Fraaer, Lieutenant 
Solomon Snider, Lieutenant Gideon Adams, Captain Simon 
Covelle, Captain Dnimmond, Ensign Dulmage, Ensign Sampson^ 
Lieutenant Farrand, Captain Amberson, Lieutenant McLean, 
Lieutenant James Campbell, Lieutenant Alexander Campbell, 

J Sergeant Benoni Wiltsie, Ensign E. Bolton, Captain Justus Sher- 
wood, Captain John Jones, Lieutenant James Breakenridge, of 

. EogCr's COl'pS. JC^»*Hvi: ,w*>v«^-'r 

Colonel Clarke, of Dalhousie^ gives a " list of half pay officers 
, who settled in the Niagara District after the rebellion of the 
r, colonies:" 

^ Colonel John Butler, originator of Butler's Bangers, an Irish- 

^ man, a connection of Lord Osmore; Captain Andrew Brant, 



THAVELINO BY THE INDIANS. 129 

Butler's Eangcrs ; Captain B. Fry, Captain P. Hare, Captain Thos. 
Butler, Captain Aaron Brant, Captain P. Paulding, Captain John 
Ball, Captain P. Ball, Captain P. Ton Brock, Lieutenant E. 
Clench, Lieutenant Wm. Brant, Lieutenant Wm. Tweeny, 
Lieut. Jocal Swoos, Lieut. James Clements, Lieut. D. Swoob, all of 
Butler's Eangers; Captain James Brant, Indian Department; 
Captain H. Nelles, Captain James Young, Captain Eobert Nelles, 
Captain Joseph Dockater, Captain C. Eyman, Lieut. J. Clement, 
Lieut. W. B. Shuhm, Lieut. A. Chrysler, Lieut. S. Secord, Lieut. 
F. Stevens, Surgeon E. Kerr, Commodore T. Merritt, father of the 
late Hon. W. H. Merritt, all of the Indian Department. ., .: r'-^ 
, ,,_., ,,, .,,-,;v"VViT.v.j.. ^;v^''-- :^»,'^:, •"^■^ ^■'.•^''.•; 

.>..■■>•: i ^ i'. ■, I. v'j^i, ■;..,,- J*'*.' ^.■n'.i-hj ■' •'■' '■ '•' ■■• •'■■•' ^•' :»-■ ■■■ 'O! 



^ . - ■»■» . 

l:.,.iu^.^^:,r.^- DIYISI0:N" II. ^v.;'.<,.'^.v*^'^'?^-v<U 



TEAVELING IN EAELY TIMES-OEIGINAL EOUTES. 
(jn^^c.^ CHAPTEE Xn. t.fiAyv-.'^ /> ' -- 

C0NTBNT8 — Indian paths — Portages — Original French routes — Mer de Canada — 
Original names of St. Lawrence — Ontario — Huron — Route by Bay Qnint6 — 
Old French maps — Original English routes — Four ways from Atlantic to 
the Laices — Mississippi — Potomac — Hudson — Indian name of Erie — From 
New York to Ontario — The Hudson P'ver — Mohawk — Wood creek — Oneida 
Lake — Oswego River — The carrying places — West Canada Creek— Black 
River — Oswegotchie — The navigation — Military highway — Lower Canada — 
An historic route — The paths followed by the Loyalists — Indian paths north 
of Lake Ontario — Crossing the Lake — From Cape Vincent to the Bay 
Quints — From Oswego by Duck Islands — East Lake — Picton Bay — Coasting 
Ontario — Two ways to Huron — By Bay Quints and Trent ; by Don River- 
Lake Simcoe — Point Traverse — Loyalists — Traveling by the St. Lawrence — 
First road — Long remembered event. 

Although the European found the American continent a vast 
unbroken wilderness, yet the native Indians had well defined 
routes of travel. Mainly, the long journeys made by them in their 
hunting excursions, and when upon tl.e war path, were by water 
ap and down rivers, and along the shores of lakes. And at certain 
places around rapids, and from one body of water to another, their 
9 



130 oaiaiNAL names. 

froquont journoyings created a well marked path. Those portages 

or carrying places may even yet, in many places be traced, ami 

/are still known by such appellations. The arrival of the European 

in America was followed by hiK p-^netrating, step by step, to the 

further recesses of the north and wes,. The opening of the ifur 

: trade with the Indians led to increa'jod travel along ^ome of the 

. original paths, and probably to the opening of now ones. While 

the French by the waters of the Lower St. liawrenoe, found it con- 

. v«oionb to ascend by the great streams, the English hati to travorso 

••ihe 1 high lands v/hich separate the sources of the rivers which 

empty into the Atlantic, from those which rise to flow to the lakes 

and rivers of fresh water to the north. 

The original routes of travel taken by the French were up 
the St. Lawrence, at first called the " Grand Eiver of Canada," 
while the gulf is marked Galpo di Canada O'S Larenzo. The 
water of the Atlantic, south of the Chesapeake Eiver to Newfound- 
land and the gulf, was known as the Mer de Canada. From the sea- 
boai'd the traveler sometimes, having ascended to the mouth of 
the Sorel Eiver, turned west to lake Champlain, and thence into 
the western part of the present New York State, or continuing up 
the St. Lawrence to its confluence with the Ottawa, or as it was 
sometimes called Grand Eiver, selected one or the other of these ma- 
jestic streams, by which to continue the journey westward. Follow- 
ing the Ottawa, the way led to the north as far as Lake Nippissing, 
and thence westward to theGoorgiaa Bay. Sometimes the voyager 
would continue to ascend the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario, a por- 
tion of the St. Lawrence sometimes called Cataraqui Eiver, or the Iro- 
quoia Eiver, that is to say, the river which leads to Cataraqui, or the 
-Iroquois country. Lake Ontario was called by Champlain, Lake 
St .Louis, and subsequently for a time it was known as Lake Fronto- 
-nac. According to a map observed in the French Imperial Library 
\h& Lidian name of Ontario was Skaniadono, 1688. 

From Lake Ontario to Lake Huron, at first named Mer Douce, 
and, then after the Huron Indians, who were expelled from that 
region by the Iroquois in 1650, a very common route was up the 
JBfty Quinte, the Eiver Trent, Iiake Simcoe, and to Georgian Bay. 
defeat itbis was a nottunfi^quent way is -well exhibited by the old 
rS^enoh maips, which, pixjpafed to indicate the principle waterways 
rto the teaveler, had the waters of the Bay and Trent, even to its 
. i9QUi;Qe,/ma(ie bj»OAd,;so th«t the observer might imagine that the 
(lagy.andtho Kivenw^ro one ootutinuous bay of navigable waters. 



ROUTES FROM ATLANTICJtO ONTARIO. 131 

As this route was adjacent to the territory of the Iroquois nation, it 
was only when the French wore at peace with thorn that this 
course was taken, until tiio establishment of the fort at Cataraqui. 
Again, the French occasionally followed the south shore of Lake 
Ontario to the Niagara River and ascended it to Lake Erie, and 
thus approached the far west. " 

While the French with comparative ease, reached the vast 
inland seas, the English by more difficult channels sought the 
advantages, which^intercourse with the lake Indians afforded. An 
early writer of American history, Isaac Weld, says : " There are 
four princiijal channels for trade between the ocean and the lakes. 
One by the Mississippi to Lake Erie, a second by the Potomac and 
French Creek to Lake Erie. (Lake Erie was at first called 01^- 
wego, and the territory to the south of Lake Erie was sometimes 
called Ontario Nous.) A third by the Hudson, and a foui-th by the 
St. Lawrence." A later writer says: '• It is worthy of notice, that 
a person may go from Quebec to New ^Orleans by water all the 
way except about a mile from the source of Illinois River." The last 
mentioned route we have seen belonged to the French, and was the 
best to follow, as well as the most direct to Europe. Of the other 
throe, we have only to speak of that by the Hudson. 

The distance from New York to Lake Ontario is laid down as 
being 500 miles. From New York Bay to Albany, the Hudson is 
navigable, 180 miles. Ton miles north of Albany the river divides 
into two branches. The western branch is the Mohawk and leads 
to Rome, formerly Fort Stanwix. A branch of the Mohawk, Wood 
Creek, loads toward Oneida Lake, which was reached by a portage. 
A branch of Wood Creek was called Canada Creek, and led 
toward Lake Champlain. From Oneida- Lake, the larger lake, 
Ontario, is reached by the Oswego River. Weld probably refers 
to this route when he says that the distance over which boats had 
to be hauled by land, (perhaps, from New York to Ontario) was 
altogether thirty miles. This was no doubt the most speedy route 
by which to reach Upper Canada from the Hudson. Frequent 
reference is made to it, in the accounts of journeying, by the U. E. 
Loyalists, which have come under notice. It was by far the most 
commonly traveled way, taken by those who came into Canada 
after thef close of the wai . And, it is stated, 1796, that the chief 
part of the trade between New York and the lake is by this way. 
nBut sometimes, the traveler up the Mohawk, instead of turning into 
Vilcrik, or Wood Creek, would continue to ascend the Mohawk, 



132 DIFFERENT ROUTES— LOYALISTS. 

which turned more toward the east; and then into a branch some- 
timoB called, 1756, West Canada Creek, by which he was brought 
contiguous to the head waters of the Black River, which omptios 
into the lake at Sackot's Harbor, But the Black River was some- 
times reached by asceiiding the Hudson, above the mouth of the 
Mohawk, away eastward to the Mohegan mountains, where the 
Hudson rises. Crossing these mountains ho would strike the 
Moose River, which is a tributary to the Black River. Occasion- 
ally, instead of Moose River, the Oswegotchie was reaehod, and fol- 
lowed to its mouth at La Presentation, the present town of Ogdens- 
burgh. That this route was well known, is shown from the state- 
ment of Weld, that, " It is said that both the Hudson and Obwegot- 
ehie River are capable of being made navigable for light batteaux 
to where they approach within a short distance, about four miles." 
All of these branches of the Hudson are interrupted by falls. 

Still another way was now and then taken, after having 
crossed the Mohegans, namely, by Long Lake which feeds Racket 
River, that empties into the St. Lawrence, at St. Regis, opposite Corn- 
wall. Again, numerous accounts have been furnished the wi-iter, in 
which the traveler followed the military highway to Lower Can- 
ada, by Whitehall, Lake Champlain, Fort Ticonderoga, Platts- 
burgh, and then turning northward proceeded to Cornwall. But this 
way was the common one to Lower Canada, and by the Sorel. This 
historic route was no doubt long used by the Indians, before the 
European trod it, and Champlain at an early period penetrated to 
the lake, to which his name is forever attached. Along this road 
passed many a military expedition ; and during the wars between 
the colonies of France and England, here ebbed and flowed the 
tide of strife. The rebellion of 1176 witnessed Burgoyne with his 
army sweep by here westward to meet his disastrous fate ; and 
thereafter set in the stream of refugees and loyalists, which ceased 
not to flow for many a year, along this path. 

; M';; While the great majority of the loyalists who came to Canada, 

followed one or other of the routes above mentioned, there were 

some who came around by the Atlantic, and up the St. Lawrence, 

There were at 1 H two companies, one under the leadership of 

4. Captain Grass, le under Captain Van Alstine, who sailed from 

4 New York in under the protection of a war vessel, shortly 

^a^before the evacuation by the British forces in 1783. 

Directing our attention to the territory north of Lake Ontario, 
and the Upper St. Lawrence,'we find some interesting facts relative 



INDIAN ROUTES AROUND BAY QUINTE. 133 

to the original Indian paths ; sometimes, followed on hunting and 
fishing expeditions, and sometimes in pursuit of an enemy. There 
is evidence that the Mohawks, upon the southern shore of Lake 
Ontario, were accustomed to pass across the waters, to the northern 
shores by diiferont routes. Thus, one was from Cape Vincent to 
Wolfe Island, and thonco along its shore to the west end, and then 
either to Cataraqui, or up the Bay Quinte, or perhaps across to Am- 
herst Island, whore, itseems, generally resided a Chief of considerable 
importance. A second route, followed by them, in their frail bark 
canoes, was from a point of land somewhat east of Oswego, called 
in later days Henderson's Point, taking in their way Stony Island, 
the Jallup Islands, and stretching across to Yorkshire Island, and 
Duck Island, then to the Drake Islands, and finally to Point 
Traverse. Following the shore around this point, Wappooso Island 
was also reached ; or, on the contrary, proceeding along the shore 
westward they reached East Lake. Prom the northernmost point 
of this lake they directed their steps, with canoes on their heads, 
across the carrying place to the head of Picton Bay, a distance of 
a little over four miles. It is interesting to notice that upon the 
old maps, by the early French navigators, the above mentioned 
islands are specified a "aw des Couis;''^ while at the same time the 
Bay of Quinte bears the name of Couis, showing unmistakably that 
the Mohawk Indians passed by this way to the head waters of 
the bay and to the Trent River. Herriot designates one of these 
islands. Isle do Quinte. Two maps in the Imperial library of Paris, 
give these islands, above mentioned, the name of Middle Islands, 
and the waters east of them are named Cataraqui Bay. It is 
not at all unlikely that Champlain, when he first saw Lake 
Ontario, emerged from the water of East lake. Again, instead of 
entering the Bay Quinte with a view of passing up the River Moira, 
or Trent, they would continue along the south shore of Prince 
Edward, past West Lake and Consecon Lake, and proceed westward, 
sometime;^ to the river at Port Hope, sometimes further west, even 
to the Don, and ascend some one of the rivers to the head waters 
of the Trent or Lake Simcoe. The early maj)« indicate Indian 
villages along at several points. Owing to the dangerous coast 
along the south shore of Prince Edward, sometimes they chose the 
longer and more tedious route through the Bay Quinte to its head. 
That here was a common carrying place is well attested by the state- 
ments of many. Indeed, at this point upon the shores of the lake 
was an Indian village of importance. An old graveyard here, upon 



1*84 PROM ONTARIO TO HURON. 

being plowed, lias yielded rich and important relics, showing that 
the Indians were Christianized, and that valuable French gifts had 
been bestowed. 

It would Hcem from a letter of DoNonville, that there were two 
ways to roach Lake Huron from Lake Ontario : one by the Bay 
Quinte and the Trent; the other by the way of the Don River and 
Lake Simcoo, called by him " Lake Taranto." In the selection of 
routes they were guided by Indians. 

The route by the Trentjand the Bay Quinto was for many a day 
regarded as the most direct, and the best route to Lake Huron, even 
since the settlement by Europeans. Its supposed importance was 
sufficient to load to the attempt to construct a canal with locks, to 
make it navigable. Gourlay says, sometime after the war of 1812, 
that " in course of time it may become an object of importance to 
connect Eice Lake by a canal with Lake Ontario direct, instead of 
following the present canoe route by its natural outlet into the Bay 
f^ Quinte." "• ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 ' 

The Marquis DeNonville, in 1685, moved on the Five Nations 
with his little army in canoes, in two divisions. On the 23rd June, 
one-half proceeded on the south side from the 'fort Cataraqui, and 
the other on the north side of the lake, and met near Oswego. 
Now, there can be no doubt, that the latter party crossed the bay 
. to Indian Point, passed along its southern shore, then across the bay 
by Wappoose Island, and then around, or crossing Point Traverse 
struck far into the lake, by the islands which constituted the guides 
of this early Indian route. It may be that this was so commonly 
traveled that the old namejof Point Traverse was thus derived. 

"Wo have indicated the several routes followed by the Indians, 
the French, the English, and finally by the Eefugees, so far as 
relate to the territory now comprising Upper Canada, that is by 
which it was originally|reached and settled. Besido, there were 
some who found their way hy land from the head waters of the 
Susquehana to Lake Eric and Niagara. But the vast majority of 
pioneers of Upper Canada entered by the channels aforesaid. 

For many years, the only road from Lower Canada was by the 
St. Lawrence, ascending wearily up the dangerous rapids in canoes 
and batteaux; and it will be found that the lots in the first town- 
ships were surveyed narroAV in order to secure a water frontage to 
as many as possible, because there was no other means of transit 
than by water. But those who settled in the second conopssions, a 
year or two later, were obliged to tread the length o'f the long front 



TBAVELINO BY OANOB. 135 

Jots, in order to roach the water. At the same time the com- 
munication with Lower Canada, up and down the rapids, was 
attended with many hazardH and inconveniences. It conseq^uently 
became a matter of no little importance to have a road through 
the settlements to Montreal, which might bo traveled by horse, 
a King's highway from the eastern Provincial line. It was, 
however, some years after the first settlement before this was 
secured. The original survey for a road was made by one 
Ponair, assisted by one Kilborno. ''The opening" Sherwood 
says, <' of this road from Lower Canada to Brookville and thence to 
Cataraqui, a distance of U5 miles, was an event long remembered 
by the pioneers. At the end of each mile was planted a red cedar 
post with a mark upon it indicating the number of miles from the 
Provincial line."— (See First Years of Upper Canadar-Constructioa 
of Eoads). . . , • 

/ ' ■ ■•■ ■ ''■■■ ' ■■'■ * '•' ■ "■• ' . • '*Mivw. 

'jA;,/irr,vr:!;vj« rc'tui Oi'! it.'ff* .'ji,'m tin )ft.'6fij :i( bfih<iVMyur 'V::c.-n". 
^],^m') -^iibi' .torn i.^ CHAPTER Xni. hod ^tii no -t^ilu^ -il' 

CONTBKTS— Indians traveled by loot or by oanoe— Secreting canoes Primeval 

scenes—Hunting expeditions—War path— In 1812— Brook— A night at 

'' Myers' Creek— Important arrival— The North West Company— Their canoeg 

{ — Route—Grand Portage— The Voyageurs— The Batteaux— Size— Ascending 

the rapids—Lachine- A dry dock— Loyalists by battoaux— Durham boats— 

? Difficulties—In 1788, time from Lachine to Predericksburgh— Waiting for 

batteaux— Extracts from a journal, travelling in 1811— From Kingston to 

. Montreal— The expenses— The Schenectady boats— Trade between Albany 

» and Cataraqui— The Durham boat— Duncan— Description of flat-bottomed 

> boat by " Murray "—Statement of Finkle—Trading— Batteaux in 1812— Rate 

of traveling— The change in fifty years— Time tfrom Albany to Bay Quint6 

—Instances — Loyalists traveling in winter— Route— Willsbury wilderness 

t —Tarrying at Cornwall— The " French Train "— Traveling along north 

shore of Ontario—Indian path— Horseback— Individual owners of batteaux 

—Around Bay Quints- The last regular batteaux — In 1819—" Lines " from 

magazine, m mvr.iimr'/i .flffm-i: i'Vl. ; }.«* ?}{*fr»f ■■>^r«fT c4 i^n • 

,iivi».V!Jn?' TRAVKLING BY CANOE, ff*) '^'Xf fH l^i fV-*,i(^>- > 

"'- Having pointed out the several general routes by which the abori, 
gines and the first Europe ans in America, were wont to traverse the 
country from the seaboard to the f ai* west ; and indicated more parti- 
cularly the smaller paths of the Indians around the Bay Quinte and 
Lake Ontario, we purpose glancing at the means by which they made 
their way through the wilderness. 



136 BROCK TRAVELING BY CANOE. 

Tho Native hadhut two moflos of transporting himself from place 
to place ; namely, by foot and by tho oanoo. He was trained to make 
long expeditions ii|)on the war-i)ath, or after prey. When his course 
lay along a water way, ho employed his birch canoo. This being 
light, he could easily ascend rapids, and when nccessaiy, lift it from 
the water, and placing it, bottom upward, upon his head, carry it 
around tho falls, or over a portage with the greatest facility. When 
upon the chase, or about to attack a foe, the canoo was so carefully 
secreted, that the passing traveler would never detect its whereabouts. 
The French and English at tho first followed this Indian mode of 
traveling. From tho graphic descriptions which are given to us by 
the early writers, of this Indian mode of traveling in America, ere 
the sound of the axe had broken upon tho clear northern air, and 
while nature presented an unbroken garment of green, it is not diffi- 
cult to imagine that scones of Indian canoe traveling wore in the 
extreme picturesque. It is not necessary to go beyond the Bay 
Quinte, to find a place where all the natural beauty was combined with 
the rude usages of the aboriginal inhabitant, to create a picture of 
rare interest and attraction. In those primeval times there was no 
regular passage made between one part of the country and another. 
The Indian in his light canoe glided along here and there, as his 
fancy led him, or the probability of obtaining fish or game dictated. 
At certain seasons of tho year there was a general movement, as they 
started off on their hunting expeditions ; and at other times the 
warriors alone set out, when only intent upon surprising the hated 
foe. On these occasions one canoe would silently and swiftly follow 
in the wake of the other, until the place of debarkation was reached. 
For a long time the birch canoe was the only mode of traveling, and 
when the French came with their batteaux, the canoe continued for 
a long time the principarmeans of transit. Even so late as the war 
of 1812, canoes were employed, and many of the gallant ones who 
fought and conquered the conceited ajad unscruf>ulous Yankee 
invader, found their way to tho front by the swift birch bark. 
Company after company of Eed Coats were to bo seen plying the 
trim paddle as the canoe sped on its way. We have it on good 
authority that Major General Brock, at the reception of the intelli- 
gence, that the United States had declared war against Great Britain, 
set out from Lower Canada in a birch canoe, and with a companion 
and their boatman, journeyed all the way to York, followed by a 
regiment of soldiers. Incidents of this passage are yet related by 
the living. He reached Belleville, or as it was then called 



BBOCK AT MYERS' CREKK. 137 

Myers' Creok, lato ono night, after having boon traveling for some ■ 
time without rest. With his companion, ho wont asliore and sought 

a place to sleep. They entered the public house of Captain Mo , 

and after examining a room, decided to sleep there the night. But 
the host, hearing an unusual noise, rushed into the room demanding 
who was there. The C4enorar8 companion, with the quickness, and 
in language somewhat characteristic of the army of that time, told 
him he would kick him to h-ll in a minute. Captain Mc some- 
what disconcerted at the threat and tone of authority walked out, 
and meeting the boatman, ask him who the parties were. Upon 
being informed, ho rushed away in a state of great alarm, not daring 
to shew himself again to the General. The house is still standing. 
The following notice is from the Kingston Gazette. '^' i»i"'w^ ? *- 

" YoKK, April 29, 1815." 
" On Sunday evening last arrived in this town from Burlington, 
in a birch canoe, Lieutenant General Sir Greorge JNIurray Knight," 
&c., &c. _*■' ■•jtffi,yr-ii.- ,■■:• ••(titJ'.'.irH:"')' lr"i*''r.'*>«.'r''.'i.<tt'i.vi»#r!jH' ? 'biif '«».'< 

tt cv«7'' ' BArrEAUX — SCHKNECTADY BOATS — DURHAM BOATS. f JTihi 

Gourley, speaking of Lachino, says tiiat " from Lachine the 
canoos employed by the North West Company in the fur trade take 
their departure. Of all the numerous contrivances for transporting 
heavy burthens by water, these vessels are perhaps the most extra- 
ordinary : Scarcely anything can be conceived so inadequate from the 
slightness of their construction, to the purpose they are applied to, 
and to contend against the impetuous torrent of tbe many I'apids that 
must be passed through in the course of a voyage. They seldom 
exceed thirty feet in length, and six in breadth, diminishing to a sharp 
point at each end, without distinction of head or stern ; the frame is 
composed of small pieces of some very light wood ; it is then covered 
with the bark of the birch tree, cut into convenient slips, that are 
rarely more than the eight of an inch in thickness ; these are sewed 
together with threads made from the twisted fibres of the roots of a 
particular tree, and strengthened where necessary by narrow strips of 
the same materials applied on the inside ; the joints in the fragile 
planking are made water-tight, by being covered with a species of 
gum that adheres very firmly, and becomes perfectly hard. No iron- 
work of any description, not even nails, are employed in building 
these slender vessels, which, when complete, weigh only about five 
hundred weight each. On being prepared for the voyage, they 



IM- VOYAOINO TO THE PAR W18T. 

roccive thoir Imliiij?, that for tho couvoiiionco of oarryiiitf aorosH tho 
port'iges iH mado up in packages of about throe-quartorH of a hundred 
weit^ht each, and amounts altogether to five tonn, or a little more, 
incltiding provisions, and other ncoesHarios for tho men, of whom from 
eight to ten are employed to each canoe; they uHually set out in 
brigatles like the b.ittcaux, and in the course of a summer, upwards 
of fifty of these vessels are thus dispatched. They jirooeod up tho 
Grand, or Ottawa Iliver, so far as tho south-west branch, by which, 
and a chain of small lakes, they reach Lake Nippissing ; through it, 
and down the French Kiver into Lake Huron ; along its northern 
coast, up the narrows of St. Mary, into Lake Superior, and then, by 
its northern side, to the Grand Portage, a distance of about 1,100 
miles from the place of departure. The difficulties encountered in 
tliis voyage are not easily conceived ; the great number of rapids in 
tho rivers, the diftbrent portages from lake to lake, which vary from 
a few yards to three miles or more in length, where the canoes must 
be unladen, and with thoir contents carried to the next water, 
occasion a succession of labors and fatigues of which but a poor 
estimation can be formed by judging it from the ordinary occupa- 
tions of other laboring classes. From the Grand Portage, that is 
nine miles across, a continuation of tho same toils takes place in bark 
canoes of an inferior size, through the chain of lakes and streams 
that run from the height of land westward to the Lake of the Woods, 
Lake Winnipeg, and onwards to more distant establishments of the 
company in the remote regions of the north-west country. The men 
are robust, hardy, and resolute, capable of enduring great extremes 
of fatigues and privation for a long time, with a patience almost 
inexhaustible. In the large lakes they are frequently daring enough 
to cross the deep bays, often a distance of several leagues, in their 
canoes, to avoid lengthening the route by coasting them ; yet, not- 
withstanding all the risks and hardships attending their employment, 
they prefer it to every other, and are very seldom induced to relin- 
quish it in favor of any more settled occupation. The few dollars 
they receive as the compensation for so many privations and dangers, 
are in general, dissipated with a most careless indifference to future 
wants, and when at an end, they very contentedly renew the same 
series of toils to obtain a fresh supply." +{#*{*; 't\m^i en'-p- i^^i^fi > 

"The batteaux," says Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, "by which the 
refugees emigi'ated, were principally built at Lachine, nine miles 
from Montreal. They were calculated to carry four or five families, 
with about two tons weight. Twelve boats constituted a brigade, 



BATTEAUX ON THE ST. LAWRENCE. 139 

and each bripjide had a condtictor, with flvo men in each boat, ono of 
whicli Btoercd. The duty of the conduotor was to crive <lirootion« for 
the safe managtMuent of the boatu, to koe|> thorn toi^ether ; and when 
they oanio to u raj)i«l they left a j)ortion of the bontH wifh one man 
in oharge. The boats asoondinj? wore doubly manned, an<l drawn by 
a rope fastened at the bow of the boat, leuvin*? four men in the boat 
with setting poles, thus the men walked alonpf the side of the rivoT, 
sometimes in the water, or on the vd^e of the bank, as circumstances 
occurred. If the tops of trees or brush were in the way they would 
have to stop and c\it them away. Having reached the head of tho 
rapid the boats were left with a man, and tho others went b»ck for 
others," and so they continued until all the rapids wore mounted. 
Lachino was the starting place, a place of some twertty dwelling 
bouses. Here Mr. Grant had a dry dock for batteaux. 

It was by these batteaux, that tho refugees, and their families, 
as well as the soldiers and their families passed from the shores of 
Lake Champlain, from Sorel, and the St. Lawrence, where they had' 
temporally lived, to the Upper Province. It was also by these, of 
the Skenectady, or tho Durham boat, that the pioneers made their 
transit from Oswego. ^ .-./.n, .....,;; i» . mikv i% i" i 

Thus it will be seen that t<> gain the northern shore of tho St. 
Lawrence and Lake Ontario, w.is a task of no easy nature, and tho 
steps by which they came were taken literally inch by inch, and were 
attended with labor hard and venturesome. Records are not wanting 
of tho severe hardships endured by families on their way to their 
wooded lands. Supplied with limited comforts, perhaps only the 
actual necessaries of life, they advanced slowly by day along danger- 
ous rapids, and at night rested under the blue sky. But our fathers 
and mothers were made of ftem stuff, and all was borne with a nobld 
heroism. 

This toilsome mode of traveling continued for many a year. 
John Ferguson, writing in 1788, from Fredericksburgh to a friend 
in Lower Canada, Lachine, says of his jouniey, " after a most tedious 
and fatiguing journey I aa*rived here — nineteen days on the way- 
horrid roads — sometimes for whole days up to the waist in water Or 
mire." But the average time required to ascend the rapids with a 
brigade was from ten to twelve days, and three or four to descend. 
^ One can hardly conceive of the toihome hours formerly spent in 
passing from Kingston, or tho seventh and eight townships of the bay 
to Montreal, and back. Before setting out, the traveler would make 
elaborate preparations for a journey of several weeks. There was no 



140 A TRIP IN 1811. 

rOf2;ulnr traffic, nml only nil nconiiional bnttonux, laden witli dimple 
nrtioluH of murchaniliHc, would Htart for thu hund waturH of tlu; l>ay. 
IndividuaU would often wait, HoniotiineMa lonj< tinus for these oppor- 
tutittien, and th(>n would work their paHsap^e, by taking n hand at tho 
oarH. Even up to tho prcHent century, it waH tho ouHtom. 

Tho following m n niOHt interenting iuHtanco of hatteaux traveling 
which hn« boon placed in our Imnds by tho liev. Mr. Miles. It gives 
one an o.xcullent iilea of traveling at tho beginning of tho proHont 
century. "I left Kingston on the 0th of April, 1811, but an tho 
traveling then wan not us it is now, I did not arrive in Montreal till 
the 18th. I will just copy vorbutiin, tho journal I kept on my pass- 
age. Durham boats wore suarco on the Canada side at that time, 
but it was thought if I could got to tho American shore, I would find 
one on its way to Montreal. Well, I found a man in Kingston, just 
from Grindstono Island, who had brought up some shingles and tar 
to sell, and ho told me if I could get to Briton's Point, several miles 
down the river from Cape Vincent, and to which place ho would take 
me, that he thought I would find a Durham boat there, and tho 
tho following is my journal on that route. 

"Grindstono Island, April 11th, 1811. — Left Kingston yesterday, 
April 0th, at 3 p.m.. in an open skifT, with R Watson, a clork in 
Dr. Jonas Abbott's 8tore,and two hands belonging to the skill' — head 
wind — rowed hard till about eight in the evening, when having 
blistered both hands, and being very much fatigued, we drew our skiff 
on shore, and campod on the shore of Long Island, about five miles 
above Grindstone Island — wind strong from the north — very cold 
and without victuals or fire — foet wet — slept some, walked some, and 
by daybreak was somewhat chilled. Strong head wind. Stuck close 
to our dear lodgings till about oiglit, when the wind abated, and we 
stuck to our oars till about eleven o'clock, when we made Grindstone 
Island, weary, and very hungry — eat a hearty dish of " sapon " and 
milk — rested about an hour— set off for Briton's tavern on the 
American shore, where we arrived about 4 p.m., the water being 
entirely calm. Had not been on shore ten minutes, as good luck 
■would have it, before we engaged a passage for Cornwall in a Durham 
boat, and a breeze coming up directly from the south, our Araericaa 
boats immediately hoisted sail and proceeded about thirty miles, 
when the wind changed, and we put into a bay on Grenadier Island, 
about nine in the evening — eat some supper at a house owned 
by Mr. Baxter — spread a sail upon the floor, and seven boatmen and 
four passengers campod down before tho Are. In tho morning I felt 



80IISNICTADT AND DURHAM DOATH. 141 

my honcH nn thoiij^h they ha«l boon lylnpf on tli« noft hu\v f n Imrd 
rough floor. A|)ril H, lu-ml wind Htill. WIhIu'cI inyH«ll either lit 
KiijgHton or Montronl. Ai>ril 0, utill u lii'ftd wind. MuHt tako it as 
it comcH. Ut'a«ling and writing tlio order of tlio day. At 7 p.m., 
boiHted Hail. At ono a.m., arrived at a Iiouho on the Canada shoro, 
and Hh'pt on the floor till daylight. April 10, left for OgdenHhurg, 
whore wo arrivetl at n p.m. Found an old ac(juaintanco and paHHcd 
the afternoon quite agreeably. A|)ril 11, hud a good niglit'H roHt. 
Still a head wind. Found the printing otliee and conipOHed typoH tho 
greater part of the day. April 12, utill a head wind. April l.'J, h-ft 
Ogdenshurg and arrived at Cornwall. April 1 4, left Cornwall and 
arrived at M'Gce's, Lake St. tVanciB. April 16, left M'Goe's and 
arrived at Montreal about 8 p.m. Traveling exponflos from Kingston 
to Montreal ^9 75." 

With the later coming rofHigeoH was introduced another kind 
of flat bottomed boat. It was gonorally small and rigged with an 
ungainly sail. It was gonorally built at the Town of Schenectady, 
and henco tho namo. Schenectady is a Uorman word, and moans 
pine barren. Families about to come to Canada would build ono or 
more to moot thoir roqiremonts. There was novor a largo number 
of this particular kind of boat. Those that wero to bo seen, viroro 
upon tho bay. 

With tho opening up of trade between Albany and Upper Can- 
ada, was introduced still another kind of vessel, which was adapted 
to tho use of merchants, engaged in tho carrying trade. Ono of the 
earliest traffickers from tho Mohawk Eiver to tho lakes by tho Dur- 
ham boats was Duncan, of Augusta, who was, as will be seen, one 
of tho first Legislative Councillors of Upper Canada. Ho finally re- 
moved to Schenectady. It is said that ho introduced tho trade 
between the Mohawk and Buffalo which led to tho construction of 
the Erie Canal. 

A wi'itor, speaking of the boats used by tho Canadians, says^ 
tho largest boats used by tho Canadian boatmen is called tho Durham 
boat, " used here and in tho rapids of the Mohawk. It is long, 
shallow, and nearly flat bottomed. Tho chief instrument of steerage 
is a polo ten feet long, shod with iron, and crossed at short intervals 
with small bars of wood like tho feet of a ladder ; the men place 
themselves at the bow, two on each side, thrust thoir poles into the 
channel, and grasping successively tho wooden bars, work their 
way toward the stern, thus pushing on the vessel in that dirofttion," 
(Murray). . 5,./^.o . 



.J42 i'ifcST TRADE WITH YOEK. 

Mr. Flnkle remarks that " the first mode of conveyance for 
travelers from Montreal to Kingston, after the settlement of Upper 
Canada, was by Canadian batteaux laden with merchandize (at this 
time there was no separate conveyance). The return cargo con- 
eisted of barrels of flour, peas, potash, north-west packs of furs, 
&c. ; the men and conductors employed in this business were Low^r 
Canadians. This mode of conveyance continued without intenTup- 
tion until 1809, when the Durham boats came from the Mohawk 
Biver and embarked in the cax'rying trade only between Montreal 
iftnd Kingston. Being of commodious size, far above the batteaux, 
they materially interfered with them and lessened the trade by the 
ibatteaux. The men who managed the Durham boats came with 
them from the MohaAvk Kiver, these boats were entirely n^anned by 
men from that country. 

The flat bottomed boat continued in use until some tin\B after 
rthe war of 1812. Until the canal along the St. Lawrence was 
constructed it was the only wfty by which merchandize could be 
tKUisported to the Upper Province thorough the rapids of the St. 
X/awronce. After the establishment of York as the capital of Upper 
Canada, there sprung \ip naturally, a trade between Kingston and 
the " muddy" capital, and regular batteaux communication was, after 
a little, established. Once a week the solitary boat left Kingston, 
and slowly made its way by oars, up the bay to the Carrying Place 
over which it was hauled by Asa Weller, a tavern keeper, upon low 
wheels or trucks drawn by oxen, and then continued its way along 
the shore of Ontario, to its destination. These boats carried not only 
merchandize but passengers. Beside the regular batteaux there were 
occasionally others, owned by small merchants and pedlars. It was 
by the flat bottomed boat and canoe that many of the troops 
ascended to the head of the lake in 1812, and by which many of 
the lOOli prisoners taken at Detroit were conveyed to Quebec. The 
rate of speed of the batteaux or Durham boat, as well as the 
Skenectady boat, can be approximated from the statement ot " A 
traveller"' writing in 1835. He says, " the line of boats which start 
■from Albany to Skenectady, on their way to Upper Canada, go two- 
and-a-half miles an hour, taking in stoppages — charging one-and-a- 
half cents per mile, including board. This mode of traveling is 
preferred by large fkmilies and piiident settlers, t >.k:; ^>-. i- ^^irr: - 

The conveniences of traveling then, as well as the time required, 
are so widely different from what we are accustomed to in this day, 
that we have to pause and wonder at the change which even fifty 



REFUGEES TRAVELING. 148 

• 

and sixty years have wrought. Even after Upper Canada had be- 
come somewhat settled, it was a momentous matter for a family to 
set out from the Hudson for Cataraqui, or the Bay Quinte, as they 
generally called the settlement in those days. For instance, Mr. 
Lambert, of Sophiasburgh, who came in 1802, was six weeks on the 
way between Albany and the bay, coming by the Mohawk and 
Oswego Rivers, and crossing from "Gravelly Point" to "Isle 
Tanti." We will give another instance : — Nichohw L., came from 
New Jersey with seven sons and two daughters. It took a month 
to come. Having i-eached Schenectady they waiteu to build a 
batteaux. This completed, they stored away provisions to last them 
until Cataraqui was reached. They also brought with them iron 
kettles, with which to make maple sugar, and "a churn full of 
honey." Mr. L., being a fanning mill maker, he brought also a 
quantity of wire guaze. At Oswego, the fort there being still held 
by the British, they were strictly questioned as to the uae intended 
to be made of the kettles and gau^e. Satisfaction being given on 
this point, the family continued thojr tedious journey along the 
shore towai'd Kingston. Barely escaping being wi-ecked off Stony 
Island, they at last reached the north shore. Three days more of 
weary rowing up the bay, and Hay Bay was reached, where they 
settled. 

The loyalists not alone came in summer, by batteaux or the 

Schenectady boat; but likewise in winter. They generaWy followed, 
38 near as possible, some one of the routes taken in summer. To 
undertake to ti-avorse a wilderness with no road, and guided only by 
rivers and creeks, or blaaed trees, was no common thing. Several 
families would sometimes join together to form a train of sleighs. 
They would carry with them their bedding, clothes, and the neces- 
sary provisions. We have received interesting accounts of winter 
journeyings from Albany along the Hudson, across to the Black 
Eivor country, and to the St. Lawrence. Sometimes the train would 
follow the " military road " along by Champlain, St. Greorgc, and 
as far as Plattsburgh, and then turn north to the St. Lawrence, by 
what was then called the Willsbury wilderness, and "Chatagueo " 
woods. At the beginning of the present century there was but one 
tavern thraugh all that vast forest, and this of the poorest character. 
Indeed it is said that while provision might bo procured for the 
Horaes, none could be had for man. Those who thus entered Canada 
in winter found it necessary to stay at Cornwall until spring. Two 
.or more of the wen would walk, along tlie St. Lawrenyo to the bay 



144 TRAVELING ALONO LAKE ONTARIO. 

Quinte, and, at the opening of navigation, having borrowed a batteaux 
doBCond to Cornwall for the women, children, and articloH brought 
with them. Often, indeed generally unacquainted with the use of 
the boat, the paHsage up and down the river waa tedious and toil- 
some. While the families and nleighs wore transported in the 
batteaux the horses were taken along the shore by the larger boys, 
if such there were among them. The "French train" was occa- 
sionally employed in their winter travels. It consisted of a long 
rude sleigh with several horses driven tandem style, this allowed 
the passage among the trees to bo made more easily. 

Many very interesting reminisences are known of traveling 
along the bay by the pioneers. A few are adduced. ,.<(,, ,i.»;,f 

^l TRAVELING TO YORK AND QUEEN8T0N. 

Travelers from Montreal to the west would come by a 
batteaux, or Durham boat, to Kingston. Those who had business 
further west, says Finkle, " were conveyed to Henry Finkle's in 
Ernest town, where they commonly stopped a few days. Thence 
they made their journey on horse back. A white man conducted 
them to the Eiver Trent, where resided Colonel Bloecker who was 
at the head, and had control of all the Mississauga Indians, and 
commanded the entire country from the Trent to Toronto. At 
this place the traveler was furnished with a fresh horse and an 
Indian guide to conduct him through an unsettled country, the road 
being little better than a common Indian path, with all its windings. 
The road continued in this state until about the year 1798. Some- 
times the traveler continued his way around' the head of the lake on 
hoi'se back to Quoenston, where resided Judge Hamilton. 

During the time the surveyors were laying out the townships 
of the bay, batteaux occasionally passed up and down, supplying 
the staff with their requirements, or perhaps with some one look- 
ing for a good tract of land a J jy^' >•'<?'•' .':;•> 

In 1790 a batteaux was owned by Mr. Lambert, of the eighth 
township, and Mr. Ferguson, writing fVom Kingston to Mr. Bell, 
wished him to borrow it, to come to Kingston. 

Among the first to use batteaux as a mode of traffic, was Cap- 
tain Myers. He sailed one up and down the bay to carry, not only 
his own freight, but for the accommodation of others. He fre- 
quently went to Kingston, and now and then to Montreal, tlio 
mode pursued, was to ' harge for freight down, and then give tho 
passenger a free passage back. This was followed for many years, 



THE LAST OV THE BATTEADX. 145 

with great profit. The Captain was acoiistomod to make the 
journey as plcanant an poH8iblo to the pas^eiigeTH. Ho alwayw kept 
his gi'og in his "caboose," and would deal it out to all. There was 
no doubt much of jollity and pleasant yarn-spinning, during the 
long passages upon the tran(iuil waters of the bay. Captain Myers 
subsequently owned a schooner." 

A letter written 11th November, 1790, by John Ferguson, to 
Wm. Bell, of Sidney, says, "As 1 suppose Mr. Lounsbury's boat is 
idle, I woukl be glad that you would endeavour to borrow or hire it 
and Sherrard's son and come down to the third township. 

When persons had gone down the bay, and were expected to 
return upon a certain night, there would often be a fire kindled on 
the shore to guide them homeward. In dark nights this was really 
necessary. Many were the expedients resorted to make short cuts. 
The feat of swimming horses over the bay was now and then 
resorted to by the Wallbridges after they settled in Ameliasburgh. 
Wishing to go to Kingston, they would go down to the point where 
the bay is narrow, and swim the horses across to Ox Point, and then 
ride to Kingston by a bridle path. Itwould now and then happen at 
a late period, that a traveler passing to his place of settlement would 
have a lumber waggon. This would be ferried across the bay by 
placing it across two log canoes. Keferring to swimming the bay by 
a horse, a colored man, yet living within the neighbourhood of 
Belleville, remembers when a boy, to have been put upon a horse, 
and then to have obeyed orders to swim him across the bay. This 
occurred near Belleville. 

Long after steamboats were started on the bay, the batleaux 
continued to ply between Ikdleville and Montreal. The'last to sail 
these was Fanning and John Covert. In 1830, Fanning arrived at 
Montreal from Belleville so early as to present his bills of laden 
upon the first of April. The following business notice cannot fail 
to be interesting : 

. "The subscribers having established a line of Durham Boats 
from this place, propose forwarding from the different ports of the 
lake to that of Montreal, on the following terms, vi?. : 

" From York, Niagara, Queenston, and the head of the lake, for 
each barrel of F'lour delivered at the Port of Montreal, 58. and 6d. 

"From Kingston, to the Port of Montreal, for each barrel of 
Flour, 48. and 6d. 

" From York, Niagara, Queenston, and the head ofthe lake, for 
each barrel of Potash delivered at the Port of Montreal, 12b. and 6d, 






149 CANADIAN HATTEAUX. 

"From Kingston to tho Port of Montreal, for each barrel of 
Potash, IOh. 

" From York, Niagara, QuoenHton, and tho head of tho lake, for 
oach barrel of Pork delivered at tho Port of Montreal, 8.s. and 3d. 

"From Kingston to tho Port of Montreal, for oach barrel of 
Pork, 6h. and 9d. 

"Merchandize will bo transported by tho same meauB from 
Lachine to Kingston, at tho rate of 5h. per cwt. 

" An elegant Pawsage Boat will also loavo Kingston every tenth 
day for Montreal, which will bo fitted up in tho most commodious 
manner and prevent any delay t<3 passengers leaving the upper part 
pf tho lake in the Steam Boat y*>on^enac, it having been built for tho 
purpose of leaving this place imriiediately after her arrival. 

" Those arrangements will take cttbct at the opening of tho navi- 
gation, and bo continuftd during tho season. 

• , y , "Thomas Markland. 
«< Peter Smith. 

./ ■.,,.,»■-,' ' . :.' i i'' " Lawrence Herkimer. 

' '- -^ "John Kerry. ;-'' 

" William Mitchell. ;o vv'j; 
« Kingston, February, 1819." ,^ ^ , , ^,,^,^ ,^^^,, ,.,.<„; 

Eespocting the Canadian Battoaux, tho following is from the 
Boston Weekly Magcuine of an old date. 

"Linos written while at anchor in Kingston liarlx>ur. Lake 
Ontario, on hearing from several Canadian boats entering from tho 
St. Lawrence — their usual songs. ,. , , 

Hark I o'er the lakes unruffled wave, , ^ , ., , 

: ^0 ai/l^^ 0? • A diHtant Holcmn chant ik wped ; ■■'>'■''■ '" '" ■ ^-^ '^ oot. KH) 
',".,' , ^;. Is it some requiem at tho grave ? f'jftir,'>{i! 'j-'.HUn'?. iTiM 

•; 'tJ S » f;!; Some last kind honor to the dead? jr . ,^ ,.. 

V-J! 7/0'.i h- 'Tls silent all— again begin ; ■'■— ^l (vAiUiy i^Ht^i^^M- . 
■'",.■ (*\' It is the wearied boatman's lay, ' ifi' fji ^5;5?iI V'r>? .ff-!. 
■"'' ^''"^ ,^ That hails alike the riwing sun, ..^ ' . . ,.i<..,., 

>,.o> 'to l.rA . And his last soft departing ray. > •*"^' ■i'^'^ -^'i' t '^'\' 

i a» 5.'."hTj ' Forth from yon island's dusky side, . .,,„ ,.4+ „• 
'■{* noqn 1 The train of batteaux now appear, '^ ,"'-'"V''/v f^J* .>ai By 

"] 1^ And onward as they slowly glide, ,a:-«jfx. 

'y'O .:i>^ ii More loud their chorus greets the ear. , I ,^K' 

But, ah ! the charm that distance gave, ''•*•'■•' ''■' *" *^ ^■'^' 

i ' When first in solemn sounds tholr song tfftfi ofi» oW 

-i<:'J.nJ gn-''*'^ Crept slowly o'er the limpid "waTC, ^\ -; •..,'c.M?'V'r 

Is lost in notes full loud and strong. /- .. ^ 

, fh Mt^^ * B<*^i brothers row, with songs of joy, - -: - , i v -f^ 

^flj Ji»»*^^.- For now in view a port appears; .jwt"" ar««»bi.f'" 

, • '- No rapids here our course annoy ' 

J u.fi. No hidden rocks excite our fears, ,.,1 ov. 

rr^OOIl ^»,j« Be this sweet night to slumber gi von, . t ,- » 

"^'f^JTlfstrjil . Aad when the morning lights the wave ""^ ' <; / 

•kwA "^ J W'J J!^*'^^ S^^® °^'' ""'*■'" songs to heav'n, { liiiteii OslJ iO .v 

• 'plift i)4»-i — ^ Qyj course to bless, our lives to save. :,r t-f} • ;4 l^jBffA'^' 






FRENCH SAILING VESSELS. 147 

ClIAPTKJi XIV. 

. _ .. ..-■.. i t ■-, i .•' .■• 

C0NTHNT8. — The first VoHRel — The French — La Salle — The Griffon — Vcssela in 
1770 — During the Ildiellion — Huildingfvt C'arlt.ton iKhmd — Ciiiitiiin Andrews 
Tho Ontnrlo— Col. Burton — Losh of the Ontario— The ShcoiianM — HillH— 
Givins' — Mnmey's Point — Schooner ' Speedy' — Mohawk — MissisfiauKa — 
Duke of Kfjnt— Capt. Rouchette — Paxton — McKonzie — ItichardKon — Earle 
Steele — Fortiche — The Governor Kinicoc — Sloop < Elizabeth' — First vessel 
built at York — Collins' Report upon Navigating the Lakes — Navy in Upper 
Canada, 1795 — Ilochfoucault — Cai)t. Bouchettc — Officers' Pay — York, the 
centre of the Naval Force — Gun Boats — Tho Loss of the " Speedy" — Ilock- 
oncr — Dr. Strachan — Solicitor-Gcn. Gray — Canada took tho lead in building 
Vessels — First Canadian Merchant Vessel — The York — A Schooner on run- 
ners around tho Falls — Sending Coals to Ncnvcastle — Upon Bay Quinte — 
The Outskirts of Civilization--" The Prince Edward" bpilt of lied Cedar-- 
ia 1812~Schooncr " Mary Ann"— 1817~Capt. Matthews, 

„; . . TIIK FIRST SAILING VESSELS. 

Tho first vossols, with sailH, which nuvigatcd the waters of tho 
iaJ<os, wore built by tho French, to pursue their discoverioH, and to 
carry on tho fur trade. Tho first sailing vessel launched upon tho 
Lakes, was built by LaSalle. He, with Father Ucnnepin and Che- 
valier do Tonti, set sail from Cataraqui, on the 18th November, 
1678, for tho mouth of the Niagara river, having on board his bark 
goods, and material for building a brigantine on Lake Erie. During 
tho winter tho vessel was commenced, six miles above the Falls, 
and was launched by tho middle of summer, amid great display and 
ceremony. Tho vessel was named " Griifon," according to Garneau ; 
but Father Hennepin says " Cataratiui.*' " She was a kind of brig- 
antine, not unlike a Dutch galliot, with a broad elevated bow and 
Btcrn, very flat in the bottom ; she looked much larger than she 
really was. She was of sixty tons burden. With the aid of tow- 
lines and sails the Niagara river was, with diflSculty, ascended ; and 
on tho Ith August, 1679, the first vessel that ever sat upon the 
lakes, entered Lake Erie." The end of this Vi3gsel was a sad one. 
(See Introc.uction). -■ = -.- - .....i-. .,.- i»^ '.<i!i 

We are indebted to tho Detroit Tribune for the following inter- 
esting statements : aivxfivi'yoUI.i'li*;4vtt ''^M'^ *i • :> , 

"In 1766 four ve.ssels plied upon Lake Erie. These were the 
"Gladwin," « Lady Charlotte," «* Victory," and " Boston." fr-rvr,/; 

"The two latter laid up in the fall near NaVy Island, above 
Niagara Falls, and one of them was burned accidentally, November 
30, of the same year. A ver-.3ol called tho " Brunswick," owned and 
commanded by Captain Alexander Grant, made her appearance on 



148 LOSS OF THE " ONTAttlO." 

tho lakes during the year 1707, and wns loHt Home time during the 
Hoason following. Captain (Jrant was tho Conunodoro of tho lakes 
for two or throo yearw. Jn 1769 Sterling and PorleouH built a vcssol 
at Detroit, callod tho " Enterpriwe," Itichard Cornwall, of Now York, 
being the carpenter. Tho. boatmen, who wont from SchenoctJidy 
with the rigging and tstoroH for this vossel to Detroit, were to have 
eaeh £20, and ten gallons of rum. Thoy were seventy days on 
Lake Erie, and two of the number perished from hunger, and their 
bodies wore kept to decoy eagles and ravens. Thoy returned to 
New York in February, 1760, by way of Pittsburg, then callod Fort 

Pitt. '♦•*• ^:'''-:l"li.-Cr,(U ■:' t:.,,. . . 

■ > ♦' In May, 1770, a vessel of seventy tons burthen was launched 
at Niagara, called the "Charity." Tho same year the Duke of 
Gloucester, Secretary Townsend, Samuel Tutchet, Henry Baxter, 
and four others, formed a company for mining co])per on Lake 
Superior. In December thej' built at Point Aux Pins, a barge, and 
laid the keel for a sloop of forty tons burthen. Of the success of 
this enterprise we are not informed. Subsequent to the above 
period very little was accomplished in the construction of craft for 
lake navigation, and the few that came into commission were used 
solely as traders, as were in fact, all those previously named. A 
short time after, 1770, batteaux from Montreal and Quebec, employed 
by the Hudson's Bay Fur Company, made thoir annual tours west- 
ward, gathering largo quantities of furs, and returning homeward 
in the fall. It has been stated that the first vessel built on Lake 
Ontario was in 1749, but this, wo have reason to believe, is not 
correct." 

During the Revolutionary War, tho British Government built 
at Carleton Island, a few vessels to carry troops and provisions from 
place to place along the Lake, from Carleton Island to Niagara. 
The first Commissioner at the Dock Yard was Commodore James 
Andrews, Lieutenant in tho Eoyal Navy. The " Ontario," a war 
vessel of considerable importance, carrying 22 guns, was built at 
Carleton Island. This vessel was commanded by Capt. Andrews. 
Some time between 1780 and 1783, as the "Ontario"' was proceeding 
from Niagara to Oswego with a detachment of the King's Own 
regiment, commanded by Colonel Burton, with other officers, a 
storm arose at night, and the vessel was lost with all on board. Col. 
John Clark, in his memoir.s, whose father bolongei^l to tho 8th regi- 
ment, says this event happened in 1780 or '81, in which belief he is 
supported by Mr. Sheehan, a descendant of Capt. Andi-ews: but other 



FIRST SURVEY OP LAKES. 149 

nuthority Im.s it Ihat llic event took plat'O in 1783. At all ovejits, 
the ocoiirronoo produced a niolnncholy effect, which long remained 
in the minds of those acquainted with the circumstances. Captain 
Andrews left a widow, a son, and two daugliters. The son returned 
to Scotland, the dauifliters married and settled in Canada. The 
Shoehan'f'., Ilill's, and Givins' are descendants of Captain Andrews' 
daughters, whose husbands had been in the army. 

After the settlement of Kingston, the Government built vessels at 
Murney's Point, and at Navy Point. Among the first built here was 
the Schooner " Speedy," and also the " Mohawk" and '^Missisagua," 
and " Buke of Kent." Among the first commanders of vessels, 
most of whom were of the Royal Navy, were Capt. Bouchottc, Capt. 
Paxton, Capt. McKenzio, Capt. Richardson, Capt. Earlo, Capt. 
Steele and Capt. Forticho. 

"The first vessel built for trade upon Lake Ontario," that is 
after Upper Canada was settled, ** may have been the ' Governor 
Simcoe,' for the North West Company ; after she was worn out and 
laid up, Judge Cartwright, who was agent for the Company at 
Kingston, built another for that Comjiany, and one for himself, both 
built at the same time, side by side, on Mississauga Point, at the 
mouth of Catai-aqui Creek. Both were launched on the same day; 
the one for the Company named " Governor Simcoo,"and the other 
"Sloop Elizabeth." These were built during my stay with Judge 
Cartwright, in 1808. ' i • ■• '■ '' ■n•^l :yj..i' •;xi ;;; .ji,*.:/.i, .i.ii,v.- 

** The first, and on!}'- vessel for many years, built at York, was a 
small schooner about forty-five tons. Built by two brothers named 
Kendrick."— (i'7nW6'). 

The survey made by Deputy Surve3'or-Goneral Collins, at the 
request ofLoi-d Dorchester, in 1788, included an examination of 
the lakes and harbors from Kingston to Michilmicinac. In refer- 
ence to the lakes and vessels, the Surveyor says : — " Vessels sailing 
on these waters being seldom for any length of time outof sight of 
land, the navigation must bo considered chiefly as pilotage, to which 
the use of good natural charts are essential and therefore much 
wanted. Gales of wind, or squalls, rise suddenly upon the lakes, 
and from the confined state of the waters, or want of searroom, (as 
it is called), vessels may in some degree be considered as upon a lee 
shore, and this seems to point out the necessity for their being built 
•on such a construction as will best enable them to work to windward. 
Schooners should, perhaps, have the preference, as being rather 
safer than sloops, they should be from 80 to 100 tons burthen on 



160 ROYAL NAVY IN 1795. 

Luke Oritario, aiui 50 toiiH Imrthoii on LakcH Kri(5 and JIuroii; but 
if not iiitcndeil to coiumuiiicuto botvveon thoHO two laken, tlioy may 
then bo the Huino hIzo as on Lako Ontario; and if thin HyHtom is 
ajiprovcd thoro can bo no neeostsity to doviato from it unlosH un 
inoniy wliould build voshoIh of greater magnitude or force j but 
aw the intent of bringing any such forward, at ieawt tho building of 
them can never remain a Kecret, there may be always time to coun- 
teract HUf'h a design by preparing to meet them at least on equal 
tormx. It does not seem advinable, nor do I know any reason to 
continue tho practice of building vesHels flat bottomed, or to have 
very little draft of water, they are always unsafe, and many of tho 
accidents which have happened <m tho lakes, havo perhaps, in some 
degree been owing to that construction. On the contrary, if they 
are built on proper ])rinciples for burthen as well as sailing thoy 
will be safer, and will find sufficient depth of water proportioned 
to any tonnage which can be rociuisite for them upon those lakes." 
Respecting tho navy in Upper Canada, Rouchfoucault writes 
in 171)5: " Tho Royal Navy is not very formidable in this place; 
six vessels comjjo.se the whole naval force, two of which are small 
gun-boats, which we saw at Niagara, and which are stationed at 
York. Two small hcliooners of twelve guns, viz., tlie "Onondago," 
in which we took our pa.ssage, and tho *' Mohawk," which is just 
finished ; a small yacht of eighty tons, mounting six guns as tho 
two scliooners, which lias lately been taken into dock to be repaired, 
form tho rest of it. All these vessels are built of timber fre.sh cut 
down, and not seasoned, and for this reason last never longer than 
six or eight year.-*. To preserve them, oven to tliis time, requires a 
thorough repair ; they must bo heaved down and caulked, which 
costs at least from ono thousand, to ono thousand two hundred 
guineas. This is an enormous pi-ice. and yet it is not so high as on 
Lake P]ric, whither all sorts of naval stores must be sent from 
Kingston, and wlioic tho price of labor Is .still higher. The timbers 
of the Mississauga, which was built three years ago, are almost all 
rotten. It is so easy to make provision for ship-timber for many 
year.s to come, as this would require merely the felling of it, and 
that too at no great distance from the place where it is to bo used, 
that it is difficult to account for this precaution not having been 
adopted. Two gun-boats, which are destined by Governor Simcoo 
to serve only in time of war, are at present on the stocks; but the 
carpenters who work at thorn are but eight in number. The extent 
of the dilapidations and embezzlements, committed at so great a 



CAPTAIN nOUCHKTTE. IBl 

ilistanco Iroin tins mother country, mny ho easily ooncoivwl. In 
the courso of last winter n jutlifial enquiry into a charge of thin 
nature was InHtituted at Kingston. The CominiHHioner of the navy 
and the prineipal Hhip-wri;^ht, it was aHHortod, had clearly collndod 
a^aiuHt the Kinj^'H interewt; hut interewt and protection aro*ftB 
po\v«»rfnl in the new world uh in the old; for hoth the CommiHHionor 
!ind 8hip-wright continue in tluMr placeH. 

"Captain Bouohettc coniniiuids the naval force on Lnke Ontario* 
and JH at the head of all the marine establirthments, yet without the 
least i)Ower in money matters. Thin gentleman posflosHOS the con- 
fidence both of Lord Dorchester and C4overnor Simcoe ; he is a 
Canadian by liirth, but entered the Britisl' service when Canada 
fell into the power of Kngl:uid, 

" While Arnold and Montgomery were besieging (Juebce, liOrd 
Dorchester, disguised as a Canadian, stole on board his ship into 
that city, on which occasion he displayed much activity, intrepodity, 
and courage. It is not at all a matter of surprise that Lord Dor- 
chester should V)ear in mind this eminent service. By all accounts 
he is altog(!ther incorruptible, and an officer who treats his inferiors 
with great mildness and justice. 

" In regard to the pay of the Royal Marine force on Lake Ontario, 
;i captain has tt;n shillings a day, a lieutenant six, and a second lieu- 
tenant three shillings and sixpence. The seamen's wages are eight 
dollars per month. The masters of merchant-men iiavo fwonty-five 
"lollars, and the sailors from nine to ten dollars a month. 

" Commander Bouchette is among those, who most strcntiously 
oppose the project of moving to York, the central point of the force 
on the lake ; but his family reside at Kingston, and his lands are 
situated near that place. Such nuasons are frequently of sufficient 
weight to determine i)olitical opinions. " ■■'" ' "" ; • ]"'■'"■ 

Again, siiys the same writer, " Govenior Rimcoc inten'!h to maire 
York the centre of the naval force on Lake Ontario. Only four gun- 
boats are at present on this lake,two of which are constantly employed 
in transporting merchandise ; the other two, which alone arc fit to 
carry troops and guns, and have oars and sails, are lying under 
nhelter until an occasion occurs to convert them to their intended 
purpose. It is the Governor's intention to build ten smaller gun- 
boats on Lake Ontario, and ten on Lake Erie. The ship carpenters, 
who construct them, reside in the United States, and return home 
every winter." 

" On the 7th October, 1807, Mr. Justice Cochrane, Mr. Gray, the 



162 THE LOSS OF THE "SPEEDY." 

Solicitor Goncml, mid Mr. Akiium iMc-Dorjald, umlwirkod tit York, 
with Hovernl other piissciii^tM-h in the Speed!/, a ;4ovt.'rimiont HclKxmor, 
commanded l)y Captain Ta-vton, for tlie piirposooi' j^oiMt,'to Newcastle 
where the Assizes were to ho held on the 10th. The vessel waH seen 
a few miles from her destined ))ort on the evenin<» of the 8th. The 
wind commenced to blow, and the schooner was nover heard of more. 
There were pieces picked up on tlio opposite shore. Mr. Cochrane 
was young in years, hut not in pioty." The above is extracted from 
the Kingston Gazette, written by " Keckoner," which was the name 
under which Dr. Strachan contribute<I to that paper. Colonel Clark, 
of Dalhousie, says " I recollect the loss of the Sjicedy,'''' and he 
remarks of Solicitor General (^ray, that ho was "a noble character, 
noted for his sympathy on behalf of abolishing slavery." He says 
that there were upwards of twenty passengors, among them he 
mentions Jacob Jlerkinier, a merchant of York. 

It will be seen that Canada took the lead in building the early 
vessels upon the lakes. The first American ship that navigated Lake 
Erie, was purchased from the British in 1790. She was called the 
Detroit. Tlie first vessel built by the Americans, for the lakes, was 
constructed in 1797. The first Canadian merchant vessel built uj>on 
Lake Ontario, was by Francis Crooks, brother of the lion. James 
Crooks. It was built to the east of the present United States fort, at 
the mouth of the Niagara river, in 1792, and was called the "York." 
She was Wrecked at Genesee river. In 1800 a schooner of about 75 
or 100 tons, was brought to Clifton, and during the winter of 1801 she 
crossed by the portage road on immense runners to Queenston, where 
she again found her native element in the Niagara river." She was, 
in 1804, lost in brixiging a cargo to Niagara, with all on board, — 

It is a curious fact that in the American war of 1812, the British 
" Admiralty sent out the frame work, blocks, &c., of the Psyclic fri- 
gate, which could have been procured on the spot in the tenth of the 
time and a twentieth part of the oxi)ense. At the same time there 
was furnished to each ship of war on Lakt'i Ontario, a full supply of 
water casks, with an apparatus for distilling sea water," forgetting the 
fact that the waters of the lake were of the ])urest quality. 

Directing our attention to the waters of the bay Quinte, it is foimd 
that until after 1812, but few sailing vessels entered the upper waters, 
although found east of Picton Bay. Strange as it may apj)ear at the 
present day, there was a time when the head of Picton Bay, or Hay 
Bay, Avas ivigarded as the head of the bay, and the very outskirts of 



A RRU rKDAll SrilMONKR. 163 

civili/atioii, wlillo tfoin^np tho TiOni» llt'iicli, to tlioMoliawk tract was 
look upon like t^oiiitj; to tlu' KcmI Kivrr at tlu' j>n.'Neiit day. Tho 
settlers above were too few, and their reciuirc^neiitH too limited for a 
Hailin;^ vtiHsol to aseond, tmloMH oeonnionally to tho Napanee niills. 
But as time passed, sloops and schooners, as well as hatteatix found 
employment aloni* tlie westeni townships. 

In the first year oC the pnssont ciMitury, there was built in tho 
township of Marysburgh, a short (listaiuse west of the Stone niillH, a 
schooner of some celebrity. It was built by Captain Mtinu-y, father of 
tho lato lion. Edward Murney, of Belleville. Captain Munu'y camo to 
Kingston in 1707, at the solicitation of Mr. Joseph Forsytli. It was 
constructed for himself, and was made altogether of red codar, a kind 
of wood formerly very plentiful along tho bay, and which jmssesses a 
most agreeable odor, and is extremely durable. Tho vessel was 
named the Prince Edward. John Clarlc, of Dalhousie, says of this 
vessel, that he was on board tho following year of her building, and 
that slio was a '* staunch good ship, witli an able captain." Her size 
was sufficient to allow 700 barrels of flour to bo stowed beneath hor 
hatches. She ran upon Lake Ontario for many years, and made for 
her owner a small fortune. She was in good condition in 1812, and 
was employed by government as an armed vessel. A schooner called 
Prince Edward, probably tho same, Captain Young, was tho first 
vessel to land at the pier when erected at Wellington. ' • "■ 

Tho Kingston Gazette, April 12, 1817, says: «' On Thursday, 
20th inst. at three o'clock p.m., arrived at ErnesttOM'n, in the Bay of 
Quinte, the schooner Mary Ann, Captain J. Mosier, in twenty hours 
from York, and at this jiort yostei'day afternoon with fourteen pas- 
sengers, of whom eleven were members of the Provincial Parliament. 
This is the seventh voyage this vessel has made this season, to the 
great credit of hor master. The Mary Ann sailed again in about 
half an hour for the Bay (Jui lite. • i ' 

One of the arly vessels upon the bay wns commanded by 
Matthews, father of the rebel of 183(5, who was executed. 

■' ■ -rfv.r.iUt .1 j»'?f oii' iAi.M i''' M'f-'; v '.:J*;i '>^;^'■^1 i''r<''ffr':,.lt it.di ?■>: . 

■-: , ,. , . . f 'i. , ..«^|>(Vy)l'-i .;-.,(. .!;■ 






ij'.;"'!)! 'li/:';*':-',!!' 



;,.gl^-.f.i,«OiJ,:iiv^>i^^ 



THE LOYALISTS AS PIONEEES— THE ORIGINAL SURVEY. 



lal .'«M U l»), ««<f\rli rJiV ■ -fid 



CHAPTER XV. 



Contents — Major Gen. Holland — Surveying on Atlantic Coast — An adherent of 
,i3c the Crown — Removal to Montreal — Death — Major Holland — Information 
jj ., from " Maple Leaves" — Holland Farm — Tach6 — First Canadian Poem — 
*' Head Quarters of Gen. Montgomery — Hospitality — Duke of Kent — Spencer 
K : Grange — Holland Tree — Graves — Epitaphs — Surveyor Washington — County 
^^, Surveyor — Surveyors after the War — First Survey in Upper Canada — 

Commenced in 1781 — The Mode pursued — Information in Crown Lands 

W* Department — The Nine Townships upon the St. Lawrence — At the close of 

-, the War — Non-Professional Surveyors — Thomas Sherwood — Assisting to 

, Settle — Surveying around the Bay Quints — Bongard — Deputy-Surveyor 

'^P- Collins — First Survey at Frontenac — Town Reserve — Size of Township — 

• Mistakes — Kottie— Tuflfy — Capt. Grass — Capt. Murney — Surveying in Winter 

— Planting Posts — Result — Litigation — Losing Land — A Newspaper Letter— 
'.■ Magistrates — Landholders — Their Sons' Lawyers — Alleged Filching — Spec- 
{>^ ulators at Seat of Government — Grave Charges — Width of Lots — Mode of 

Surveying — Number of Concessions — Cross Roads — Surveyors Orders — Num- 
^'' bering the Lots — Surveying around the Bay — The ten Townships — Their 
4K. Lands — The Surveying Party — A Singer — Statement of Gourlay. 

5ijiifci?if4 1>K' swi a; ^?^;Q;.«•'^?'f- 

** ; THE FIRST SURVEYS IN UPPER CANADA. ■ , , *( . , 



Among those who distinguished themselves at Loiiisburg and 
on the Plains of Abraham under General Wolfe, was Major Samuel 
Holland. Sabine says, he was " Surveyor-General of the Colonies 
north of Virginia." In 1773 he announced his intention to make 
Perth Amboy, near Jersey, his head-quarters, and wrote to a gen- 
tleman there to inquire for houses to accommodate himself and his 
assistants. He then completed the surveys a^ far west as Boston. 
Proposed in 1774 to get round Cape Cod, and to Now London, and 
said it would be at best six years before he should be able to finish 
his labors. In 1775, he wrote Lord Dartmouth that he was ready 
to run the line between Massachusetts and Now York. By a com- 
munication laid before the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in 
July, 1775, it appears that he had loaned to Alex. Shepard, Jun., 
who was also a surveyor, a plan or survey of Maine, which Shepard 
disliked to return, fearing that it might be used in a manner pre- 
judicial to the Whig cause, as Holland was an adherent of • the 
Crown, and then in New Jersey. Congress recommended to 



THE HOLLAND TREE. 155 

Shepard to retain Holland's plan. Major Holland wont to Lower 
Canada, where ho resumed his duties of Siu'veyor-General, in which 
capacity he served nearly fifty years. He died in 1801, and at the 
time of his dec ase ho was a member of the Executive and Legis- 
lative Councils." ,:. ^ _^ , .\f'nt :* t V 

It was under Surveyor Holland that the first surveys were made 
upon the banks of the St. Lawrence and the Bay of Quinte. Major 
Holland was a gentleman of education, and known for hig social and 
amiable qualities. We are indebted to the author of "Maple 
Leaves," J. M. LeMoine, Esq., for information respecting Surveyor 
Holland. Extending from the brow of St. Foy heights along St. 
Lewis Eoad at Quebec, was a piece of land of 200 acres which was 
known as the Holland Farm. This farm had belonged to a rich 
merchant of Quebec, Mon. Jean Tache, who wrote the first Cana- 
dian Poem, "Tableau de la Mer." He was the ancestor of the late 
Sir E. Tache. About the year 1740 he built upon an eminence a 
high peaked structure, which, during the seigo of Quebec, was the 
head quarters of Gen. Montgomery. This place was bought by 
Gren. Holland in 1780, who lived there in affluence for many years, 
subsequent to the close of the war, 1783. The elite of Quebec were 
wont to resort here to enjoy his hospitality, and in 1791, he enter- 
tained Edward, afterward Duke of Kent, the father of our Queen. 
This place is now known as Spencer Grange ; but the old building 
has long since been removed to be replaced by tho present well- 
known mansion. From the St. Foy Eoad may be seen a fir tree 
known as the Holland Tree. Under that tree are several graves, 
which some years ago were inclosed with a substantial stone wall, 
with an iron gate. But now only the foundation remtins. Two of 
the graves had neat marble slabt, with the names of Samuel Holland 
senior, and Samuel Holland, junior. "Here rest Major Surveyor 
Holland, and his son, who was killed in a duel at Montreal, by Major 
Ward of the 60th Regiment," by a shot from one of a brace of 
pistols presented to MajoB Holland by Gen. Wolfe. This farm is 
now in possession of the military authorities. 

At the time of the rebellion tho land of the thirteen Colonies 
was, in many cases, still unsurveyed, or so imperfectly laid out that 
frequent demands were made for the professional surveyor. In the 
very nature ofthingspertainingto the settlement of America, there 
was a general demand for surveyors. The country was constantly 
being opened up. Some of the most prominent men of the day had 
been sm-veyors. Gen. Washington commenced life as a country 



X56 SURVEYING UPON THE ST. LAWRENCE. 

surveyor. In the war, both on the rebel and British sides, were to 
be found professional survoyoi _ engaged in fighting. Consequently 
when the war terminated, there was no lack of surveyors to carry 
on the work of surveying the wilderness of Upper Canada. We 
have saen that Major Holland held the position ofSurveyor-Groneral, 
and there was duly appointed a certain number of deputies and 

assistants. ;';,.i __. ^/.,, ... . ,:.'^f^, ;,/_ '. r/''' ' ''"~'' '\' ^\'" ''^'.J'''''''''"^. 

Even while the war was in progress, steps selem io have been 
taken to furnish the refugee Loyalists with new homes, upon the 
land still lying in a state of nature. The land in Lower Canada being 
in the main held by the French Canadians, it was deemed expedient 
to lay out along the shores of the upper waters a range of lots for their 
use. In pursuance of this, the first survey of land was made by order 
of Gen. Clarke, Acting Governor, or Militai-y Commander, in 1781. 
Natvirally the survey would commence at the extreme western point 
of French settlement. This w^as on the north bank of Lake St. 
Francis, at the cove west of Pointe an Bodet, in the limit between 
the Township of Lancaster, and the seigniory of New Longueil. 

Wo have reason to believe that the surveyor at first laid out 
only a single range of lots fronting upon the river. In the first 
place a front line was established. This seems to have been done 
along the breadth of several proposed townships. In doing this it 
was desirable to have as little broken front as possible, while at the 
same time the frontage of each lot remained unbroken by coves of 
the river or bay. We are informed by the Crown Land Department 
that in some townships there could, in recent days, be found no 
posts to indicate the front line, while the side lines in the second 
concession were sufficiently marked. 

The original surveyor along the St. Lawrence evidently did not 
' extend his operations above Elizabeth town, which was called the 
ninth township, being the ninth laid out from New Longueil. This 
is apparent from the fact that while Elizabethtown was settled in 
1784, the next township above, thatof Yonge, was not settled until 
two years later. The quality of the land thence to Kingston was 
not such as would prove useful to the poor settler, and therefore was 
allowed for a time to remain unsurveyed. Hence it came that Cat- 
araqui was the commencement of a second series of townships dis- 
tinguished by numbers only. These two distinct ranges of town- 
ships, one upon the St. Lawrence numbering nine, and one upon the 
Bay numbering ten, were, when necessary, distinguished apart by 
the designation, the " first," "second," or" third" Township "upon 



SURVEY AT FRONTENAC. 157 

the St. Lawrence," or "upon tho Bay of Quinte," as the case might 
be. 

It is impossible to say how far the work of surveying had pro- 
gressed i'rom Lake St. Francis westward, before the close of the 
war ; it is very probable, however, that only a base line had been 
run, and some temporary mark placed to indicate the corners of 
each township. Such, indeed, is shown to bo the case by the state- 
ment of Sheriff Sherwood, who says that his father Thomas Sherwood, 
who had been a subaltern in the 84th Reg., and who actually located 
on the first lot in the first concession of Elizabethtown, " was often 
called upon to run the side lines of the lots" for the settlers as they 
came one after another, and " to shew them their land." Mr. Sher- 
wood was not a professional surveyor, but " he had the instruments 
and practically knew well how to use them, and he was ever ready 
to give his assistance and instructions to the new comers." 

."'■'■■TJi- ,'">'■ • 

■"•"•-'-,-'- SURVEYING AROUND BAY QUINTE. tr"'/w H-< r •'^'^f'* V 

In the year 1783, Major Holland, Surveyor-tieneral of Canada, 
received instructions from Sir Frederick Ilaldimand, Governor of 
the Province of Quebec, to proceed on duty to Western Canada. 
Prior to this, we have observed, there had been commenced a range 
of lots laid out at the easternmost limits of what now forms Canada 
West, to the extent of nine townshijDS. Yet evidence is v^anting 
that this range had been completed at the period stated. Holland 
set out with a sufficient staft' of assistants and attaches, to simul- 
taneously lay out several of the proposed townships along the St. 
Lawrence, and the Bay of Quinte. The party passed up the St. 
Lawrence, ascending the rapids in a brigade of batteaux manned by 
French boatmen. Surveyor Holland had, as his personal attendant, 
^*^— -Bongard, who had been in the artillery under General Reidezel, 
of the Foreign Legion. From the son of this person, now living 
in Marysburgh, valuable information has been obtained, much of 
which has been substantiated by legal documents, published in con- 
nection with the law report of the trial respecting the Murney estate 
and the town of Kingston. Mr. Bongard says that Holland, as he 
passed up, detailed a deputy to each of the townships, stopping first 
at Oswegotchie, opposite Prescott, and that he passed up as far as 
the fourth township upon Bay Quinte, where he pitched his tent, 
and where he continued to hold hi n head-quarters, receiving the 
reports of the various Deputy-Surveyors as they were from time 
to time brought in. While it seems most probable that Holland 



1B8 TROUBLE ABOUT LOT TWENTY-FIVE. 

camo to the Upper Province in 1783, it is possible that ho remained 
in Lower Canada until the spring of 1784, having deputed Surveyor 
Collins to commence a survey westward from the fort at Fron- 
tenac ; or perhaps he visited that place with Collins whom he loft 
to carry on the work during- this first year. " *'.**' ' '• '*" ' 

Whether Surveyor-General Holland visited Fort Frontonac in 
tho year 1783, or not, it was Deputy-Surveyor John Collins who 
made the first survey of the first township, and of the original town 
plot of Kingston.-: -According to tho sworn testimony of Gilbert 
Orser, who assisted Collins, in the year 1783, as well as others, tho 
township was surveyed first, and the town plot afterward ; although 
it appears that Holland's instructions were, first " to lay out proper 
reservations for the town and fort, and then to proceed and lay out 
the township, six miles square." The lots were to contain each 
200 acres, to be 25 in number, each range. Mr. Collins placed a 
monumnnt, it is averred, " at the south-east angle of lot 25, from 
which a line was run northerly the whole depth of the Township, 
six miles, where another stone monument was placed, making a 
line of blazed trees throughout." From this, it would seem, he con- 
tinued to survey the township, leaving the land/or the town, which 
he, no doubt, thought extensive enough, to be laid out into town 
lots, and leaving 40 feet of land, which was to form a road between 
the town and township. Eespecting this line and lot 25, there has 
been a great deal of litigation. As nearly as tho facts can be 
gathered, the following statement maybe regarded as correct: , .^^ 

After Collins had completed the survey of the township, and 
had even made his returns, to the eifect that it contained 25 lots, of 
200 acres, he was importuned, or * induced by the Commanding 
Officer at Fort Frontenac,' to make lot 25 contain only 100 acres, 
that more ground might thereby be had for the proposed towri."" 
More than this, it seems that there was some mistake in the said 
eastern side line, so as to subsequently limit lot 25 to even lessV., 
than 100 acres. And, Capt. Michael Grass, when he took possession 
of this lot, in 1784, found that this line was inaccurately run. 
Deputy-Surveyor Kotte was requested to examine it ; and finding 
there was an err^r, made representations to Gbvernraent, who sent 
persons to oorfect it. One Deputy-Surveyor Tuffy was directed to 
re-Burvey the line, and he gave more land to lot 25. However, 
there was yet some error, which was a source of great trouble. 
Capt. Michael Grass sold this lot to Capt. Mumey, who, subsequently 
finding it did not contain the amount of land which the patent 
assumed, applied legally for his rights. 



IRBEOULARITIES IN SIDE LINES. 151) 

Tho surveying party, among whom woro some of those who 
subsequently settled in the township, and who must have belonged 
to Capt. Grass' company of refugees, returned to Sorel, whore they 
spent the winter. At least this is the testimony of one of the 
grand-children of Capt. Grass. But if the surveying party did, 
this winter of 1783-4, retire from their work to Lower Canada, it 
appears unlikely they did the following winter. Indeed there are 
indications that surveying went on during the winter. In laying 
out tho Townships, special attention was given to make the lots 
front squarely upon tho Bay. In tho winter the base line could be 
more closely run by tho water edge upon tho ice, than in summer, 
through the woods. Wo are informed, at the Grown Lands Depart- 
ment, that in some townships no posts or other marks had at first 
been found in tho re-survey, although such were to be found in the 
2nd concession. Tho inference was, that the posts planted in 
winter by the water, had, in the spring or summer been washed 
away, in the course of time. This, as may bo supposed, led in time 
to great confusion, and no little litigation. J^r many years there 
was much trouble to establish the land marVii all along the front; 
and cases are not wanting where it has b'^eii. charged that fraudu- 
lent removals of posts were made. The straightforward settler, 
while engaged in his daily and yearly round of toil, thought not of 
the side linos of his farm, fully believing that a survey had been 
definitely fixed by marks that could not be altered, and too often 
when plenty and comfort had come, he was startled to find some 
one claiming some of his cleared or uncleared land. Although con- 
scious that such and such were the boundaries of the land granted 
to him, it was not so easy to prove that such was the case. The 
annoyances of these direct and indirect attempts to disinherit, 
may easily be imagined. In this connection, the following letter 
may be given as exemplifying the feelings, if not the facts— per- 
haps both — which belonged to those days. It appeared in the 
Kingston Gazette in 1816, over the signature "A." • .«4tjjiiftyi m- 

" Sir, — ^The situation of the old settlers in the Province of 
Upper Canada, is truly deplorable. These people settled in the 
wilds of Canada, then the Province of Quebec, under the surveys 
made by the acting Surveyor-General. Lwidmarks being estab- 
lished for the guidance of their improvements : no deeds were givea 
them until the Parliament of Great Britain altered the Quebec bill, 
arraoged a new constitution, similar to that they had lost during 
the rebellion, in the Promnoe of New York, from whence they 



160 ALLEGED FRAUD. 

chiefly cnmo to sottlo at Prontenac, now Kingwton. After cultiva- 
ting tho country agreeably to those surveys for twenty years or 
more, deeds are issued to cover those lots, drawn and cultivated as 
above mentioned. The Surveyor-General, David William Smith, 
Speaker of the llouse of Assembly, knpwing tltat these deeds were 
filled up by guess, the survey never having been made complete^ 
wisely provided an Act of the Legislature to prevent the 
deeds from moving the old land-marks. This Act provides that 
when thirty freeholders apply to tho Magistrates in session they 
shall make an assessment and collect the money to enable the 
Surveyor-General to erect monuments, in order to preserve their 
ancient land-mari<s and boundaries. What is the reason that this 
Act has not been complied with ? Are the Magisti'ates all land- 
holders and their sons Lawyers ? 

" An order from the Governor has lain in the Surveyor-Gen- 
eral's office ever since the year 1801 for monuments to be erected 
in the Township of Kingston, agreeable to the intention of that Act. 
Why will not the Magistrates do their duty? Tho consequence 
is, that the licensed Surveyor, John Ryder, is running new lines every 
day, and moving the land-marks of tho old settlers. People who 
have come into the country from the States, marry into a family, 
and obtain a lot of wild land, get John Eyder to move the land- 
marks, and instead of a wild lot, take by force a fine house and 
barn and orchard, and a well cultured farm, and turn the old Tory, 
(as he is called) out of his house, and all his labor for thirty years. 

** These" old settlers have suffered all that men could suffer ; first 
in a seven years' rebellion in the i*evolutionized colonies; then came 
to a remote wilderness, some hundred miles from any inhabitant — 
not a road, not a cow, or an ox, or a horse to assist them ; no bread 
during the winter, they wintered first at Cataraqui. A little pease 
and pork was all they could get until the ice gave way in the spring 
of 1785. 

" The King, as an acknowledgment and mai-k of his approbation 
for the loyalty and sutterings of his faithful subjects, ordered lands 
to be granted them free from expense, and marked each man's 
name with the letters U. E., with a grant annexed to each child as 
it became of age, of two hundred acres of the waste lands of tho 
crown. 

" Now these children cannot get these lands agreeably to the 
intention of Government. They must sel' their right to a set of 
speculators that hover round the seat of Government, or never get 



THE 00N0E8BI0N. 161 

located. Or if thoy should Iiave the fortune to get a location 
ticket, it \H situated on rocks, and lakes, and barren lands, where 
they are worth nothing' at all ; the good lots being marked by the 
Surveyors, and located by those U. E. rights they have so i)urohascd. 

"Now, Sir, was I a scholar, I might draw you a much bettor 
description of this wickedness. But I have lived to see thirteen 
colonies, now States of America, severed from the British empire by 
the mal-administration of justice in the civil government of those 
colonies; the people's minds were soured to that degree that a few 
designing men overthrew the Govornment." 

" After the conquest of Canada, the king ordered a thousand 
acres of land to be granted to each man. The land was granted ; but 
the i)eopIo to whom it was granted were deprived by a set of specu- 
lators, from ever getting a foot, unless they became tenants to those 
who, in a manner, had robbed them of their rights." 

While the lots were generally made twenty chains in width, a 
few of the first townships were but nineteen, and consequently of 
greater depth to make the 2Q0 ^ores, aud the concessions were pro- 
portionally wider, --^f ---;vc'*/'»^t' ;-'-'^''*;»^ V 

; The base line being established, a second one, parallel thereto, was 
made at a distance generally of a mile and a quarter, allowance being 
made in addition, for a road. It is more than likely that in many 
towunhips the second line, or concession, was not immediately run out. 
The settlers 'could not easily traverse even a mile of woods, and for a 
time accommodation was made only at the front. But within a year, 
in most townships, the second row of lots had been «urveyed and 
partially occupied. At the front line was always an allowance for a 
road of sixty feet, as well as at tho second line for one of forty feet. 
The range of lots between the front and the second lines as well as be- 
tween the second and third, and so on, was called a Concession, a term 
derived from the French, having reference to their mode of conferring 
land in the Lower Province, aud peculiar to this counrty. Each conces- 
sion was divided into lots of 200 acres each, the dividing lines being at 
right angles with the concession lines, and a quarter of a mile distant 
from each other. At intervals of two or three miles, a strip of forty 
feet between two lots was left, for a cross road. In Ameliasburgh it 
seems that this was neglected. The number of concessions depended 
on circumstances. Along the St. Lawrence, they numbered to even 
fifteen or sixteen. Along the bay they were seven and eight. Adolphua- 
town has only four. The irregular course of the Bay Quinte, and the 
fronting of the townships upon its waters, gave rise to great irregu- 



162 THE HURVBTOR's 00UR8E. 

lanty in the interior lots, and produced a largo number of Gores. 
This niiiy be noticed more eHi)ecially in Sophiasburgh, and indeed 
throughout all of Prince Kdward district. 

Respecting the provision made for cross roads, Alex. Aitkins, 
who was Deputy Surveyor of Midland district for many years, says 
under date, 1797, in respect to the township of Sophiasburgh, " Mr. 
Kotte's orders 1785, were from Deputy Surveyor General, Mr. Collins, 
who was then at Kingston, to lay off cross roads between every six 
lots as he liad done in the eastern part of the j)rovince, from town- 
ship number one, now Charlotteburgh, to township number eight 
Elizabethtown, and, of no doubt, they would be found at the waters' 
edge on the Bay Quinte." 

By looking at the township maps of the bay, it will bo seen that 
the lots of the first three townships, are inunbere'd from west to east, 
while as we have seen, the townships were numbered from east to west. 
It is inferred from this fact that the surveyor conducted his survey along 
the front, planting posts to mark the division of lots, and leaving 
allowance for roads, but did not complete the concessions imtil the 
breadth of the townships had been determined, when it was done 
from west to east, the lots being numbered accordingly. 

The surveyor continued to chain the front, u})on the north shore of 
the bay, until he reached the turn in the bay at the western point of 
Adolphustowu. Thi.s portion of territory was divided into four town- 
ships. ' Z 

The surveyor then crossed the bay and proceeded from the 
"Upper Gap, to4ay out lots in an irregular manner upon the water, along 
the bay and the lake to, and around Smith's Bay, and along Black 
Creek ; also upon the east shore of Picton Bay. This constituted the 
fifth township. Follo\v^ing tlie bay shore of Prince Edward peninsula 
from Picton Bay, along the High Shore and around Green P(>i ^t, an- 
other, the sixth township, was laid out ; the lots always fronting on the 
bay. Still following the bay, the seventh township was created, the 
western boundary of which brought the surveyor to the head of the 
bay, or Carrying Place. 

Turning eastward along the north shore of the bay, the eight 
township was laid out. Likewise, the ninth township, which brought 
the surveyor to a tract of land which had been reserved for, and given 
to the faithful Mohawk Indians. Passing by the present township of 
Tyendinaga, still another township was laid out fronting upon the 
Mohawk Bay, and Napanee River. This constituted the tenth town 
ship, Richmond. Thus the sui*veyors had Tuade a complete circuit ot 



THE TEN " TOWNS." 163 

the bay. These townships wore, for many a day, (losignated by the 
numeral prefix ; even yet may bo found i^ray haired individuals wlio 
speak of them in no other way. Subsequently, however, those town- 
ships had given to them respectively, the royal names of Kinirston, 
Ernest t/)wn, Fredericksburgh, Adolphustown, Marysburgh, Amelias- 
burgh, Sophiasburgh ; and the noble ones of Sidney, Thurlow 
and Richmond. * 

There would at the present time, bo nothing so interesting to the 
settlers of the bay, than to read a diary of the events connected with 
the original survey. Surveying the wilderness is weary w()rk at any 
time; but when the persons who take part in striking the linos 
and fixing the boundaries, have constantly in mirid that when their 
survey is completed, they cannot return to riivilization and the com- 
forts of a home, but that they have to remain to become citizens of 
the forest, they must experience many a lieart pang. Yet 
there seems to have been a lightheartedness with most of them. The 
camp fire at night witnessed many pleasant hours of jovial passtime. 
Singing, stoiytelling, wiled away agreeably many an hour. Accom- 
panying Collins' surveying party, was one Purdy, who gained no 
little renown as a capital singer. 

We will close our remarks upon the original survey by giving 
the statement of Gourlay. He says that " such was the haste to get 
land surveyed and given away, that ignorant and careless men were 
employed to measure it out, and such a mess did they make of their 
land measuring, that one of the present surveyors informed me that 
in running new lines over a great extent of the province, he found 
spare room for a whole township in the midst of those laid out at an 
early period. It may readily be conceived, upon consideration of 
this fact, what blundering has been committed, and what mistakes 
stand for correction." 



r^z- 



1G4 THE CARKINAN REGIMENT. 

.. ; , ,v;j, , , CIFAPTRR XVI. * * . 

CoNTEKTR — Tlio term ConceMnInn — FirHt ConroHHion of Lnnd In Canada — The 
('RriKiiiiii Ut'KinK'iit — Hdjrniorit'H — DiHpropoitiou uf tht^ hoxoh — Kemalos 
Hciit I'limi Fmnce — 'I'hcir iippciirnncc — Si'ttling tlu-in — Marringo allowance — 
Till) lant HoJKalory — New 'hdngciiil — Seigniory at Frontcnar — GrantH to 
Utfiig<M'K^ — OfHctTH and men — Hcal« of Kruntlnp; — Free of ((xpcnsf — Squatting 
— l)jHliiin<l('d Holdicrn — ilcniotc ref^ions — A wIhc; an<l benefKu-nt policy — 
InipoHtorH — Very yonii^ ollicfiH — Wlioltmiic jj^mntin^f of land — Ucpublicang 
coniinp over — CovetoiiH — Falm- pretentioiiH — Oovttrnnient ha<l to dlKcrimi- 
nuto — KulcB and regulittioiiN— Family Ihm<Ih — Bounty — Certitt'atcH — Selling 
clniinH — Hear concesnionH — TranHfer of locution ticket — Land board — Tardi- 
ncMH in obtaining tltlen to real PHtnto — TranHfer by bond — lobbing — Sir 
Wm. Pullency — Washington — (living IuikIh to favorites — Uoservou — Kvil 
results — The Family (!onii)act — Kxtmct from I'layter — Extract from Lord 
Durham — From (lourluy — Ueconipenso to Loyalists — Rations — Mode of 
drawing land — Land Agent — Urukun front — Tnvitor Arnold — Tyundinaga. 

• ,.:.l'-;i, '•■■' ■ 

•■'■S;i>n>"\^ CONCEHSION OF LANDS TO THE FRKNC!!!. 

It hiiH been stated that the term conoesHion, as well as the system 
of ^,ranting land to disbanded soldiers, was derived from the French. 
The first concession of lands to soldiers took place in 1665, to the 
Carigiian JReginient, a name derived from a Prince of the house of 
Savoy, which came to New P'nmce with the first Viceroy, It was a 
distinguished corps in the French Infantry, having won renown on 
many a bloody field, and carried death to many an Iroquois Indian. 
The Indians having sought peace from the French, leave was p^i anted 
to this regiment to permanently settle in the New World. Titles to 
land was conferred according to rank, and as well, sums of money to 
assist in the clearing of land. " The officers who were mostly 
noblesse obtained seigniories with their late soldiers for vassals." The 
settlement of this body of men increased the disproportion between 
the males and females in Canada. The home government consider- 
ately took steps to remedy this abnormal state of things and despatched 
" several hundred from old France." They " consisted of tall, short, 
fair, brown, fat and lean." These females were oltered to such of 
the men as had means to support a wife. In a few days they were 
all disposed of. The Governor-General then distributed to the newly 
married ones " oxen, cows, hogs, fowls, salted beef," as well as 
money.— (Smith.) % . • 

The original grants <jf land by the French Government under 
the feudal system, was into seigniories. These were subdivided into 
parishes, " whose extents were exactly defined by De Vandreuil and 
Bigon, September 1721." For these grants of seignioral tenure, certain 
acts of fealty were to be performed, pursuant to the custom of Paris. 



EKMOTR PARTS. ^ 166 

After the T^rltlsh siipromaoy, j^runts of laii<l wiTo ntill made l»y govern- 
iiM'ut in Lower Ciumda. The last seii^niory \vi\h conferred by the 
French in April, 17.'U, to (Mu^viilier d(^ Loni^e\iil, and is known ns 
New Longenil. It constitutes the western bontuhvry of the Lower 
Provinge. 

' C0NCK8SI0N OK LANDS TO TIIK I.OYALISTH. 

WchftvoelHewhure seen that tlie first porHon, other tlinn the natives, 
to poasesH land in TTpper Canada, was De la Salle, the discoverer of 
the Mississippi River, to whom was ufranled a, seigniory at Cataracpii, 
of four leagues, including the fort, and the islands in front of tho 
four leagues of territory. Wolfe, (Jage and Aniherst Islands. '"^ '• 
' At the close of tho war in 1783, it was doterniincd ])y govern- 
ment to confer grants of land to the refugee loyalists in Canada, on 
the same scale to officers ami men as had been done after the conquest 
of Canada, 1 763, with the exception that all loyalists luuler the rank of 
subaltern were to receive 200 acres. The grants to tho disbanded 
soldiers and loyalists, were to be made free of eveiy expense. .' f' 
« In some of the townships, tho settlors were sipiatting along the 
St. Lawrence and Bay Quintt';, until late in the summer and fall of 1784, 
waiting to know the location of their lots. This might easily be, as 
although the forest had boon surveyed, the lots had not been n\imbered. 
So, although the refugee soldier had his location ticket for a certain 
lot, it was often a long tedious time before he could know its precise 
situation. 

»; The front part of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth town- 
ships npon the bay were definitely disposed of to disbanded soldiers 
and refugees, formed into companies. But the lands, then considered 
more remote, as along tho north shore of Hay Bay, in the third and 
fourth towns ; in some j)art8 of the fifth ; and more particularly along 
tho shores of the western extremity of the bay, were at the service of 
any one who might venture to settle. It was considered quite in the 
remote part of the earth. Even the head of Picton Bay was considered 
a place which would hardly be settled. The result was, that many of the 
choice lots were taken up in the eight .and ninth towns, before they 
were surveyed. 

The policy pursued by the British Government, in recognizing the 
services of those who served in the British array against the rebels* 
and in recompensing the losses sustained by those who adhered to the 
British Crown in America, was most wise and beneficient. There 
were a few deserving ones in suffering circumstances, who failed to get 



166 YOUNG OFFICERS. 

the bounty so wisely granted. This sometimes was the result of the 
individual's own neglect, in not advancing his claims; sometimes the 
fault of an agent who, too intent in getting for himself, forget those 
entrusted to his care. While a small number thus remained without 
justice, there were on the other hand, a large number who succeeded 
unworthily in obtaining grants. It is no cause for wonder, that out of 
the large number who composed the U. E. Loyalists, there would be 
found a certain number who would not hesitate to so represent, or mis- 
represent their case, that an undue i-eward would be accorded. Finding 
tlie government on the giving hand, they scrupled not to take advan- 
tage of its parental kindness. In later days we have seen the United 
States, when in the throes of a great civil war, bleeding at every poiot 
of the body politic, by the unprincipled contractors and others, who 
the most loudly proclaimed their patriotism. In 1783, when a rebel- 
lion had proved successful, and so had become a revolution, and the 
nation, from which a branch had been struck off, was most anxious to 
repay those who had preferred loyalty to personal aggrandizement, 
we may not wonder that there were some willing to take all they 
could get. 

It is also related that certain officers of the regiments were in 
the habit of putting each of their children, however young, upon the 
strength of the regiment, with the view of securing him land, and 
hence arose an expression the " Major won't take his paj)," and 
" half pay officers never die," as the officer placed on half pay 
when a year old, would long enjoy it. But it will be often found 
that this mode was adopted by those in authority, as the most con- 
venient to confer favors upon the chief officers, although a very 
lidiculous one. 

For many a year no strict rules for discrimination, were 
observed in the granting of lands in Canada, and the petitions 
which literally crowded upon the government, were, in the main, 
promptly complied with. The time came, however, when more 
care had to be observed, for not a few of those who had actually 
rebelled, or had sympathized with the rebels, finding less advan- 
tages from republicanism than had been promised, and with chagrin, 
learning that those, whose homesteads and lands they had assisted 
to confiscate, had wrought out new homes upon land, conferred by a 
government more liberal, and of a nobler mind than the parvenu 
government, which had erected a new flag upon American soil, 
looked now with longing, covetous eyes toward the northern country, 
which those they had persecuted, had converted from a wilderness 



IMPOSTORS. 167 

to comfortable homes. The trials of iho first settlement had been 
overcome. The oc'casional visit of a Canadian pioneer to his old 
home in the States, where he told the pleasing tale of success, not- 
withstanding their cruelty, caused some to envy their hard earned 
comforts, and even led some who had been the worst of rebels, to 
set out for Canada with a view of asserting their loyalty and, thereby 
of procuring lands. Not a few of such unworthy ones succeeded for 
a time in procuring lands. It therefore became necessary, on the 
part of the government, to exact the most searching examination of 
parties petitioning for land. No reference is here made to those 
who came into the province in response to the invitation proclaimed 
by Governor Simcoe ; but to those who entered under false colors, 
prior to the time of Upper Canada being sot apart from Lower 
Canada. ,,^^.j;y,.. 

Extracts from the Rules and Begulat ions for the conduct of the Land 
Office Department, dated Council Chamber, 11th February, 1789, 
for the guidance of the Land Boards. . , 

" 4th. The safety and propriety of admitting the petitioner to 
become an inhabitant of this Province being well ascertained to the 
satisfaction of the Board, they shall administ*3r to every such person 
the of.ths of fidelity and allegiance directed by law; after which the 
Board shall give every such petitioner a certificate to the Surveyor 
General or any person authorized to act as an Agent or Deputy 
Surveyor for the district within the trust of that Board, expressing 
the ground of the petitioner's admission, and such Agent or Deputy 
Surveyor shall, within two days after the presentment of the certi- 
ficate, assign the petitioner a single lot of about two hundred acres, 
descibing the same with due certainty and accuracy under his 
signature. But the said certificate shall, nevertheless, have no 
efiect if the petitioner shall not enter upon the location, and begin 
the improvement and cultivation thereof within one year from the 
date of such assignment, or if the petitioner shall have had lands 
assigned to him before that time in any other part of the Px'ovince. 

*' 7th. The respective Boards shall, on petition from the Loyalists 
already settled in the Upper Districts for the allotment of .lands 
under the instructions to the Deputy Surveyor General of the 2nd 
of June, 1787, or under prior or other orders for assigning portions 
to their families, examine into the grounds of such requests and 
claims, and being well satisfied of the justice thereof, they shall 
grant certificates for such further qualities of lands as the said 



168 DUTY OF LAND BOARDS, 

instructiohH and ordors may warrant to the acting Surveyorn of 
their Districts respectively, to be by them made effectual in the 
manner before mentioned, but to bo void, nevertheless, If prior to 
the passing the grant in form, it shall appear to the Government 
that such additional locations have been obtained by fraud, and that 
of these the Boards transmit to the office of the Governor's Secre- 
tary, and to each others, like reports and lists as hereinbefore, as 
to the other locations directed. 

" 8th. And to prevent individuals from monopolizing such spots 
as contain mines, minerals, fossils, and conveniences for mills, and 
other similar advantages of a common and public nature, to the 
prejudice of the general interest of the settler, the Surveyor-Gene- 
ral and his Agents or Deputy Surveyors in the different districts, 
shall confine themselves iu the location to be made by them upon 
certificates of the respective Boards, to such lands only as are fit 
for the common purpose of husbandry; and they shall reserve all 
other spots aforementioned, together with all such as may bo fit 
and useful for ports and harbours, or works of defence, or such as 
contain valuable timber for ships, building or other purposes, con- 
veniently situated for water carriage, in the hands of the Crown, 
and they shall, without delay, give all particular information to the 
Governor or Commander-in-Chief for the time being, of all sucji 
spots as are hereinbefore directed to be rosei-ved to the Crown, that 
order may be taken respecting the same. And the more eftectually 
to prevent abuses and to put individuals on their guard in this res- 
pect, any certificate of location given conti'ary to the true intent 
and meaning of this regulation is hereby declared to be null and 
void, and a special order of the Governor and Council made neces- 
sary to pledge the faith of Government for granting of &ny such 
spots as are* directed to bo reserved. 

FAMILY LANDS AND ADDITIONAL BOUNTY. 

" Certificate of the Board appointed by His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, for the District of , in the Province of Quebec, under 

the rules and regulations for the conduct of the Land Office 
Department. 

" Dated, Council Chamber, Quebec, 17th February, 1789. 

'* The bearer , having on the day of , pre- 
ferred to the Board a Petition addressed to His Excellency the 
Governor in Council, for a grant of acres of land in the Town- 
ship of in the District of . We have examined into 



SELLING CLAIMS. . 169 

his character and pretentions, and find that he has received 

acres of land in the Township of , in the District of- 



and that ho settled on and has improved the same, and that he is 

entitled to a further assignment of acres, in conformity to 

the seventh articles of the rules and regulations aforementioned. 

" Given at the Board at this day of , one thousand 

seven hundred and . 

^. «To j 

" Acting Surveyor for the District of . 

CERTIFICATE OF THE ACTING SURVEYOR. 

"I assign to the bearer the lot No. in the Town- 
ship of , in the District of , containing acres, 

chains, which lands he is hereby authorized to occupy and improve, 
and having improved the same, he shall receive the same grant 
thereof, to him and his heirs or devisee in due form on such terms 
as it shall please His Majesty to ordaiu, and all persons are desired 
to take notice that this assignment and all others of a similar nature 
are not transferable, by purchase, donation or otherwise, on any 
pretence whatever, except by an act under the signature of the 
Board for the District in which the lands are situated, which is to 
be endorsed upon this Certificate. 

" Given at ^f—, this day of , one thousand 

seven hundred and . 

To 



Acting Surveyor for the District of- 



■'t: 



But there were many a one who drew land, and never even 
saw it. It was quickly, thoughtlessly sometimes, sold for little or 
nothing. Sometimes for a quart of rum. The right jolly old sol- 
dier would take no thought of the mori'ow. A few did not retain 
their lands, because they were of little value for agricultural pur- 
poses ; but the majority because they were situated in that remote 
region in the 4th or 5th concession of the third town, or away up 
in the 2nd concesssion of sixth town, or a long way up in the 
eighth town. Rear concessions of even the first and second 
townships were looked upon doubtingly, as to whether the land was 
worth having. Often the land would not be looked after. It not 
unfrcquently was the case that settlers upon the front who had drawn 
land also in the "ear townships, disposed of the latter, not from any 
indiifference as to its future value, but to obtain the immediate 



170 LARGE LAND OWNERS. 

necessaries of life, as articles of clothing, or stock, or perhaps foo d, 
or seed grain, and now and then in later days to pay taxes. The 
certificates of the children, entitling them to land when of ago, were 
often disposed of. Even officers found it convenient, or necessary 
to sell rear land to new comers, for ready money. 

Thus it came to pass that a good many never took possession of 
tiiu land which a prudent Government had granted them. The 
statement has been made that persons holding prominent positions 
{vt the time, and possessed of prudent forethought, as to the value- 
which would in the future attach to certain lots, stood ready not 
only to accept offers to sell, but to induce the ignorant and careless 
to dispose of their claims. Consequently when patents were issued, 
several persons became patentees of large tracts of land, which had 
been drawn by individual Loyalists, whose names never appea.ed 
in the Crown Land Office. The transfer of a certificate or 
"location ticket," consisted in the seller writing his name 
upon the back of the ticket. Occasionally a ticket would 
exchange hands several times, so that at last when it was presented 
to obtain the deed, it was difficult to determine who was the owner. 
The power to thus transfer the certificates, was allowed for several 
years. But in time Government discovered the abuses which had 
arisen out of it, and decided that all patents should, thenceforward, 
be in the name of the person who originally drew the land. Not 
unfrequently these certificates were lost. T^g losers, upon claiming 
land, could not establish their rights ; but Government, to meet 
this misfortune, created a Land Board for each Township, whose 
duty it was to examine and determine the claims of all who pre- 
sented them. 

The following extract of a letter will explain itself: 
^' For the Kingston Gazette, June 1st, 1816." 

" It has long been a subject of deep regret in the minds of 
judicious persons, that the inhabitants of this Province should be 
so neglectful as they are in securing their titles of real estate. 
When the country was first settled, the grants of land from the 
crown, on account of the existing state of the Province, could not 
be immediately issued. The settlers, however, drew their lots and 
went into possession of them, receiving only tickets, or certificates, 
as the evidence of their right to them. In the meantime, exchanges 
and sales were made by transfers of the possession with bonds for 
conveyances when the deeds should be obtained from the Crown 
Office. 



RESERVES — EVIL EFFECTS. 171 

" This practice of transferring land by way of bond, being thus 
introduced, was continued by force of unage, after the cause of its 
introduction was removed. In too many instances it is still con- 
tinued, although, by the death of the parties, and the consequent 
descent of estates to heirs under ago, and other intervening priva- 
tions, many disappointments, failui*es, and defects of title, are 
already experienced ; and the evil consequences are becoming still 
more serious, as lands rise in value, become more settled and 
divided among assignees, devisees, &c. In a few yeai's this custom, 
more prevalent perhaps in this Province, than elsewhere, will prove 
a fruitful source of litigation, unless the practice should be discon- 

In connection with free grants of land, and a certain degree of 
indifference as to the value, there must necessarily arise more or 
less speculation or land-jobbing. 

Sir William Pullency has been called the first land-jobber in 
Canada. In 1791, he bought up 1,600,000, at one shilling per acre, 
and soon after sold 700,000 at an average of eight shillings per acre. 
But land-jobbing is not peculiar to C aada, nor has its practice 
militated against the public character of eminent men, either here 
or abroad. Greneral Washington was not only a Surveyor, but an 
extensive land-jobber, and thereby increased immensely his private 
fortune. 

I We have seen elsewhere, that a few private individuals were 
wont to buy the location tickets of all who desired to part with 
them, or whom they could induce to sell. In this way a few indi- 
viduals came to own large quantities of land, even from the first. 
Afterward, there was often conferred by the authorities, quantities 
of land upon those connected with influential persons, or upon 
favorites. Subsequently the mode of reserving Crown and Clergy 
lands increased the evil. And it was an evil, a serious drawback; 
not alone that, but favorites procured land without any particular 
claim or right. The land thus held in reserve, being distributed 
among the settled lots in the several townships, was waste land, and 
a barrier to advancement. Each settler had to clear a road across 
his lot; but the Grovernment lots, and those held by non-residents, 
remained without any road across them, except such paths as the 
absolute requirements of the settlers had caused them to make. In 
this way, the interests of the inhabitants were much retarded, and 
the welfare of the Province seriously damaged. The existence of 
the Family Compact prevented the removal of this evil, for many 



172 INVESTIGATION PREVENTED. 

a year, while favorites enjoyed choice advantivgCH. In 1817, 
"The Hoiwe of Assembly in Upjier Canada took into consideration 
the state of the Province, and amon^ other topics, tlio injury arising 
from the reserve lands of the Crown and the Clergy." In laying 
out the townships in later. years, "The Government reserved in 
the first concession, the 5th, 15th, and 20th lots ; and the Clergy 
the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 22nd. In the second concession, the Crown 
reserved the 4th, 11th, 21st, and 23rd; and the Clergy, the 2nd, 
9th, and 16th. And thus in every two concessions, the Crown 
would have three lots in one, and four in the other, or seven in all ; 
and the Clergy the same ; or 14 lots reserved in every 48, or nearly 
one-third of the land in each concession, and in each township. The 
object of the reservation was to increase the valiyj of such land by 
the improvements of the settlers around it. The object was selfish, 
as the reserve lands injured all those who did them good. It was 
difficulty enough to clear up the forests ; but to leave so many lots 
in this forest state, was a difficulty added by the Crown. To have 
one-third of a concession uncleared and uncultivated, was an injury 
to the two-thirds cleared and cultivated. Large patches of forest, 
interspersed with cultivated land, obstructs the water courses, the 
air, and the light; nurtured wild animals and vermin destructive to 
crops and domestic creatures around a farm house; and especially, 
are injurious to roads running through them, by preventing the 
wind and the sun from drying the moisture. Besides, no taxes 
were paid by these wild lots for any public improvements ; only from 
cultivated lands. The Assembly, however, were cut short in their 
work of complaint, by being suddenly prorogued by the Gover- 
nor, whose Council was entirely against such an investigation. 
Here was the beginning of the Clergy Eeserve agitation in the 
Provincial Parliament, which continued for many years." — 
(^Playter). 

In this connection, the following extract from a report of Lord 
Durham, will be found interesting: 

" By official returns which accompany this report, it appears 
that, out of about 17,000,000 acres comprised within the surveyed 
districts of Upper Canada, less than 1,600,000 acres are yet unap- 
propriated, and this amount includes 450,000 acres the reserve for 
roads, leaving less than 1,200,000 acres open to grant, and of this rem- 
nant 500,000 acres are required to satisfy claims for grants founded 
on pledges by the Government. In the opinion of Mr. Kadenhurst, 
the i-eally acting Surveyor-General, the remaining 700,000 consist 



RETARDING IMPROVEMENTS. 173 



• 



for tho most part of land inferior in positfon or quality. It may 
almoHt bo waid, theruforo, that the whole of the public lands in 
Upper Canada have been alienated by tho Government. In Lower 
Canada, out of 6,169,963 acres in the surveyed townsliips, nearly 
4,000,000 acres have been granted or sold; and there are unsatisfied 
but indisputable claims for grants to the amo".nt of about 500,000. 
In Nova Scotia nearly 6,000,000 acres of land have been granted, 
and in the opinion of tho Surveyor-CJoneral, only about one-eighth 
of tho land which remainsto tho Crown, or 300,000 acres is available 
for the purposes of settlement. Tho whole of Prince Euward's 
Island, about 1,400,000 acres, was alienated in one day. In New 
Brunswick 4,400,000 acres have been granted or sold, leaving to 
the Crown about 11,000,000, of which 5,500,000 are considered fit 
for imraodiato settlement. 

" Of the lands granted in Upper and Lower Canada, upwards 
of 3,000,000 acres consist of ' Clergy Reserves,' being for the most 
part lots of 200 acres each, scattered at regular intervals over the 
whole face of tho townships, and remaining, with few exceptions, 
entirely wild to this day. The evils produced by the system of reserv- 
ing land for the Clergy have become notorious, even in this 
country; and a common opinion I believe prevails here, not only 
that the system has been abandoned, but that measures of remedy 
have been adopted. This opinion is incorrexjt in both points. In 
respect of every new township in both Provinces reserves are still 
made for the Clergy, just as before ; and the Act of the Imperial 
Parliament which permits the sale of the Clergy Eeservos, applies 
to only one-fourth of the quantity. The select committee of the 
House of Commons on tho civil government of Canada reported 
in 1828, that " these reserved lands, as they are at present distri- 
buted over the country, retard more than any other circumstance 
the growth of the colony, lying as they do in detached portions of 
each township, and intervening between tho occupations of actual 
settlers, who have no moans of cutting roads through the woods and 
morasses, which thus separate them from their neighbours. This 
description is perfectly applicable to the present state of things. 
In no perceptible degree has tho evil been remedied. 

" The system of Clergy Reserves was established by the act of 
1791, commonly called the Constitutional Act, which directed that, 
in respect of all grants made by the Crown, a quantity equal to 
one-seventh of tho land so granted should be reserved for the clergy. 
A quantity equal to one-seventh of all grants would bo one-eighth 



174 Durham's objections. 

of oacli lownship, or of all tho public land. Instead of thiw propor- 
tion, tho practice has bcc.j, over Hinco the act paHsod, and in tho 
cloareHt violation of its jjrovisions, to set apart for tho clcryy in 
Upper Canada a seventh of all the land, which is a quantity equal 
to a sixth of tho land granted. There have been appropriated for 
this purpose 300,000 acres, wb^'ch legally, it is manifest, belong to 
tho public. And of the amount for which Clergy Reserves have 
been sold in that Province, namely, £317,000 (of which about 
£100,000 have been ah-tady received and invested in the English 
funds,) tho sum of about £45,000 should belong to tho public. 

" In Lower Canada, the same violation of the law has taken 
place, with this difference — that iipon every sale of Crown and 
Clergy Resorves, a fresh reserve for the Clergy has been made, 
equal to one-fifth of such reserves. The result has been the appro- 
priation for the clergy of 673,567 acres, instead of 446,000, being 
an excess of 227,559 ata-es, or half as much again as they ought to 
have received. The Lower Canada fund already produced by sales 
amounts to £50,000, (if which, therefore, a third, or about £16,000, 
belong to tho public. If, without any reform of this abuse, tho 
whole of the unsold Clergy Reserves in both Provinces should fetch 
the average price at -which such lands have hitherto sold, the public 
would bu wronged to the amount'of about £280,000; and the reform 
of this abuse will jn-oduce a certain and almost immediate gain to 
the public of £60.000. In referring, for further explanation of this 
subject, to a paper in the appendix which has been drawn up by 
Mr. Hanson, a member of the commission of inquiry which I 
appointed for the colonies. I am desirous of stating my own convic- 
tion that the clergy have had no part in this great misappropriation 
of the public property, but that it has arisen entirely from heedless 
misconception, or some other error, of the civil government of 
both Provinces." 

" The great objection to reserves for the clergy is, that those 
for whom the land is set apart never have attempted, and never 
could successfully attempt, to cultivate or settle the property, and 
that, by special appropriation, so much land is withheld from 
settlers, and kept in a state of waste, to the serious injury of all 
settlers in its neighborhood. But it would be a gi-eat mistake to 
suppose that this is the only practice by which such injury has 
been, and still is, inflicted on actual settlers. In the two Canadas, 
especially, the practice of rewarding, or attempting to reward, 
public services by grants of public land, has produced, and is still 



THE QUANTITY GRANTED. 175 

producing, a dogroo of injury to actual BCttlers which it is difficult 
to copcoivo without having witnossed it. The very principal of 
such grants is bao, inasmuch as, under any circumstances, thoy 
must load to an amount of appropriation beyond the wants of the 
community, and greatly beyond the proprietor's means of cultiva- 
tion and settlement. In both the Canadas, not only has this prin- 
ciple been pursued with reckless profusion, but the local executive 
governments have managed, by violating or evading the instructions 
which theyrocoivod from the Secretary of State, to add incalculably 
to the mischiefs that would have arisen at all events. 

'' In Upper Canada, 3,200,000 acres have boon granted to " U. 
B. Loyalists,", being refugees from the United States, who settled 
in the province befbre 1787, and their children ; 730,000 acres to 
Militia men ; 450,000 acres to discharged Soldiers and Sailors ; 225,- 
000 acres to Magistrates and Barristers ; 136,000 acres to Executive 
Councillors, and their families ; 50,000 acres to five Legislative 
Councillors, and their families; 36,900 acres to Clergymen, as 
private property ; 264,000 to persons contracting to make surveys ; 
92,526 acres to officers of the Army and Navy ; 500,000 acres for 
the endowment of schools; 48,520 acres to Colonel Talbot; 12,000 
acres to heirs of General Brock, and 12,000 acres to Dr. Mountain, 
a former Bishop of Quebec ; making altogether, with the Clergy 
Reserves, nearly half of all the surveyed land in the province. In 
Lower Canada, exclusively of grants to refugee loyalists, as to the 
amount of which the Crown L.^nds' Department could furnish me 
with no information, 460,000 acres having been granted to Militia- 
men, to Executive Councillors 72,000 acres, to Governor Milne 
about 48,000 acres, to Mr. Gushing and another, upwards of 100,000 
acres (as a reward for giving information in a case of high treason), 
to officers and soldiers 200,000 acres, and to •< leaders of townships" 
1,457,209 acres, making aUogother, with the Clergy Reserves, 
rather more than half of the surveyed lands originally at the 
disposal of the Crown. 

" In Upper Canada, a very small proportion (perhaps less than 
a tenth) of all the land thus granted, has been even occupied by 
settlers, much less reclaimed and cultivated. In Lower Canada, with 
the exception of a few townships bordering on the American frontier 
which have been comparatively well settled, in despite of the pro- 
prietors, by American squatters, it may be said that nmeteen- 
twentieths of these grants are still unsettled, and in a perfectly wild 
state. 



176 LAND 8PE0ULATOEH. 

" No Other result could have been oxpcctcd in tlio cane of those 
classes of gruiitees whose station woultl preclude them from seltling in 
the wilderness, and wliose means would enable theni to nvoid exertion 
forgiving immediate value to their grants; and unfbrtuiuitely, the 
land which was intende<l for persons of a poorer order, who nughtbo 
expected to improve it by their labor, has, for the most part, fallen 
into the lian<ls of land-jobbers of the class just mentioned, who have 
never thought of settling in person, and who retain the land in its 
present wild state, speculating upon its accjuiring a value at some 
distant day, when the demand for land shad have increased through 
the increase of population. 

; ^_j " In Upper Canada, says Mr. Bolton, himself a great speculator 
and holder of wihl land, " the plan of granting largo tracts of land to 
gentlemen who have neither the muscular strength to go into the 
wilderness, nor perhaps, the pecuniaiy means to improve their grants, 
has been the means of a large part of the country remaining in a state 
of wilderness. The system of granting land to the children of U. E 
Loyalists has not been productive of the benefits expected from it. 
A very small proportion of the land granted to them has been 
occupied or improved. A great propor ion of such grants were to 
unmarried females, who very I'eadily disposed of them for a small con- 
sideration, frequently from £2 to £5 for a grant of 200 acres. The 
grants made to young men were also frequently sold for a very small 
consideration ; they generally had parents with whom they lived, and 
were therefore not disposed to move to their grants of lands, but 
preferred remaining with their families. I do not think one-tenth of 
the lands granted to U. E. Loyalists has been occupied by the persons 
to whom they were granted, and m a great proportion of cases not 
occupied at all." Mr. Eauden'mrst says, " the general price of these 
grants was from a gallon of rum up to nerhaps £6, so that while 
millions of acres were grai.>ted in thi^ way, the settlement of the 
Province was not advanced, iior the advantage of the grantee secured 
in the manner that we may svippose to have been contemplated by 
government." He also mentions amongst extensive purchasers of 
these grants, Mr. Hamilton, a member of the Legislative Council, who 
bought about 100,000 acres. Chief Justices Emslie and Powell, and 
Solicitor General Gray, who purchased from 20,800 to 50,000 acres ; 
and states that several members of the Executive and Legislative 
Councils, as well as of the House of Assembly, were " very large 
purchasers." 



PTIRTIIER IBRKOULARITIKS. JJ^ 

"In T.ow(>r Cnnmlji, the irranfN to "Lonflorf^ mid A«Hoolnto« " 
woro niado by an ovaHion (•! ingtrucUons which (lost-rvc a particular 
(loRcription. 

*^1 "By instructions to the Local Kxccutive imnicliatcly after the 
paHsin^r of the ConHtitutional Act, it wao directed that " hecauso 
gi-eat inconvenionceH had theretofort* ariHen in many of the colonie« in 
America, trom the ,j?rantin<,' exceHsive (|uanlitieH of land to particMilar 
persons wlu) have never cultivated or Hettle<l the same, and have 
thorohy prevented otherH more induNtrioiiN, from improviiijr Hiich 
lundM ; in order, therefore, to prevent the like inconveniences in future, 
no fnrm-lot should he jrranted to any person beini,' master or mistress 
of a family in any township to belaid out which shouM contain more 
than 200 fvcres." The instriictions then invest the governor with a 
discretionary power to {?rant additional quantities in certain cases, not 
exceeding 1,000 acres. According; to these iiiNtruittions 200 acre* 
should have been the general amount. 1 ,200 th(! maximuu), in special 
cases to b(. granted to any individual. The greater part, however, 
of the laml (1,457,200 acres) was granted, in fact, to Individ mils at 
the rate of from 10,000 to 50,000 to each person. The evasion of 
the i-egtdations was managed as follows : A petition, signed by from 
10 to 40 or 50 jjcrsons, was presented to the Executive Council 
praying for a grant of 1,200 acres to each person, and promising to' 
settle the land so applied for. Such petitions were, I am informed 
always granted, the Council being perfectly aware that, under a pre- 
vious agreement between the applicants (of which the form was 
prepared by the then Attorney General, and sold publicl- by the law 
stationers of Quebec), five-sixths of the land was to be'conveyed to 
one of them, termed leader, by whose means the grant was obtained. 
In most cases the leader obtained the most of the land which had been 
nominally applied for by fifty persons." 

Upon this subject we further give as worthy of attention, although 
wo will not endorse all that is said, the remarks matle by Mr. Robert 
(iourlay in his " Statistical Account." Ho says, " when we look 
back into the history of old countries, and observe how landed pro- 
perty was first established ; how it was seized upon, pulled about 
given away, and divided in all sorts of ways, shapes, and quantities;' 
how It was bequeathed, burthened, entailed, and leased in a 
hundred forms; when we consider how dark were the days of 
antiquity,_how grossly ignorant and savage were our remote fore- 
fathers, we cannot be so much surprised at finding ourselves heirs 
to confusion; and, that, in these old countries, entanglement con- 



178 aoiIBLAYH ttTATKMRNTM. 

tinucB lo bo Uio onlor of tlu^ dsiy. Hut wht'ii (livilizwl mon were 
quiotly and |)Ottcoubly lo ontor into tho occu|uincy olii now ru^ion, 
whoro all could bo udjuHtcd by tho H(|uuru and conipuHH ; und whoii 
order, iVoni tho beginning, could have provonted lor over all pos- 
dibility of doubt, and diHputo, and diHturbanco; how deplorable \n 
it to know, that in Iums than a life-timo, even the MimpIoHt atVairm 
should gut into cont'u8ion ! and ho it In alruiuly in Upper Canada 
to a lamentable degroo. JioundarioM of land are doubiful und <li8- 
putod : deodM have boon iniHluid, loHt, unfounded, forged : they have 
boon paoHod again and again in review before commiHMionerH : thoy 
have been blotted and blurroU : they have got into the ropoHitorioH 
of attornies and [)ettilogging lawyers; while courtB of juHtico are 
every day adding doubt to doubt, delay to delay, and confuHion to 
cojifuwion ; with coHtH, churgoH, cheating. 

" ThingH are not yet beyond the reach of amondmont, even in the 
old HOttlomontH. In the new, what a gloriouu tauk it is to dovise 
planH for hwting peace and prosperity I — to arrange in Huch a way, 
us to bar out a world of turmoil in timoB to come I 

" The ])reHent very unprofitable and comfortless condition of 
Upper Canada must be traced back to the first operations of Si mcoe. 
With all his honesty, and energy, and zeal for settling the Province, 
ho had really no sound views on tho subject, and ho was infinitely 
too lavish in disposing of tho land— infinitely too mucn hurried in all 
his proceedings. In giving away land to individuals, no doubt, ho 
thought ho would give these individuals an interest in the improve- 
ment of tho country, — an inducement to settle in it, and draw to it 
settlers; but ho did not consider the character and condition of 
most of his favorites; many of them officers in the army, whose 
habits did not accord with business, and loss still with solitude and 
tho wilderness ; whose hearts were in England, and whose wishes 
wore intent on retirement thither. Most of thom did retire from 
Upper Canada, and considering, as was really tho case, their land 
grants of little value, forgot and neglected thom. This was attended 
with many bad consequences. Their lands became bars to im- 
provement ; as owners thoy wore not known ; could not be heard 
of; could not be applied to, or consulted with, about apy measure 
for public advantage. Their promises under the Governor's hand, 
their land board certificates, their deeds, were flung about and 
neglected. But mischief greater than all this, arose, is, and will 
be, from tho badness of surveys. Such was the haste to get land 
given away, that ignorant and caroless men wore employed to 



KKlTIHil (tOVKRNMRNT CONHiriKltATK. 179 

moiwur« It out, iin<l Hiioh a m«HH <li<i tlu»y rnnUo of their liind-rntmnur- 
in^, thftt onoof tlio preHtMit Kiirvi'yorH iiitbriucd mo, thiii in running 
now iinoM over a jijrout oxtont of the Province, ho found spuro r(M)in 
for ft wholo townnhip in tho inidnt of tho«o laid out lit nn curly 
period. It nifty romlily bo concoivod, upon coiiHidorrttion of this 
fact, whftt hlundcring has hc»Mi conunittod, and what niislakos stand 
lor correction. Houndary lines in the wiUlorncHs aro niarlcod by 
blazing, an it ,!« called, that is, chopping otl'with an axo, a littlo 
hark from Huch trooH as stand nearest to tho line. Careless sur- 
voyorH cftn readily be supposed to depart wide of the truth with 
this blazing: their measuring ehains eatit)ot run very Htraight, and 
their com pftss needles, where these are called in aid, may bo greatly 
divertijd fi'om tho right direction by ferruginous substances in tho 
nei^'hbourhood, as spoken of. In short, numerous mistakes and 
errors of survey have been made and discovered: much dispute has 
arisen thorotVom ; ftnd I have been told intinito mischief is still in 
store. It occurred to me, while in (Janada, and it was one of tho 
objects which, had a commission como homo, J meant to have 
pressed on the notice of government, that a complete new survey 
nnd map of the Province should bo executed ; and at tho same time 
a book, after the manner of Doomsduy-book, written out and pub- 
lished, setting forth all the original grants, and describing briefly 
but surely all property both public and private. I would yet most 
seriously recommend such to be sot about. It might be expensive 
now, but would assuredly save, in time to come, a pound for every 
penny of its cost." 

Wo have seen elsowhoretiiat, in thd terms of peac6 tnAdo atl^rtnfi 
when hostilities ceased, justice was not done to the American Loyal- 
ists. But subsequently, v/hen their claims became known to the 
British public, there was uttered no uncertain sound, upon the floor 
of Parliament, respecting tho duty resting upon England towards the 
devoted but distressed loyalists who had laid all upon tho altar of 
patriotism ; and to the honor of Knglantl be said, every stop was now 
taken to provide some recompense for tho United Empire Loyalists. 
It is true, the old homes with their comforts and associations could 
not be restored ; tho wilderness was to be their homo, a quiet con- 
science their comfort, and their associations those of tho pioneer for 
many a day. But, what could be done, was done by the Crown to 
render their circumstances tolerable. Extensive grants of land 
were granted, not alono to the disbanded soldier according to rank, 
but to every one who had become a refugee. Throe years supply 



180 THE BROKEN FRONT. . . 

of rations were allowed to all, as well as clothing; and certain imple- 
ments were furnishtjd with which to clear the land and prepare it 
for agriculture. The scale of granting lands was, to a field officer 
5000 acres, captain 3000, subaltern 2000, private 200. The loyalists 
were ranked, with the disbanded soldiers, according to their losses, 
and services rendered, having taken the usual oath of allegiance; 
and all obtained their grants free of every expense. In 1798. com- 
plaints having been made to the Imperial Government respecting 
the profuse manner of gran ting lands, royal instructions were given 
to Gen. Hunter to limit the allowance to a quantity from 200 to 
1,200. The grants of land when large, were not to be in blocks ; but 
few secured more than 200 acres upon the front townships. The 
original mode of granting lands, at least to the soldiers, was by lot. 
The process was simple. The number of each lot, to.be granted in 
each concession, was written on a separate piece of paper, and all 
were placed in a hat and well shaken, when each one to receive 
land, drew a piece of paper from the hat. The number upon the paper 
was the number of his lot, Ho then received a printed location 
ticket. In drawing lots, no one felt any particulM* anxiety. They 
were yet unacquainted with the country, they had not seen the 
land, and one number was as likely to prove as valuable as another. 

It would seem that the Surveyor acted as Land Agent. Having 
surveyed the lots, he prepared the ballot, and arranged the time 
and place for the settlers to draw. It was no doubt this original 
mode of drawing by lottery, which gave the provincial term draw- 
ing land. We have the testimony of Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, that the 
Surveyor discharged this oflBce. He recollects " Esquire Collins ;" 
he was at his father's house, and his father assisted in the matter of 
drawing with those who had assembled for the purpose. The Sur- 
veyor had a plan by him, and as each drew his lot, his name was 
written immediately upon the map. Many of the plans, with names 
upon them, may be seen in the Crown Land Department. Some of 
the settlers upon the front acquired much more land than others by 
rv^ason of the "broken front." It often happened that the base line, 
running from one cove of the Bay to another, left between it and 
the water a large strip of land. This " broken front" belonged 
to the adjacent 200 acres, so that often the fortunate party possessed 
even 50 or 100 acres exti*a. 

One of the noted individuals to whom land was granted in 
Upper Canada, was Arnold the Traitor. 18,000 acres was given 
him, and £10,000. 



' TYENDINAOA, 181 

The tract of land now constituting the Township of Tyendi- 
naga, having been purchased from the Mississaugas, was deeded to 
the Mohawks. The deed bears the date of 1804. Tlie land is 
granted to " the chiefs, warriors, people, women of the Six Nations." 
The chief, at the time they settled, was Capt. John Deserontyon. 



CHAPTER XYII. 

» 

Contents — Lines — Western Settlement, 1783 — Population — Settlement upon St. 
Lawrence and Bay — Number, 1 784 — Proclamation to Loyalists — Society dis- 
turbed — Two kinds of Loyalists — St. Lawrence and Bay favorable for Settle- 
ment — Government Provisions — State r f the Loyalists — Serving out Rations 
. — Clothes — Utensils for clearing and farming — The Axe — Furniture — At- 
tacking a last enemy — Tents — Waiting for their Lots — " Bees" — Size of 
dwellings — Mode of building — Exchanging work — Bedsteads — Clearing— 
Fiteing trees — Ignorance of Pioneer Life — Disposing of the Wood — No beast 
of burden — Logging — Determination — All Settlers on a common ground — 
Additional Refugees — Advance — Simcoe's Proclamation, 1792 — Conditions of 
Grants — The Response -Later Settlers — Questionable Loyalists — Yankees 
longing for Canada — Loyalty in 1812. 

THE SETTLEMENT OP UPPER CANADA. 
" CANADA." 

BY ALGXANDBR M'LACHLAN. 

Land of mighty lake and forest ! 
Where the winter's locks are hoarest ; 
Where the summer's leaf is greenest ; 

And the winter's bite the keenest ; 'l'\ 

Where the autumn's leaf is searest. 
And her parting smile the dearest ; 
Where the tempest rushes forth. 
From his caverns of the north, 
With the lightnings of his wrath, 
Sweeping forests from his patii ; 
Where the cataract stupendous 
Lifteth up her voice tremendous ; 
Where uncultivated nature 
, Rears her pines of giant sfaiture ; 

Sows her jagged hemlocks o'er. 
Thick as bristles on the boar ; 
Plants the stately elm and oak 
Firmly in the iron rock ; 
* Where the crane her course is steering, 

And the eagle is careering, 
Where the gentle deer are bounding. 
And the woodman's axe resounding ; 
Land of mighty lake and river, 
To our hearts thou'rt dear forever 1 



182 POPULATION, 1783.- ■ 

Thou art not a land of story ; . ,;..-' ■/J'l 

Thou art not a land of glory ; 
No tradition, talc, nor song, 
To thine ancient woodii belong ; 

No long line of bards and sages . ,j.^ 

Looking to us down the ages ; nWTr'y •, 

No old heroes sweeping by, .^,^.ff,,yi;', 

In their warlike panoply ; • 

Yet heroic deeds are done, 
Where no battle's lost or won— . 
In the cottage, in the woods, 
In the lonely solitudes- 
Pledges of affection given, 
That will be redeemed in heaven. 

In 1783, when a regular survey and Bettloment of Western 
Canada commenced, the inhabitants of the Lower Province exten- 
ded westward, only a few miles above Coteau du lac, upon the St. 
Lawrence, at Lake St. Francis ; but not a house was built within 
several miles of the division line of the two Provinces, which is 
above Montreal, about 40 miles, on the north shore. On the south 
side there was the Fort of Oswegotchie. Besides the squatters 
around the military posts at Carleton Island, Oswego, and Niagara, 
there were a few inhabitants at Detroit and Sandwich, of French 
origin, where a settlement had sprung up in 1750. 

The entire population of all Canada at this time, has been esti- 
mated at 120,000, including both the French and English. Al- 
though refugees had squatted here and there upon the frontier, near 
to the several militaiy posts, it was not until 1784 that the land, 
now surveyed into lots, was actually bestowed upon the Loyalists ; 
yet it was mainly disbanded soldiers that received their " location 
tickets" in the year 1784. The grants were made to the corps 
under Jessup, upon the St. Lawrence, and under Eogevs upon the Bay; 
and to Butler's Rangers at Niagara, at the same time, or very nearly. 
During the same season, a settlement was made upon the Niagara 
frontier and at Amherstburgh, by the Loyalists who had found 
refuge at the contiguous Fort.s. It is supposed that the number 
who became settlers this year, 1784, in Upper Canada Avas about 
10,000. Thus the Province of Upper Canada was planted ; thus the 
Eefugees and disbanded soldiers found themselves pioneers in the 
wilds of Canada. Was it for this they had adhered to the Crown — 
had taken up arms — had sacrificed their all ? 

At the close of hostilities, a proclamation was issued to the 
Loyalists, to rendezvous at Sacket's Harbour, or Carleton Island, 
Oswego, Niagara, and Isle aux Mois, the principal military posts 
upon the frontier. 



FAVORABLE PLACES FOR SETTLEMENTS. 183 

Tho tempest of war which had swept across the Aniorican 
Continent, seveiring thirteen Colonies from the parent trniik, had 
roughl}' disturbed the elements of society. It resulted that the 
cessation of hostilities left a turbulent ocean, which required time 
to compose itself. There were Loyalists who would not live under 
a flag alien to Britain. There were those Whose circumstances 
would have induced them to abide the evil that had overtaken them 
in the dismemberment of the British Empire; but the fierce pas- 
sions of the successfVil rebels rendered a peaceful or safe existence 
of the Loyalists among them impossible. Driven they were, away 
from their old homes. There were those who had been doable 
minded, or Avithout choice, ready to go with the successful party. 
Such wandered here and there looking for the best opportunity to 
secure self aggrandisement. It is of the first two classes we speak. 

Forced by cruel circumstances, to become pioneers in a wilder- 
ness, there could not be found in America, a more favourable place 
whereupon to settle than along the banks of the St. Lawrence, and 
around the irregular shores of Bay Qninte, with its manj' indenta- 
tions. They had to convert the wood-covered land into homes. 
The trees had to be felled, and the land prepared for grain, .-md the 
fruit of the soil to be obtained for sustenance within three years, 
when Government provisions would be discontinued. It can readily 
be understood that a water commuaication to and from tho central 
points of settlement, as well as access to fishing waters, was most 
desirable. The smooth waters of the upper St. Lawrence and the 
Bay Quinte constituted a highway of the most valuable kind, 
for tho only mode of travel was by the canoe, or flat-bottomed 
batteau, which was supplied by the Government in limited num- 
bers ; and in winter by rudelj- constructed hand-sleighs, along the 
icy shores. 

THE FIRST SETTLERS. 

The settlers of Uppei* Canada, up to 1790, may be divided into 
those who were forced away from the States by persecution, during 
and after the war ; the disbanded troops ; and a nobler class, who 
left the States, being unwilling to live under other than British 
rule. 

To what extent were these pioneers fitted and prepared to 
enter upon the truly formidable work of creating homes, and to 
secure the necessaries of life for their families. But few of them 
possessed ought of worldly goods, nearly all were depending upon 



184 .; GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTS. , ^•. 

the bounty of Govornmont. In tho first place, they were supplied 
with rations ; which consisted of flour, pork, ^vnd a limited 
quantity of beef, a very little butter, and as little salt. Wo find in 
Rev. Mr. Carroll's ** Past and Present" that " their mode of serving 
out rations was rather peculiar." " Their plan was, to prevent tho 
appearance of partiality, for tho one who acted as Commissary, 
either to turn his back, take one of the articles, and say, ' who will 
have this?' or else the provisions were weighed, or assorted, and 
put into heaps, when the Commissary went around with a hat, and 
received into it something which he would again recognize, as a 
button, a knife, &c. ; after whick he took the articles out of the hat, 
as they came uppermost, and placed one on each of the piles in ro ■ 
tation. Every person then claimed the parcel on which ho found 
the article which he had thrown into the hat." 

They were also supplied with " clothes for three years, or until 
they were able to provide these articles for themselves. They con- 
sisted of coarse cloth for trowsers and Indian blankets for coats, and 
of shoes ; beside, each received a quantity of seed grain to sow 
upon the newly cleared land, with certain implements of husbandry. 
To each was allotted an axe, a hoe, and a spade ; a plough, and one 
cow, were allotted to two families; a whip and cross-cut saw to 
every fourth family; and, even boats were provided for their use, 
and placed at convenient points,;" and " that nothing might seem 
to be wanting, on the part of the Government, even portable corn 
mills, consisting of steel plates, turned by hand like a coffee-mill, 
were distributed among the settlers." Wc have learned they were 
also supplied with nails, hand-saws and other materials for building. 
To every five families were given a " set of tools," such as chisels 
and augers, of various sizes, and drawing-knives; also pick-axes, 
and sickles for reaping. But, unfortunately, many of these imple- 
ments were of inferior quality. The axe, with which the burden 
of the work was to be done, was unlike the light implement now 
in use, it was but a short-handled ship axe, intended for quite a 
different use than chopping trees and clearing land. Notwith- 
standing, these various implements, thoughtfully provided by Gov- 
ernment, how gi'eatly must they have come short in meeting 
the varied wants of the settler, in his isolated clearing, far 
separated from places whereat things necessary could be procured. 
However, the old soldier, with his camp experience, was enabled by 
the aid of his tools, to make homely and rude articles of domestic 
use. And, in farming, he constructed a rough, but servicable plow, 
and harrow, and made fiandles for his scythe. 



INSTITUTION OP " BEES." llji^ 

Thus provisioned and clothed, and thus armed with implomonts 
of industry, the old soldiers advanced to the attack of a last enemy, 
the wild woods. Unlike any previous warfare, waa this lifetime 
struggle. With location ticket in hand, they filed into the batteaux 
to ascend the rapids. A certain number of batteaux joined together, 
generally about twenty or twenty-five, formed a brigade, which was 
placed under the command of a suitable oflflcer ; if not one who had 
in previous days, led them against the foe. It is quite impossible 
to conceive gf the emotions which found a place in the breasts of 
the old veterans as they journeyed along wearily from day to day, 
each one bringing them nearer to the spot on which the tent was 
to be pitched for the last time. Eagerly, no doubt, they scanned 
the thickly wooded shores as they passed along. Curiously 
they examined the small settlement, clustering around Cata- 
raqui. And, it cannot be doubted, when they entered the 
waters of the lovely Bay Quinte, the beauty of the scene created a 
feeling of joy and reconciliation to their lot, in being thus cast upon 
a spot so rich in natural beauty. These disbanded soldiers, at least 
each family, had » canvass tent capable of accommodating, in a 
certain way, from eight co ton persons. These were pitched upon 
the shore, at first in groups, until each person had learned the situation 
of his lot, when he immediately removed thereto. But there were 
by no means enough tents to give cover to all, and many had only 
the friendly trees for protection. The first steps taken were to clear 
a small space of trees, and erect a place of habitation. We have 
seen what were the implements he had to work with — the materials 
he must use to subdue the forest tree standing before him. 

Here, at the very threshold of Upper Canadian history, wag 
initiated the " institution" of " bees." " Each with his axe on his 
shoulder, turned out to help the other," in erecting a log shanty. 
Small and unpretending indeed, were these humble tenements first 
built along the shores of the bay. The size of each depended upon 
the number to occupy it. None were larger than twenty by fifteen 
feet; and an old man tells me that his father, who was a carpenter, 
built one fifteen feet long and ten feet broad, with a slanting roof 
seven or eight feet in height. The back-woodsman's shanty, which 
may yet be seen in the outskirts of our country, is the counterpart 
of those which were first built ; but perhaps many of our readers 
may never have seen one. " Eound logs," (generally of basswood,) 
"roughly notched together at the corners, and piled one above 
another, to the height of seven or eight feet, constituted the walls. 



196 THS OLD LOO HOUSE. 

Openings for a door, «nd one small window" (always beside the 
door) "designed for four lights of glass, 1 h 9, were cut out," (Gov- 
ernment had supplied them with a little glass and putty) ; " the 
spaces between the logs were chinlcod with small splinters, and 
carefully plastered outside and inside, with clay for raortar. Smooth 
straight poles were laid lengthways of the building, on the walls, 
to servo as supports of the roof This was composed ' of strips of 
elm bark, four feet in length, by two or three foot in width, in layers, 
overlapping each other, and fastened to the poles by withs." 
(The roof was some times of black oak, or swamp oak, bark,) " with a 
sufficient slope to the back, this forme<l a root" which was proof againct 
wind and weather. An ample hearth, made of flat stones, was then 
laid out, and a fire back of field stone or small boulders, rudely built, 
was carried up as high as the walls. Above this the chimney was 
formed of round poles, notched together and plastered with rowd. 
The floor was of the same materials as the walls, only that the logs 
"were split in two, and flattened so as to make a tolerably even sur- 
face. As no boai'ds were to be had to make a door, until they could 
be sawn out by the whip saw, a blanket suspended from the inside 
for some time took its place. By and by four little pains of glass, 
were stuck into a rough sash, and then the shanty was complete." — 
(jUroil) 

^ .-t.:.. Furniture for the house was made by the old soldier ; this was 
generally of the roughest kind. They had the fashion of exchanging 
work, as well as of having bees. Some of them had been mechanics 
in other days. A carpenter was a valuable acquisition, and while 
others would assist him to do his heavy work, he would in return do 
thgse little nicer jobs by which the household comforts would be 
increased. No chests of drawers were required ; benches were made 
of split basswood, upon which to sit, and tables were manufactured in 
the same style. The bedstead was constructed at the end of the 
cabin, by taking poles of suitable size and iiiserting the ends between 
the logs which fonned the walls on either side. These would be 
placed, before the cracks were filled in and plastered. 

CLEARING THK LAND. 

A log hut constructed, wherein to live ; and such plain rough arti- 
cles of furniture as were really necessary provided, the next thing was 
to clear the land, thickly covered with large trees and tangled brush. 
Many a swing of the unhandy axe had to be made ere the trees 
could be felled, and disposed of ; and the ground made ready for the 
grain or root. 



THE WORK OP OLBARING. 187 

A few years later, and the settler would, in the dry Bummer season, 
fire the woods, so as to kill the trees. By the next year they would have 
become dry, so that by setting fire again they would bum down. In 
this way much labor was saved. But sometimes the fire would prove 
unmanageable and threaten to destroy the little house and log barn, 
as well as crops. Another mode of destroying the large trees, was to 
girdle them— that is, to cut tln-ough flio bark all around the tree, 
whereby it was :Jllod, so that the following year it would like>vi8e 
burn down. 

A portion of the disbanded troops, as well as other loyalists, had 
been bred to agricultural pursuits ; and some of them, at least those 
who had not been very long in arms, could the more readily adapt 
themselves to their new circumstances, and resume their early occu- 
pation. The axe of the woodsman M'as soon swung as vigoi'ously 
along the shores of the well wooded river and bay, as it had been in 
the forests years before, in the backwoods of New England. 

It is no ordinary undertaking for one to enter the primeval forest, 
to cut down the tough grained trees, whose boughs have long met t^e 
first beams of the rising sun, and swayed in the tempest wind ; to 
clear away the thick underbrush, which impedes the step at every 
turn ; to clear out a tangled cedar swamp, no matter how hardy may 
be the axe-man — how well accustomed to the use of the implement. 
With the best mode of proceeding, with an axe of excellent make, 
and keen edge ; and, combined with which, let every other circum- 
stance be favorable ; yet, it requires a detennined will, an iron 
frame and supple muscle, to undertake and carry out the successful 
clearing of a farm. But, the refugees and disbanded soldiers, who 
formed the pioneers of Upper Canada, enjoyed not even ordinary 
advantages. Many of the old soldiers had not the slightest know- 
ledge of the duties of pioneer life, while others had but an imperfect 
idea. Some scarcely knew how to fell a tree. Hardy and deter- 
mined they were ; but they possessed not the implements requisite to 
clear off the solid trees. We have seen that the axe funiished by 
government was large and clumsy, and could be swung only with diffi- 
culty and great labor, being nothing more than the ship axe then in use. 
Slow and weaiisome indeed, must have been the progress made by the 
unaccustomed woodsman in the'work of clearing, and of preparing 
the logs for his hut, while he had, as on-lookers, too often a feeble 
wife and hungry children. 

The ordinary course of clearing land is pretty well known. At 
the present day the autumn and winter is the usual time, when the 



188 CONQUERINO. 

wood is cut in nleigh lotigths for home use, or made into cord wooi^ 
for the market. Tlie brush is piled up into huge hea})s, and in the 
following seswon, when sufficiently dry, is burned up. Now, wood, 
except in the remote parts, is very valuable, and for those Avho can 
part with it, it brings a good income. But then, when the land was 
everywhere covered with wood, the only thought was how to got rid of 
it. The great green trees, aft^r being cut down, had to lie until they 
had dried, or be cut into pieces and removed. Time was necessary 
for the first. To accomplish the second, involved labor with the 
unwieldly axe ; and there were at first, no beast of burden to haul the 
heavy logs. The arm of the pioneer was the only motor power, and 
the trees had to bo cut in short lengths, that they might be carried^ 
To overcome the more heavy work connected with this, the settlers 
would have logging bees from place to place, and by united strength 
subdue the otherwise obstinate forces. Mainly, the trees were burned; 
the limbs and smaller portion first, and subsequently the large trunk. 
The fire would consume all that was flamable, leaving great black 
logs all over the ground. Then came " logging," that is, piling these 
black and half burned pieces into heaps, where, after a longer time 
of drying, they might be consumed. A second, perhaps a third time 
the pieces would have to be collected into " log heaps," until finally 
burned to ashes. It was by such means, that slowly the forest along the 
St. Lawrence, and surroundng the Bay Quinte, as well in the adjacent 
townships melted away before the daily work of the aggressive settler. 
Although deprived of all those comforts, which most of them had en" 
joyed in early life in the Hudson, and Mohawk valleys,and fruitful fields 
of Pennsylvania, they toiled on determined to conquer — to make new 
homes ; and, for their children at least, to secure comforts. They rose 
early, and toiled on all day, whether long or short, until night cast 
its solemn pall over their rude quiet homes. The small clearing of a 
few acres gradually widened, the sound of the axe was heard ringing 
all the day, and the crash of the falling tree sent the startled wild 
beast to the deeper recesses of the wild wood. The toilers were not 
all from the same social rank, but now in the main, all found a com- 
mon level ; the land allotted to the half pay ofllcers was as thickly 
covered with wood. A few possessed limited means, and were able 
to engage a help, to do some of the work, but in a short time it was 
the same with all ; men of education, and who held high positions, 
rightly held the belief that it was an honor to be a refugee farmer. 

At the close of the war a considerable number of the refugees 
found safety in New Bnmswick and Nova Scotia. But a certain 



simcoe'b proclamation. 189 

minibor, not finding wuch prospects as tl»oy had hoped, resolved to try 
Caniida. Consequently, for five or six years after the peace, this class 
continued slowly to flow, to swell the number of inhabitants of Upper 
Canada. Some of them tarried, or remained in Lower Canada ; but 
the majority ascended the Hay Quinte, and settled the new townships 
at the head of the bay ; not n few would remain for a year or two in 
the townships already settled, working farms on shares, or 'living out,' 
until the future homo was selected, A good many of the first settlers 
in the sixth, seventh, and eight townships, had previously lived for a 
while in the fourth township. 

The advance of the settlements was along the bay, from Kingston 
township and Ernest town, westward along both sides. When 
the settlers in the first, second, third and fourth townships, 
had, to a certain extent overcome the pioneers first difficulties, those 
in the sixth, seventh, eight and ninth, were yet undergoing mostly all 
the same hardships and trials. Far removed from Kingston, they 
could, with difficulty, procure necessities, and consequently endured 
greater piivation, and experienced severer hardships ; but in time these 
settlers also overcome, and ended their days in comparative comfort. 

Gen. Simcoe, after he became the first Governor of Upper 
Canada in 1792, held the opinion that there remained in the States 
a largo number of Loyalists, and conceived the idea of affording 
them an inducement to again come under British rule, as they were 
British in heart. He, by proclamation, invited them to free grants 
of the rich land of Upper Canada, in the following words : 

<' A Proclamation, to such as are desirous to settle on lands of 
the Crown, in the Province of Upper Canada, By His Excellency 
John Graves Simoob, Esquire, Lieutenant-Gt)vernor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the said Province, and Colonel commanding His 
Majesty's Forces, &c.,&c. Be it known to all concerned that His 
Majesty, both by his royal commission and instructions to the Gt)v. 
ernor, and in his absence, to the Lieutenant-Governor of the said 
Province of Upper Canada, gives authority or command to grant 
the lands of the Crown in the same by patent under the great seal 
thereof. I do accordingly make known the terms of grant and set- 
tlement to be:" &c. 

Without introducing the somewhat lengthy terms given under 
the heads, it is sufficient to say that they were most liberal ; in the 
meanwhile reserving what was necessary to maintain the rights 
previously granted to Loyalist settlers. No lot was to be granted 
of more than 200 acres, except such as the Governor might other- 



190 VEBJURY BY YANKEBK. 

wise desire, but no one was to receive a quantity oxcoeaing lOOO iicroa. 
Every one hatl to make it appear that ho, or Hhe waH in a coiwlition 
to culllvatu uuvl l.upiuvo the land, and " beaido taking the usual 
oatlis, subscribe a declaration, vix : I, A. B. do promise and declare 
that I will maintain and defend to the utmost of my power, the 
authority of the king in his parliament as the supreme legislature 
of this province." These grants were free excepting the fees of 
oflice, "in passing the patent and recording the same." The 
proclamation was dated 7th February, 1792, Thomas Talbot, acting 

Secretary. 

It was obligatory on settlers to clear five acres of land, to build a 
house, and to open a road across the front of his land, a quarter of a 

mile. 

Whether Siracoe was right in his opinion, that many loyalists 
remained in the States, ready to av.^l Lhemselves of a judicious 
opportunity of becoming citizens of British territory, may be ques- 
tioned ; that there were some, cannot be doubted. Not a few res- 
ponded to his invitation, and entered the new province. The 
recall of Simcoe led to the abroi^'iition of the terms specified in 
the aforementioned proclamation, and some of the new comers were 
doomed to disappointment. As may naturally be supposed, these later 
comers were not altogether regarded with favor by the first settlers, 
who now regarded themselves as lords of the soil. The old staunch 
loyalists were disposed to look upon thonias Yankees, who came only 
to get the land. And it seems that such was often the case. We 
have the impartial statement of Rochefoiicault, that there were t^ome 
who "falsely profess an attachment to the British monarch, and 
curse the Government of the Union for the mere purpose of getting 
possession of lands." Even at this early day, they set about taking 
possession of Canada ! Indeed, it was a cause of grievance in Wal- 
ford township, Johnstown district, that persons from the States 
entered the country, petitioned for land, took the necessary oaths- 
perjured themselves, and having obtained possession of the land resold 
it, pocketed the money, and left to build up the glorious Union. 

But, white so much has to be said of some Americans, who took 
land in Canada for mercenary motives, and committed fraud, it is 
pleasing to say likewise, tiiat a large uuuiber of settlers from the 
States, who came in between 1794 and 1812, became worthy and 
loyal subjects of the Crown. How far all of them were at first 
Britons in heart, may be questioned. But the fact that the first 
settlers regarded them with doubtful eye, and often charged them 



'" YANKIK 0ANADIAN8. iiM. 

with boiua TatikonH, led many, lor very peacc-Mnko, to jliHplny their 
loyalty. Bat at laMt, when tliowarof 1812 l>roki(out, thty exhihit('<1 
unmistjvkeable attachment to the BritiNh (Jrown. To their honor bo 
it said, thoy wore as active in (lefen<ling their homes m any clnHs. 
The number who desertetl from Canada, waH (piito inBiffnificant. As 
would bo expoetwl, the war of 18 12 arrested the stream of emii,'ralion 
from the States. Th(^ (lovernnxint of Canada thereafter disooun- 
tonanced it, and insteud, made nome effort* to draw British European 
emigrants. 



«•» 



DlYifcilOK LV. 



THE FIliST YEARS OF UPPEB CANADA. 
CHAPTER XVUI. 

Contents— Father Picriuet— Provision of Forts in Upper Canada juKt bofore Con- 
quo8t_li rontonac~Milk_Brundy— Toronto— Tho Several Forts— Detroit— 
BntiHli GuvriHoiu^— Grasping Kebols— Efforts to Starve out Luyalists in 
Canada— ^\orse Treated tluin tlie Aeadiaii;-— EHorts to Seeiire Fur Trade— 
The Frontier Forts— Amerieans Conduct to Indians—Result;— (Jondnd of 
British aovernmeut— Itations for Throe Years— arinding by Hand— "Hominv 
Blocks"— "I'Junpii.K Mill"— TJie Women— Soldier Farmers_The Hessians— 
auffering- rhe "Scarce Year"— Charge against the Commissariat Cfflcers- 
famine— Cry for Bread— Instances of Suffering— StarvinK Children— No 
Salt-tisJi—GaiTK— Eating Young Grain— Begging Bran— A Common Sor- 
i'f.^^T^'""^'^*^^"*"'' EseapcK- Eating Buds and Leavee— Deaths- Primitlvo 
i! ishmg— Catohing Salmon— Going 125 miles to mill— Disconsolate Fami- 
lies— 1789— Partial Relief- First Beef Slaughtered in Upper Canada— First 

%f "'?— ^. ^''"' ''''"^* *^''y ''^*« '^"^^ Dranl<— Tea Introduced— St-;tements 
of Sheriff Sherwood— Roger Bates— John Parrott— Col. Clark— Squirrell 
Swimming Nia^^ara— Maple Sugar— How it was made— Women assisting— 
Made Disiies of Food— Pumpkin Loaf— Extract from Rochefoucanit— 1795 
— guBlity of Grain Raised— Quint(5 Bay— Cultivation- Corn Exported— The 
Grain Dealers— Price of Flour— Pork— Profits of the Merchants. 

MODE OF PKOCURINQ FOOD. 

We have seen with what spirit and determination the loyalists 
«ngaged in the duties pertaining to pioneer life ; how they became 
domiciled in the wilderness and adapted themselves to their new 



MB EFP0RT8 TO HTARVE TUB LOYALIHTH. 

and >iyin^ Hituation. Thus, wan laid tho foundation of tho Province 
of U'»]HU' (laiimlu, now Ontario. Upon this foundation wii» to b« 
eri)Ci,«d tjio HU|MM"rttructuro. L«t uh proceed to uxuniinu the cir- 
cumatancoH of tho flrMt yoarw of Uppor ('anadiun iifo. And HrHt 
with roHpoct to /oo(/. 

f.jl Father Picquot viHltod tho Bay und Lako Ontario, ham La 
Presentation — 0/^denHhur|^h, the year of the Confjuent. Jle n|)oakH 
of hirt viwit to Fort Frontenac, and roinarkH, "Tho brojul und milk 
there, wore Uul ; they had not even brandy there to ntjunudi u 
Wound." By which we learn that tho French garrison hiid a cow, 
although hIio i^avo inditferent milk; and that oven brandy ibr medi- 
cinal purpoHOH could not be had. The miHsionary proceeded to F'ort 
Toronto which wan Hituated upon Lake Simcoo, no doubt ancend- 
in^ by tho bay (^uinto and Trent. Here ho found " ^ood breiid und 
good wine "and " everything roijuiHite for trade" with the Indians. 
Tho coHsion of Canada to the Britinh by the Froneh had been fol- 
lowed by a withdrawal of lioopn tVoni many of the forts, around 
which b:«i cluBterod a few hamlols, Hpockn of civilization in a vast 
wilderness, and in most places things had lupsod into Ihoir primal 
Btate. And, when rebellion broke out in the Colonies of Britain, there 
wore but a few posts whereat were stationed any soldiers, or whore 
clustered tho white settlers. There were a few French living at 
Detroit, ar»d at Michilmicinac, and to the north-east of Lako Huron. 
Wo have seen that during tho war, refugees found safety at the 
soveral military posts. The military rations wore served out to 
those loyal men in tho same proportion as to the soldiers, and when 
the war closed the {garrisons continued to dispense the necessaries 
of life to the settlore upon the north shores of tho lake, and St. 
Lawrence. 

For ten yeai's, after tho terras of peace was signed between 
England and the Independent States, the forts of Oswego, Niagara, 
Detroit, and Michilmicinac, with the garrison on Carloton Island, 
remained in the possession of the British troops. To this the 
grasping Americans warmly took exceptions. Although it would 
have been next to impossible to supply these places with provisions 
for troops of their own, they nevertheless wished to dispossess the 
Royal troops; we learn that tho object was to starve out the rofugeoB 
who had fotnd shelter upon the borders, and who would bodepond- 
ing for years to these forts, for the very necessaries of life. In this, 
their cruelty exceeded that practisetl towards the Acadians. Having 
driven away the loyalists and dispersed them at home, they would 



TOWNHIIIi> OOMMISMARY. 



m 



hftvo followed thorn to tholrnowwil(lorno*N home, thoro to cnt off thoir 
ijuppiioH uiul liwivo them to iKirihli. Thoy winhed to olttuiii possos- 
81011 of'tho fortu not only to^lut their ven^olul feeliri<^ ui^ainNt tho 
torieH, hut to Hocuro tho truffle earrioil on with tlio IndiuiiH. Dreams 
of iigK^'tii^izomont floated throu/]Ch their nvurieiouH mindn. It was 
rejjjardod an oxcollont wtroko of policy to turn tho current of tho 
ftir triulo from tho St. Lawrence, and Htarve out hy dogroos tho 
rofu/^ecH, and tho French who would have noneof M«'/r " Liherty." 
llenco their dosiro to f^et possesMiori of the frontier fort.s. Hut it 
wnH destined that tluH valuahle trartlc should never como into tho 
hands of tho United States; or rathor it should ho said, the Ameri- 
cans hiul determined to pursue a course which would completelv 
alienate the Indian tribes from them. Under auch circumstancos 
no possession of the forts could have turned tho trade from its 
natural channel by the St. Lawrence, across tho continent to Now 
York. 

The British Government never desired to stint tho loyal rof\i- 
goos and tho disbanded soldiers. At the close of hostilities it was 
dotormined that both alike, with thoirfamilies, should receive while 
traveling, and for a period of three years, such rations as arc allowed 
daily to the private soldier. And the Commissariat Department 
was instructed to make the necessary provision to have transported 
to each township by batteau, what should bo requisite. Depots 
wore established, in addition to tho different garrisons, in each town- 
ship, to which some prominent and trusted refugee of their number, 
generally a Imlf pay officer, was appointed as Commissary, and at 
which ample provisions of tho specified kind, as well us certain 
implements, it was ordered should bo stored, to bo dealt out with 
regularity and fairness to each family, according to the number of 
children. In some of tho townships two battcaux were provided to 
bring the provisions from Montreal. Besides tho focxl thus 
obtained, thoy wore often enabled to freely supply themselves with 
gamo of different kinds. Tho greatest trouble of all was to got tho 
grain supplied to them, ground into flour. According to Carroll and 
Croil, tho townships upon the St. Lawrence, were supplied with stool 
mills for grinding grain ; but no word of such indifferent conve- 
nience for tho settlors of tho Bay,ha8 by us boon received ; tho settlers 
had to get tho grain crushed as best thoy could. Various modes were 
adopted to do this ; but in all cases the wprk was done by hand. 
Sometimes the grain was crushed with an axo upon a flat stone. 
Many prepared a wooden mortar, by cutting a block, of suitable 
13 



■jg^ PRIMITIVE CORN MILLS. 

Icnirth, about four feet, out Of the trunk of a largo tree, oak or 
maple. Sometimes it was the stump of a tree. In this a cavity 
was formed, generally by heating a piece of iron, and placing it upon 
the end. In some quarters, a cannon ball from the Garrison was 
used. By placing this, rod hot, upon the wood, a hollow of suffi- 
cientdopth could be made. ' These mortars, sometimes called " Hom- 
iny Blocks" and sometimes " Plumping Mill," varied in size ; some- 
times holding only a few quarts, sometimes a bushel, or even more 
The pestle or pounder, wa:i raade of the hardest wood, six or eight 
feet long, and eight inches in diameter at the bottom end ; the top 
sufficiently small to be spanned by the hand. The pestle was some- 
times called the stamper ; and the stump or block, with the pestle 
was called the stump-mortar. Generally, it was by the unaided 
hand that the grinding was done ; but after a time a sweep pole was 
arranged, similar to a well polo, and a hard weighty substance boing 
attached to the pole, much less strength was required to crush the 
grain; at the same time a larger quantity could be at once done. 
The work was generally done by two men. The grain thus pounded 
wasgenerallylndianCorn, and occasionally wild rice. To crush 
wheat required much more labor, and a small mortar. The bran 
was separated from the flour by a horse-hair sieve, one of which 
generally served a whole community, as they were possessed only by 
a few This rude method continued for many years, especially in 
thosetownships remote from the flouring mills. Frequently, an 
iBdiviiual would possess a large mortar, that would be used by a 
whole neighborhood. Mr. Diamond, of Belleville, a native of 
Fredericksburg, remembers when a boy, to have accompanied his 
father " to mill." The mill was one of these larger mortars which 
' would contain a bushel of grain when being ground, but which 
would hold, even measure, two bushels. The grain was crushed by 
' a sweep with a weight attached, of ton or twelve pounds. 

But grinding grain in this rude manner, was very frequently 
done by the women; and was but one of the difficulties attending 
the production of meal. It was a hard task to prepare for use the 
corn supplied by Government; but when that supply was cut off, and 
the settler had but his own raising, it became much worse. Else- 
where we have seen the difficult process by which seed was planted, 
and the fruit of the soil reaped, and then thrashed. It had boon 
thought by the Government that three years would suffice to give 
the settler ample time to reap sufficient grain for their sustenance. 
In most cases, industry and aright application of labor, enabled the 



GOVERNMENT RATIONS DISCONTINUED, 195 

farmcrtoaccompllsh what was expected of him. But the habits 
which some of the soldiers had acquired durin- the war, were hiirhly 
detrimental to regular industry. When tlie throe years' supplies 
were discontinued, many found themselves unprepared to meet the 
requirements of their now condition. It is said that some of them 
entertained the belief that " Old George," as they familiarly called 
the King, would continue to feed them, for an indefinite i^eriod of 
time upon the bread of idleness. The Hessians, who had settled in 
the fafth township, who had no idea of pioneer life, were great suf- 
ferers, and it is stated that some actually died of starvation. Again 
there was a considerable class who had not had time to prepare the 
land, and reap the fruit of the soil, prior to the supplies being stop- 
ped ; or who could not procure seed grain. These were likewise 
placed ) 1 the most distressing circumstances. The fearful suffering 
experr. jced in consequence will bo mentioned under the head of 
the "Scarce Year." 

Notwithstanding, that Government supplied the settlers with 
provisions for- three years, and also with spring wheat, peas, corn 
and potatoes for seed, and took steps to furnish them, first with one 
mill at Kingston, and then asecond one at Napanee, at the expiration 
the three years, there were many unprepared. The mills were 
almost deserted, and the hearts of the people were faint because 
there was no grain to grind, and famine began to rest upon the 
struggling settlers, especially along the Bay Quinle. It has already 
been said that with some of the disbanded soldiers, there was some 
degree of negligence, or, a want of due exertion to obtain hoilie 
raised grain before the Government supplies were discontinued j also' 
that there was a certain number, who came with their families two' 
or three years after the first settlement, who were not entitled to get 
trovernment rations, and who had not had time to clear the land 
Many of these brought provisions with them, but the long distances 
traveled / them through a wilderness, allowed no large quantity 
of stores t^. be transported. And within a few months, or a year 
their store of food was exhausted. But the greatest evil of all 
It 18 averred, was the failure on the part of the Commissary Depart- 
ment to bring up from Lower Canada, the supplies which were 
required by those yet in the service, and who rightly looked to that 
sourc^ for the bread of life. And, it has been alleged that some 
^ho had charge of military stores forgot this public duty, in their 
anxiety to secure abundant supplies for their own families. And a 
i>pint of cupidity has been laid to the charge of one or two for 
retaining for private use the bread for which so many were famish- 



196 ,, , THE " 8C/.R0E YEAR.' -. 

ing. At this romoto period it is impossible to arrive at positive 
conclusions relative to the matter. We can only examine the cir- 
cumstances, and judge whether such a thing was likely. Of course 
the Commissary officers, whoso duty it had been to distribute food 
in the several townships, .would not be likely to disburse with a 
hand so liberal, that they should thomsolvea become destitute ; yet 
the fact that such had food, while others had none, would naturally 
create an erroneous impression. But the famine was not limited 
to the Bay region ; although, being remote from Montreal, it was 
here the distress was most grievously felt. Throughout Lower 
Canada the pinch of famine was keenly experienced. Even there, in 
places, corn-meal was meted out by the spoonful, wheat flour was un- 
jknown, while millet seed was ground for a substitute. Still more, the 
opinion is given, that the accusation against certain parties is con- 
ia-ary to the spirit which pervaded the refugee settlers at that time. 
That they had laid up stores, and looked indifferently upon the 
general sufl'ering, is contrary to the known character of the parties 
ftccusod. In after days, as at the present time, there were aroused 
potty jealousies, as one individual exceeded another in prosperity. 
JFamily jars sometimes rise to feuds, and false surmises grow into 
untruthful legends. 

The period of famine is oven yet remembered by a few, whose 
memory reaches back to the immediately succeeding years, and the 
descendants of tho sut!Jbrers, speak of that time with peculiar feelings, 
imbibed from their parents ; and many are the touching stories even 
yet related of this sad first page in the history of Upper Canada, 
when from Lower Canada to the outskirts of the settlement was 
heard the cry for bread ! oread ! bread ! 

The year of tho famine is spoken of sometimes as the "scarce 
year," sometimes as the "hungry year," or the "hard summer." 
The extreme distress seems to have commenced in the year 1787. 
. With some, it lasted a part of a year, with others a year, and with 
others upwards of a year. The height of the distress was during 
the spring and early summer of 1788. But plenty to all, did not 
como till tho summer of 1789. The writer has in his possession 
accounts of many instances of extreme suffering, during tho famine, 
and for years after, through the ten townships. A few will here 
be given, as briefly as may be possible. 

One, who settled in tho Sixth Township, (who was subsequently 
a Member of Parliament for twenty years,) with wife and children, 
endured groat suffering. Their flour being exhausted he sent 



WHAT THIY LIVED TTPON. 197 

money to Quebec for some more flour, but his money was sent back; 
there was none to bo had. The wife tried as an experiment to 
make bread out of some wheat bran, which was bought at a dollar 
a bushel. She failed to make bread, but it was eaten as a stir-a-bout* 
Upon this, with Indian Cabbage, or "Cale," "a plant with a large 
leaf," also wild potatoes or ground-nuts, the family lived for many 
a week. In the spring they procured some potatoes to plant, but 
the potatoe eye alone was planted, the other portion being reserved 
for food. One of the daughters, in her extreme hunger digged up 
for days, some of the potatoe rind and ate it. One day, her father 
caught her at it, and seized hold of her arm to punish her, for for- 
getting the requirements of the future, but he found her arms so 
emaciated that his heart melted in pity for the starving child. 
Others used to eat a plant called butter-nut, and another pig-weed. 
Children would steal out at night with stolen potatoes, and roast 
them at the burning log heap, and consider them a groat treat. 
One individual has left the record that she used to allay the pangs 
of hunger by eating a little salt. But the majority of the settlors 
had no salt, and game and fish, when it could be caught, was eaten 
without that condiment. Even at a later date, salt was a scare© 
and dear article as the following will show : " Sydney, 20 th Novem- 
ber, 1792— Eeceived from Mr. John Ferguson, one barrel of salt 
for which I am to pay nine dollars." (Signed), John German! 
Often when fish or game was caught, it was forthwith roasted, 
without waiting to go home to have it dressed. As spring advanced, 
and the buds of the trees began to swell, they were gathered and 
eaten. Boots were digged out of the ground ; the bark of certain 
trees were stripped off and consumed as food. One family lived 
for a fortnight on beech leaves. Everything that was supposed to 
be capable of alleviating the pangs of hunger, whether it yielded 
nutriment or not, was unhesitatingly used ; and in the fifth township 
some were killed by eating poisonous roots. Beef bones were, in 
one neighbourhood, not only boiled again and again, but actually 
carried from house to house, to give a little taste to boiled bran, 
until there remained no taste in the boiling water. In the fourth 
township, upon the sunny side of a hill, was an early field of grain, 
and to this they came, from far and near, to eat the milk-like heads of 
grain, so soon as they had suflaciently grown, which were boiled and 
eaten. The daughter of the man who owned the field, and gladly 
gave to all, still remains with us, then, she was in the freshness of 
girlhood ; now, she is in the autumn of a green old age, nearly a 



DIVIDING THE LAST LOAF. 

hundred. She romomberH to have seen thorn cutting the young suc- 
culent grain, to use her own words " as thick as stumps." This young 
^rain was a common dish, all along the Bay, until it became ripe. 
One family lived several month.s solol}' on boiled oats. One day, a 
man came to the door of a house in Adolphustown, with a bag, and 
a piece of " calamink," to exchange for flour. But the flour was lowi 
and the future doubtful, and none could be spared. The man 
turned away with tears of anguish rolling down his face. The kind 
woman gave him a few pounds of flour ; he begged to be allowed to 
add some bran lying on the floor, which was permitted, and ho 
went his way. 

There were, scattered through the settlements, a few who never 
were entirely out of provisions,but who had procured some from Lower 
Canada, or Oswego. Many of these, even at the risk of future want) 
would give away, day after day, to those who came to their door, 
often a long distance, seeking for the very bread of life. A piece of 
bread was often the only thing to give ; but thus, many a life was 
saved. These poor unfortunates, would offer various articles in 
exchange for flour or food. Even their lands — all they had, were 
offered for a few pounds of flour. But, mth a few execrable exceptions, 
the last loaf was divided ; and when flour was sold, it was at a fair 
valuation. A common sorrow knit them together in fraternal rela- 
tionship. The names of some are handed down, who employed others 
to work all day for their board, and would give nothing for their 
famishing ones at home. One of them also, sold eight bushels of 
potatoes for a valuable cow. In some instances, families living 
remotely, forsook their houses and sought for food at Kingston. One 
family in Thurlow, set out for Kingr.ton, following the bay shore on 
foot. Their only food was bran, wliich, being mixed vvith water, was 
cooked by the w.ay, bj- heating flat stones and baking thereupon. As 
before stated, the settlers of the fifth township suffered fearfully, and 
it is stated, that some of them actually died. Mr. Parrott says, that 
he has heard it stated that pei'sons starved to death. And the extra- 
ordinary statement is found in the M.S. of the late Mr. Merritt, that 
one old couple, too old to help tliemselves, and left alone, were pre- 
served providentially from starvation, by pigeons, which would 
occasionally come and allow themselves to be caught. The fact is 
stated by others, that pigeons were at times, during the first years 
of settling, very plentiful, and were always exceedingly tame. Another 
person remarks, that although there was generally plenty of pigeons, 
wild fowl, fish and partridge, yet, they seemed to keep away when 
most wanted. 



DEATH PROM STARVATION. tOfr 

One family, four in niunber, subsisted on the smnll quantity 
of milk given by a young cow, with leeks, buds of tiecs, and often 
leaves were added to the milk. A barrel of bran served a good 
purpose for baking a kind of cake, which made a change on special 
occasions. At one time, Eoed, of Thurlow, offererd a three year old 
horse for 50 lbs of flour. This family would, at one time fictually 
have starved to death, had not a deer been miraculously shot. They 
often carried grain, a little, it is true, to the Napanee mills, following 
the river, and bay shores. And when they had no grain, articles 
of domestic use were taken to exchange for flour and meal. 
A woman iised to carry a bushel and a half of wheat ten mile? to the 
Napanee mills, and then carry the flour back. 

Ex-Sherifi" Ruttan says of his father's family, with whom his 
uncle lived, "We had the luxury of a cow which tiie family 
brought with them, and had it not been for this domestic boon, all 
would have perished in the year of scarcity. The crops had failed 
the year before, and the winter that followed, was most inclement and 
severe. The snow was unusually deep, so that the deer became an 
easy prey to their rapacious enemies, the wolves, who fattened on 
their destruction, whilst men were perishing for want. Five indivi- 
duals, in difterent places, were found dead, and one poor woman also, 
with a live infant at her breast ; which was cared for and protected." 
" Two negroes were sent to Albany for corn, who brought four 
bushels. This, with the milk of the cow dealt out day by day in 
limited quantity, kept them alive till harvest." "The soldiers' rations 
were reduced to one biscuit a day." Referring to other days after the 
famine he says : " Fish was plentiful" — the " fishing tackle was on a 
primitive plan ; something similar to the Indians, who fixed the bait on 
part of the back bone of the pike, which would catch these finny tribe 
quite as expeditiously as the best Limerick hook ; but our supply was 
from spearing by torchlight, which has been practiced by the Indian 
from time immemorial ; from whom we obtained a vast deal of practical 
knowledge." 

Roger Bates, near Cobourg, speaking of the first years of Upper 
Canada, says that his grandfather's family, living in Prince Edward 
for a while, " adopted many ingenious contrivances of the Indians 
for procuring food. Not the least simple and handy was a crotched 
pole, with which they secured salmon in any quantity, the creeks 
being full of them." He removed to the township ol Clarke, 
where he was the first white settler, and for six months saw no 
white person. "For a long time he had to go to Kingston, 125 



200 FIRST UPPER CANADIAN BEEP. 

miles, with his wheat to bo ground. Thoy had no other conveyance 
than battoaux ; the journey would Rometimes occupy five or six 
weeks. Of an evening they put in at some creek, and obtained 
their salmon with case, using a forked stick, which passed over 
the fish's back and hold it fivst. Sometimes they were so long gone 
for grist, in consequence of bad weather, that the women would 
collect together and have a good cry, thinking the battoaux had 
foundered. If their food ran short, thoy had a dog that would, 
when told, hunt a doer and drive it into the water, so that the 
young boys could shoot it." 

The summer of 1789 brought relief to most of the settlers, — 
the heaviest of the weight of woe was removed. But, for nearly a 
decade, thoy enjoyed but feAv comforts, and were often without the 
necessaries of life. The days of the toiling pioneers were numbering 
up rapidly, yet the wants of all wero not I'olieved. Those whose 
industry had enabled them to sow a quantity of grain reaped a 
goodly reward. The soil was very fruitful, and subsequently for 
two and three years, repeated crops were raised from a single sowing. 
But flour alone, although necossaiy to sustain life, could hardly 
satisfy the cravings of hunger with those who had been accustomed 
to a different mode of living. It was a long way to Montreal or 
Albany, from which to transport by hand, everything required, even 
when it could be had, and the settler had something to exchange 
for such articles ; beside the journey of several weeks. Game, 
occasionally to be had, was not available at all seasons, nor at all 
times ; although running wild, ammunition was scarce, and some 
had none. We have stated that Government gave to every five 
families a musket and forty-eight rounds of ammunition, with some 
powder and shot, also some twine to make fishing nets. Beef, 
mutton, &c., were unknown for many a day. Strangely enough, a 
circumstantial account of the first beef slaughtered along the Bay, 
probably in Upper Canada, is supplied by one who, now in her 90th 
year, bears a distinct recollection of the event. It was at Adolphus- 
town. A few settlers had imported oxen, to use in clearing the 
land. One of a yoke, was killed by the falling of a tree. The 
remaining animal, now useless, was purchased by a farmer upon the 
Front, who converted it into beef. With the hospitality character- 
istic of the times, the neighbors were invited to a grand entertain- 
ment; and the neighborhood, be it remembered, extended for thirty 
or forty miles. A treat it was, this taste of an article of diet, long 
unknown. 



INTRODUCTION OP TEA. 201 

Tho samo person tolls of tho occasion when the first log barn 
was raised in Adolphustown, it was during the scarce period. Tho 
'* bee" which was called, Lad to bo entertained, in some way. But 
there were no provisions. The old lady, then a girl, saw her mother 
for weeks previous carefully putting away the eggs, which a few hens 
had contributed to their comfort ; upon the morning of the barn rais- 
ing, they were brought forth and found to amount to a pailful, well 
heaped. The most of tho better-to-do settlers always had rum, which 
was a far different article from that sold now-a-days. With rum and 
eggs well beaten, and mixed with all the milk that could be kept 
sweet from the last few milkings, this, which was both food and drink 
was distributed to the members of the bee, during tho time of 
raising the barn. 

Tea, now considered an indispensable luxury by every family, 
was quite beyond the I'pach of all, for a long time ; because of its 
scarcity and high price. Persons are yet living who remember 
when tea was first brought into family use. Various substitutes 
for tea were used, among these were hemlock and sassafras ; there 
was also a plant gathered called by them the tea plant. 
' Sheriff Sherwood, in his most valuable memoirs, specially pre- 
pared for the writer, remarks, " Many incidents and occurrences 
took place during the early settlement which would, perhaps, at a 
future day be thought incredible. I recollect seeing pigeons 
flying in such numbers that they almost darkened the sky, and so 
low often as to be knocked down with polos ; I saw, where a near 
neighbor killed thirty at one shot, I almost saw tho shot, and saw 
the pigeons after they were shot." Ducks were so thick that when 
rising from a marsh " they made a noise like the roar of heavy 
thunder." "While many difficulties were encountered, yet we real- 
ized many advantages, we were always supplied with venison, 
partridge, and pigeon, and fish in abundance, no taxes to pay and 
plenty of wood at our doors. Although deprived of many kinds of 
fruit, we had the natural production of tho country, strawberries, 
raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries, and lots of red plums, and 
cranberries in the various marshes all about the country, and I can 
assure you that pumpkin and cranberries make an excellent substi- 
tute for apple pie." Mr. Sherwood refers to their dog"Tipler," 
which was invaluable, in various ways, in assisting to procure the 
food. He also speaks of " Providential" assistance. *' After 
the first year we raised wheat and Indian corn sufficient for 
the year's supply for the family; but then we had no grist mill 



202 ABUNDANCE OF OAME. 

to grind it; we made out to got on with tlic Indian corn very 
well by pounding it in the mortnr, and made wliat wo called xamp, 
which made coarHe bread, and what the Dutch called sup-pawn; but 
let me tell you how we made our mortar. We cut a log oft' a large 
tree, say two-and-a half feet through and about six feet long, which 
wo planted firm in the ground, about four feet deep, then carefully 
burnt the centre of the top and Bcrapod it out dean, which gave us 
a large mortar. We generally selected an iron-wood tree, from six 
to eight inches through, took the bark oflfcleau, made the handle to 
it of suitable length, this was our pestle ; and many a time have I 
pounded with it till the sweat ran down merrily. But this pound- 
ing would not do for the wheat, and the Government seeing the 
difficulty, built a mill back of Kingston, where the inhabitants, for 
fifteen miles below Brockville had to get their grinding done. In 
our neighborhood they got on very well in summer, by joining two 
wooden canoes together. Three persons would unite, to carry each 
a grist in their canoes, and would perform the journey in about a 
week. But in winter this could not bo done. After a few years, 
however, when some had obtained horses, then a kind Provi- 
dence furnished a road on the ice for some years until a road was 
made passable for sleighs by land. And it has not been practicable, 
indeed I may say possible, for horses with loaded sleighs to go on the 
ice from Brockville to Kingston, fifty years past." 

Eogor Bates says that "the woods were filled with deer, bears, 
wolves, martins, squirrels, and rabbits." No doubt, at first, before 
fire-arms were feared hy them, they were plentiful and very tame. 
Even wild geese, it would seem, were often easily shot. But powder 
and shot were expensive, and uidess good execution could be made, 
the charge was reserved. Mr. Sherwood gives a trustworthy account 
of the shooting of thirty pigeons at one shot ; and another account 
is furnished, of Jacob Parliament, of Sophiasburgh, who killed and 
wounded at a single shot, four wild geese and five ducks. These wild 
fowl not only aiforded luxurious and nutritious diet, but their 
feathers were saved, and in time pillows and even beds were thus 
made. Mr. John Parrott, of Ernest Town, descendant of Col. Jas. 
Parrott, says, " there were bears, wolves, and deer in great abund- 
ance, and there were lynx, wild cats, beavers and, foxes in every 
directions; also martins, minks and weasels beyond calculation. In 
this connection, we may record a fact related by Col. Clark, respect- 
ing the migration of squirrels in the early part of the present cen- 
tury across the Niagara river, from the States. He says, "an 



SUGAR MAKING. ' 

immonso immigration of squin'ols took place, and «o numerous woro 
they tliat the people stood with HticlcH to destroy them, as they 
landed on the British shore, which by many was considered a 
breach of good faith on the part of John Bull, who is always ready 
to grant an asylum to fugitives of whatever nation they may 
belong to," 4 "w 

' MAPLE SUGAR. 

« Soon tho blue-birdR and the bcoa 
f O'ertlie stubblo will bo winging; 

So 'tis time to tap the trees 
And to set the axe a-ringing ; 

Time to sot the hut to rights. 

Where the girls and boys together 
Tend the furnace fire o'nights 

In the rough and rainy weather; 

Time to hew and shape tlie trough, 

And to punch tho spile so hollow, ■•'^Hiv^J . 

For the snow is thawing off <*:'»' •:f:f*A'^>'- ft) - ♦»!■?<*"'<*>■*' • 

And the sugar-thaw must follow. , , . t ^^ 

Oh, the gladdest time of year ...js ■ l*l^ff# '^y^^tH-^ir^] 

Is the merry sugar-making, \ ^ 

When the swallows first appear 
And the sleepy buds are waking !" 

In the great wilderness were to bo had, a few comforts and 
luxuries. Sugar is not only a luxury, but is really a necessary 
article of food. The properties of the sap of tho maple was under- 
stood by the Indians, and the French soon availed themselves of tho 
means of making sugar. To the present day, the French Cana- 
dians make it in considerable quantities. At first, the settlers of 
Upper Canada did not generally engage in making it; but, after a 
time a larger number did. Tho maple, tho monarch of the Cana- 
dian forest, whose leaf is tho emblem of our country, was a kind 
benefactor. In the spring, in the first dayu of genial sunshine, 
active operations for sugar making were commenced. Through the 
deep snow, the farmer and his sons would trudge, from tree to treo, 
to tap them upon their sunny side. Tho " spile" would be inserted 
to conduct the precious fluid into the trough of bass-wood, which 
had been fashioned during tho long winter evenings. A boiling 
place would bo arranged, with a long pole for a crane, upon which 
would be strung the largest kettles that could be procured. At 
nighty the sap would be gathered from the troughs, a toilsome job, 
and put into barrels. In the morning a curling smoke would rise 
from amidst the thick woods, and the dry wood would crackle 



204 CANADIAN FOOD. ' ^ 

cheerily under the row of kottloH, all the sunny spring day ; and 
night would show a rich dark syrup, colloctod in onoHinallorkottlo, 
for the more careful work of being converted into sugar. Fre- 
quently tlio tiro would be attondeil by the women ; and the men 
would come to gather the tjap in the evening. In this way many u 
family would be provided with abundant sugar, at all events it had 
to serve them for the year, as they felt unable to purchase from 
the merchant. In another place, wo have related how a few made 
a considerable quantity of sugar and sold it all, to pay for a farm, 
doing without themselves. 

The absence of various articles of food, led the thoughtful house- 
wife to invent new made dishes. The nature of these would depend 
in part upon the articles of food most abundant, and upon the habits 
peculiar to their ancestry, whether English, Dutch or some other. 
The great desire was, to make a common article as tasty as possible. 
And at harvest time, as well as at bees, the faithful wife would 
endeavour to prepare something extra to regale the tired ones. 
There was, for instance, the " pumpkin loaf," a common dish. It 
consisted of pumpkin and corn meal made into a small loaf, and 
eaten with butter. Anotl>er dish which seems to have been derived 
from the Dutch, was Pot Pie, which was always, and is even yet in 
many places, made to feed the hands at bees and raisings, and oven 
was generally made to grace the board on a wedding occasion^. 
"We cannot give the space, if, we felt prepared to speak, of the 
several made dishes commonly in use among the older Canadians of 
Upper Canada. Many of them are truly excellent in taste and 
nutritious in quality. They are often similar to, or very like the 
dishes in the Now England and Midland States. 

This subject will be concluded by giving a few extracts from 
Eochefoucault who wrote of what he saw and learned in Canada in 
1795, and who may be regarded as quite correct. 

He says, "It is asserted" (by Simcoe) "that all Canada, pro- 
duces not the necessary corn for the consumption of its inhabitants, 
the troops are supplied with flour from London, and with salt meat 
from Ireland." But Simcoe then thought that Canada was capable 
not alone of feeding her inhabitants, but of becoming the granary 
of England, and receiving commodities in Exchange. Speaking of 
Forty Mile Creek, ho says : " Before it empties itself into the lake, 
it turns a grist mill and two saw mills, which belong to a Mr. Green, 
,a loyalist of Jersey, who, six or seven years ago, settled in this 
part of Upper Canada." "Land newly cleared yields here, the 



PRODUCE OF HAY QUINTE, 1705. 

first your, twonty bushels of corn. They ph)Ugli tlio hind after it 
huH jiroduced three or four crops, but not very doop. Tlio price of 
flour is twenty-two shillings per hundred weight, thut of wheiit from 
seven to eight shillings per bushel. Laborers are Hcarce, and nro 
paid at the rate of six shillings a day. Wheat is generally sown 
throughout all Upper Canada, but other sorts of grain are also cul- 
tivated." " Mr Green grinds the corn for all the military jjosts in 
Upper Canada." 

Approaching Kingston by water he remarks that "on the left 
is Quinto Bay, the banks of which are said to bo cultivated up to a 
considerablo extent. The eye dwells with pleasure once more on 
cultivated ground. The country looks pleasant. The houses lie 
closer than in any of the now settled parts of Upper Canada which 
wo have hitherto traversed. The variegated verdure of tho corn- 
fields embellishes and eni'ichos the prospect, charms tho eye, and 
enchants tho mind." nwv'wi'i lU .'< :'u 

" This district not only produces the corn requisite for its own 
consumption, but also exports yotjrly about 3 or 4000 bushels. 
This grain, which, in winter, is conveyed down the river on sledges, 
is bought by tho merchant, who engage, on the arrival of tho ships 
from Europe, to pay its amount in such merchandise as the sellers 
may require. The merchants buy this grain for government, which 
pays for it in rea^y money, according to tho market price at 
Montreal. Tho agent of government causes part to be ground into 
flour, which ho sends to the different ports in Upper Canada, where 
it is wanted; and tho surplus he sends to England. The price of 
flour in Kingston is at present (12th July, 1795; six dollars per 
barrel. The distri(;t of Kingston supplied, last year, tho other parts 
of Canada with large quantities of pease, the culture of which, 
introduced but two years ago, proves very productive and successful. 
In tho course of last year, 1000 barrels of salt pork, of 208 pounds 
each, were sent from Kingston to Quebec ; its price was eighteen 
dollars per barrel. The whole trade is carried on by merchants, 
whoso profits are the more considerablo, as they fix the price of the 
provisions which they receive from Europe, and sell without the 
least competition." Indeed, the profits of the dealers must have 
been immense. They sold to the military authorities at a rate 
which would remunerate them when the provisions came from 
England ; and when tho farmers of Canada began to raise grain to 
sell, they bought it, or exchanged merchandise for it, upon which 
they fixed the price, and continued to sell tho flour at the same 
price to the military authorities. 



4Ni TII£ MILL AT CATAUAQUI. 



CHAPTKR XiX. 

t'osTiNTH — KifiKi'toii Milln — Action of Cloviirniiu'nt — Tho Mlllwrinht — Hltimtlon 
of the (liHt Mill—Why Selected— Tin- Miicliincry— I'ut ii|> l.y LoyallHtM— No 
T( II— (tiily Mill for thr<'0 y.-uiH—doiiiK to Mill, 17H4— Tho Nii|)(in.'o Mill— 
(JumiiiuiK'ctl 1785 — Uohert (Jliirkt; — An old Hook — " AjjponcH" FiiIIh— I'rico 
ofccrtftin luticlcH — What itiini v.Dni, and wuh iiMe<l for — Tint Mill opcnud 
1787 — Hcrj^t.- Major ( -'lurk e in cliarK<' — Indian Corn — Small Toll — Surveyor 
ColllnH in charKt! — IKcoincH tho Troperty of 11. CartwrlKht, 17y2— Kehuilt— 
Origin of Napanee — Price of Hntter, 1 7HH — MIIIh at Four Mile Crock. Niagara 
FallM, Fort Krie, and (»nind Kiver — MilU on tht; St. Lawr-nce— Tno Htono 
MillH — V'anAlHtine — Lake of tho Mountain — 17l)fi — Natural Xoaiity, verfui 
Utility— Tho Mill— Van Alntino'H Death— Wind Mill— Myor'H Mill— Mill at 
Cousccon. 

THE PinST PLOITRINO MILLS. 

Govornmont was not an indilVeront spectator of tlio difficulty 
Bpokon of UH to tho grinding of^niin — tho })rooiirin^ of flour, and 
at an early day, ordered mcauH to meet the roqulromentH of tho 
pioncerH. Wo have tho certain statement of John C. Clai'k, of 
Ernest town, now doud, written ten years ago, that his father, 
Eobort Clark, who was a 7iiillwright, "was employed by Govern- 
ment, in 1782-3, to erect tho Kingston Mills preparatory to tho 
settlement of tho Loyalists in that section of Upper Canada." Tho 
place selected for erecting the mill, was upon tho Cataraqui River, 
Bovon miles north of tho Fort, now the entrance of tho Ridoau Canal, 
where are situated tho tirs^ locks of that artificial water way. 
When in a state of nature, tho place must have boon strikingly 
boautif\il ; it is so at tho present time, when tho achievements of 
art give variety of attraction. This situation, selected for the first 
flouring mill, was central to the jwpulation strung along tho banks 
of tho St. Lawrence, and Bay Quinte. Every thing required for 
tho consti'uction of tho mill, was furnished by Government, such as 
the mill stones, and tho machinery. The rougher work, tho walls 
of tho building, was done by men detailed for the purpose, from the 
companj'^ of soldiers. Tho structure consisted of logs, or timber 
roughly squared, and was erected, as well as the mill house, by the 
combined, oiforts of the soldier settlors, collected for the purpose. 
All tho settlers had their grists gi-ound without paying toll. The 
original building was standing as late as 1836. 

lor nearly three years, tho Cataraqui Mill was tho only one in 
Central Canada. The settlers came from Cornwall in the east, and 
tho most remote settlement up the Bay, At the present day, when 
railroads and swiftly running steamers assist so materially to anni- 
hilate space as it were, and bring distant places into close relation" 



KAIMINO THE NAI'ANKr; MILL. 207 

ship, it would IxM'ogunli'd u iimttt>r ol" no littU' truuMu mid incon- 
vt'nictK'O, to carry ^raiii from C'oruwullon tlio one hand, and Sidney 
on the other, to Kingston, and wait to have it ground into flour; 
but how intinitoly greater the difficulty, wh<ui a tracklosn wocxIh 
covorcd the intorvoning Hpacen, when the only mode of carrying 
anything was upon the back, or in a canoo, or battcnux, or up<m u 
raft, in summer; and ui)on a hand-sloigh in winter, drawn througli 
deep Hnow, i'oUowing the wiiidingH ol'thouhoro along many a dismal 
mile. 

The incroaaing poi>ulation around tlio Bay, cauHcd the outho- 
rities to sook a ])roper wito for a second mill. The Napanee River, 
with its natural falln, otVorcd an advantageous ])laco upon wliich to 
erect aHOcond mill for the Hottlors, upon the Bay. Wo have been 
fortunate, through the kindness of Mr. 1*. Clark, of Collinsby, in 
being permitted to examine an account book kept b}-^ Kobert Clark, 
the millwright, of both the Kingston and Napanee mills. By this, 
wo learn that in the year 1785, llobert Clark, who had completed 
the Kingston Mill, removed to the second township, and, according 
to instructions received from Government, j)r()ceeded to construct a 
mill upon the Najjanee River, at the site of the natural falls. In 
the absence of the full particulars relating to the building of the 
Napaneo Mills, the following cannot fail to be of interest. In the 
account book aforementioned, the following references to the build- 
ing of the mill, are found recorded : , ^^.j ^ ,,( , ^ .^, i^.^^-^, 
"An accompt of articles bouglit frir the use of the works, No- 
vember 8." '* To 4 Augers of ditl'erent size, from Mr. Phillips, car- 
penters at Catariqui, 138, 8d. To 3 quires of Writing Paj)er, Ss. 
December 6, To 20 lbs. of Nails, £1 ; December 22, To 6 Whip 
Saw Files, 3s. 9d." Omitting some items, and coming to March 23, 
1786, wo find " For Eaising the Saw Mill," "2 gallons and 3 pints 
of Rum, 17s 6d." " April 20th, To 1 quart of Rum, 2b." On the 
"25th May, To 4 gallons and 1 quart of Rum, for Raising the Grist 
Mill, at 7s. 6d." The " 26th, To 1 quart of Rum for the People 
at work in the water at the Dam." By this we learn the day upon 
which the Napanee mill was erected. On the 20th July, Govern- 
ment is again chai'ged with '* 3 pints of Rum for raising the 
fendorpost," &c. On the 27th, a pint was again required, but 
for what special purpose is not mentioned. In December, 1786, we 
tind " To making Bolt Cloth 15s." " To Clearing one acre and 
three-quarters of Land for a mill, at seven dollars per acre, £3." 
And we find that the iron or smith work for the mill was done 



208 '" ' ArPENEA. •*'" 

by David Palmer and Conly. From the fact that the bolting cloth 
was not made until December, 1786, wo may infer that the mill 
did not commence operations until the beginning of 1787. The 
mill was a great boon to the inhabitants around the Bay Quints, 
not only because they had a shorter distance to travel, but the 
amount of work pressing upon the Kingston mill, made it very 
uncertain'as to the time one would have to wait, to get his gristing 
done. Consequently many came from the Lower Bay, and the 
dwellers upon the South Bay in Marysburg, who followed the 
shores around Indian Point and up the Bay Quinte, To those living 
in Thurlow, Sidney, and at the Carrying Place, the mill was a great 
blessing. 

The father of the late Col. John Clark, of Port Dalhousie, who 
had been Sergeant Major in the 8th Eegiment, and who had, from 
1777, been clerk and naval storekeeper at Carleton Island, removed 
to within three miles of Napanee, the same year the mill was built, 
to take charge of the works, in addition to his other duties. John 
Clark, who was then a small boy, says in his memoirs ; the grain 
principally brought to be ground, was* Indian corn ; but as the 
clearances increased, wheat became more plentiful. He also speaks 
of the great industry which characterized the settlers. *' A small 
toll was exacted to pay for the daily expenses of the mill, but this 
was a mere trifle, considering the advantages the settlers derived 
from loss of time in proceeding to Kingston." From this we infer 
that no toll w^as demanded at the Kingston mill. "When my 
father," continues Col. Clark, " was ordered to Niagara, the mill 
was delivered up to surveyor Collins, under whose directions it 
was continued in operation for many years, and then the mill site 
became the property of the Hon. E. Cartwright of Kingston." But, 
we find the statement elsewhere made that the land was originally 
granted to Captain McDonald of Marysburg, who sold it to Cart- 
wright. 

Eobert Clark, in his account book, says, " Commenced work for 
Mr. Cartwright at the Napanee mills, the 28th August, 1792." This 
was probably the time when Cartwright became the owner. In the 
Bame year, reference is made to timber, for the "new mill," by which 
we learn that Mr. Cartwright found it desirable to re-build. The 
iron work for the new mill came to £14. 

By the book, from which we have made extracts, we see that 
the name is spelled in dift'ercMit ways, the first being Appenea. For 
many years the name was spelled Apanee. It has been said that it 



FIRST FLOURING MILLS. 209 

was an Indian name, signifying flour, and was /.jiven by the 
Misfiissaiigas, from the cxiatenee of the flouring mill. iN'apanee may 
signify flour, in the Indian language, but the infereuce drawn 
cannot be correct, as we find the name Appenea Falls given to the 
place in 1785, before the mill was commenced. 

Cartwright having rebuilt the mill put in one run of stone at 
first, shortly after two, and then three. Eobert Clark was th^ 
millwright, and one Prefect was in charge of the works. The mill 
seems to have been constructed with some care, and Gourlay says, 
in 1817, that the Napanee mill is the best in the Province. The old 
account book from which we have gleaned, gives the price at which 
certain articles were vended. Thus, we learn that in June, 1787, 
and July 1788, butter sold at Napanee for Is. per pound. p 

Some time after the erection of the Kingston and Napanee 
mills, others were erected in other parts of the Province ; one 
at Four Mile Creek, one at the Niagara Falls, one at Fort Erie, 
another at the Mohawk Village, Grand River; and still later, 
one at Twelve Mile Creek. "In the year 1788, the first grist 
mill in Dundas wiis built by Messrs. Coons and Shaver in Matilda. 
It contained but one run of stone, and had a saw mill attached. It 
stood about a mile above the present village of Iroquois. It could 
grind 100 bushels of wheat per day, and turned out good flour. 
Soon after, another mill was built on a much larger scale, by John 
Munroe, also in Matilda, which had three run of stone." There was 
also a gang of saws. The machinery was driven by the St. Law- 
rence waters. At a still later pei'iod Van-Alstine's mill was erected, 
at the Lake on the Mountain. 

The events connected with Captain, afterwards Major Van- 
Alstine, as asettlei*, are I'ecordedin thet^ettlemeiitof Adolphustown. 
Directly opposite the rich and sloping land on the north shore, on 
which be settled, is a high prominent hill, which stands boldly up 
against the buy. This " mountain" is famous on account of the 
lake upon its summit, a particular account of which is given else- 
where. It is referred to here in a practical sense. While, upon the 
hill-top is the work of nature, presented in a striking manner; at 
its feet is the work of man, which, particularly in the past, was of 
no little consequence to the well-being of the settlers of the Bay. 
About the year J796, the third flouring mill of the bay was erected 
at this place by VanAlstine, to whom had been granted a large tract 
of land. The surplus waters of the lake, in primeval days, made 
their escape over the cliff, falling into the bay, and forming, it must 
14 . 



210 .A WINDMILL. .., 

havo boon at times, a beautiful cascade. But,- if Captain VanAltstino' 
had a taste for the beautiful in nature, lie also had'a just appreci- 
ation of the wants of the people, and he proceeded to utilize the 
falling water. A canal was cut down the mountain side, to form a 
channel for the water to descend, and at the bottom was erected a 
mill, the machinery of which was to be propelled by the descending 
stream. From that day to this the work of grinding had been 
carried on. However beautiful the lake above, and delightful the 
prospect, they cannot exceed in interest the foundation of this mill. 
Imagination would almost give words to the sound of the mill, 
which so peacefull}' clicks the daily round of work. The down- 
rushing waters by the artificial channel would seem to utter reminis- 
cences of the past — regrets that they may no longer tumble headlong 
over the hill-side to form a lovely cascade ; but the water-witch has 
•been driven away by the spirit of utilitarianism. This conspicuous 
\n\\ has often been the point of hope, the goal to which the farmer 
turned his little bark, containing, it is true, but a few bushels of 
grain, yet so precious, and about which the hungry ones in the little 
log house, thought so frequently, with bodies long accustomed to 
suffer for the want of enough to eat. And, often this mountain 
stood up as a guide to the settler, as he trudged along wearily 
through the thick snow with a bag or two of grain upon a hand- 
sleigh. Although not the very first mill, it dates back to the last 
century. 

The Kingston Gazette of the 16th April, 1811, contains an 
advertisement, signed by the executors of the deceased Major Van 
Alstine's will, namely, George W. Myers, Cornelius VanAlstine, 
and Thomas Borland, in which it is stated that the mill contains 
two run of stone, one superfine and two common bolts. 

A windmill was built at a somewhat early period, by Sergeant 
Howell, nearly opposite the Upper Gap, in Fi'edericksburgh. It 
was sold to one Russell, who was an Engineer in Kingston, in the 
war of 1812. The wind-mill was never much used, if at all. 

About the beginning of the century, 1802, Capt. Myers built a 
floui'ing mill upon the Moira. (See Thurlow.) It seems to have 
been a good mill, for persons came a long distance to get grinding 
done. For instance : Isaiah Tubs, who lived at West Lake, would 
come, carrying a bag of grain upon his back. 

In the year 1804, Mr. Wilkins says, a gristing'mill was built at 
Consecon, to the south of the Carrying Place. Consecon is an Indian 
name, from Con-Cou, a pickerel. 



PRIMITIVE ELEGANT ATTIRE. . 211 

*''■"•'•■'"''''' CHAPTER XX. ' ■^;-! :,,•-;■■', 

CoNTBNTS — Clothing — Uoincetic and Farming Implements Style of Dre8i 

eighty yesirs ago— Clothing of thu RcifugoiiS— Disbanded Soldiers— N,. Fredi 
Supply— Indian Garments of Skin— Deerskin Pants— Petticoats— Bed Cover- 
ings—Cultivating Flax— Sheep- Home-made Clothes— Rude Implements— 
Fulling— French Mode— Lindsay Wools(!y— The Spinning-wheel— rjidustrv— 
Young men Selecting Wives— Bees— Marriage Portion— Every Farm;rhis own 

Tanner and Shoemaker — Fashions — How odd hours were spent Home-made 

Shoes— What Blankets were made of— Primitive Bedstead— Nakedness— Bridal 
Apparel~No Saddles— Kingston and Nowark— Little Money --Bartering— 
Merchants from Alhany-Unable to buy— CredH; with Misrchants— The Ilesults- 
Itinerant Mechanics— Americans— Become Canadians— An old Stone-mason- 
Wooden Dishes— Making Spoons— Other Hardshijis— Indians Friendlv— 
Effects of Alcohol upon the Mississaugas— Groundless Panic— Drunken Indians 
—Women, defending Themselves— An erroneous Statement about Indian 
Massacre in "Dominion Monthly Magazine"— Statement of an Old Settler 
Sherwood— Wild Beasts— Few Fire-arms— Narrow Escapes— Depredations at 
Night— Destroying Stock— An Act of Parliament—" A Traveller's" Statement 
—The Day of Small Things— Settlers Contertcd— The Extent oi' their 
Ambition— Reward of Industry— Population in 1808— Importations— Monev— 
The Youth. ♦ " 

CLOTHING — FURNITURE — DOMESTIC AND PARMINQ IMPLEMENTS. 

The Style of clothing worn by the refugees and disbanded 
soldiers was such as prevailed eighty years ago in England. A 
certain difference, no doubt, existed between the English and the 
Colonists, yet mainly the style was the same. Among the first 
settlers upon the bay were those who had fetched with them, and 
wore, at least occasionally, garments of fashionable cu^and appoint- 
ments. Tight knee-breeches and silver buckles would decorate the 
bodies of some, who had in other days mixed in the fashionable 
throng, perhaps luxuriated in the gay city of New York, where 
the presence of British soldiers always gave life and gaiety. Indeed 
some of the inhabitants had been commissioned officers in the 
regular army. Dr. Dougall, who had been in the navy, and who 
had settled in the sixth Township, is remembered as a wearer of 
" tights" and silver buckles. Also, Major VanAlstine wore this 
elegant attire, and the M'Leans, of Kingston. Those who left their 
homes hurriedly during the course of the war, and fled to Lower 
Canada and the several British Forts, brought only what was upon 
their backs. Those who came more leisurely might have a little 
more; but the distance to travel on foot would deter from under- 
taking to bring more than supplies of food. The disbanded soldiers 
had no more than what belongs Jto a soldier's kit, and no doubt the 
close of the war left many of them with well worn garments. A 
few year's of exposure to the wear and tear of pioneer life would 



212 I'RIMITIVE USEFUL ATTIRE. 

quite destroy tho best supplied wardrobe, however carefully hus- 
banded, or ingeniously mended by the anxious wife. To replace 
the clothing was far from an easy matter to the settlers, many of 
whom hud no money, certainly no time for a long journey to Mon- 
treal or Al bany. After a few years, Kingston became a place of 
trade, but tho supply of clothing was scant and dear, placing it 
beyond the reach of mostly all. Tho result was that tho vast 
majority of the inhabitants had to look to the production of their 
lands wherewith to cover the nakedness of their families. Those 
living up the bay continued to w^nt for clothing for a longer time, 
being unable to exchange with the merchants of Kingston, until 
peddlers began to visit the more remote settlers. 

The faded garments, patched until the original material could 
no longer be distinguished, ultimately succumbed to the etfects of 
time and labor. .it 

The Indians, who as a general thing were friendly and kind, 
when they visited the settlement, gave to the settlors the idea of 
manufacturing garments out of deer skin. They, now and then 
exchanged skins for articles, the settlers could part with, and taught 
them how to prepare the fresh pelt so as to make it pliable. The 
process consisted in removing the hair and then working the hide 
by hand with the brains of some animal, until it was soft and white. 
Trowsers made of this material were not only comfortable for 
winter, but very durable. A gentleman who recently died in 
Sophias burgh at an advanced age, remembered to have worn a pair 
for twelve years, being repaired occasionally, and at the end they 
were sold for two dollars and-a-half. Petticoats for women were 
often made of the same material. Eoger Bates says " My grand- 
mother made all sorts of useful dresses with these skins, which 
were most comfortable for a country life, and for going through 
the bush, could not be torn by the branches." Also, moccasins were 
procured from the buck-skin, and some had enough deer-skin to 
make covering for beds. But deer-skin was not sufficiently abun- 
dant to give covering to all, such as it was ; and, certain clothing was 
required, for which it was unlit. Thus left to their own resources 
the settlers commenced at an early period to cultivate flax, and as 
soon as possible to procure sheep. For many yeai*s almost every 
family made their various garments, for both sexes, of the coarse 
linen made from the flax, and cloth from wool raised at home and 
carded by hand. Preparing tho flax for weaving, as well as spinning 
were done by hand, with inferior implements rudely made. But 



WANTING CLOTHING. 213 

in later years, occasionally spinninj^j wheels and looms were broiiijht 
in by settlers. There were no fiiUinif mills to complete the fabric. 
Even the mode adopted then, in Lower Canada, was not practised, 
which was as follows: A meeting of young folks, similar to a beo, 
was held from house to house, at whicli both sexes took part. Tho 
cloth to be fulled was placed in large tubs, and bare-logged youths 
would step in and with much amusement dance the fulling done. 
In Upper Canada, both high and low were glad to be able to don 
the home-made linen, and the linsey-woolsey petticoat. 

"The growth of flax was much attended to as soon as lands were 
cleared and put in order." " Then spinning-Avheels were all the go, 
and liome-made linen, the pride of all families, manufactured substan- 
tial articles that would last a lifetime." The young men of industry 
would look for the spinning-wheel and loom before selecting a wife. 
" A young farmer would often be astonislied to find on his marriage 
that his fair partner had got a good supply of linen for her marriage 
portion. I have known as mudi as sixty yards spun and manu- 
factured at one bee or gathering." — Clark. 

When the skins of sheep, and of calves and beef become avail- 
able, every farmer became his own tanner, and dressed his leather; 
and then his own shoemaker. Fashions did not change, except as 
the continued practice of making for an increasing family, gave the 
maker ability to make something more like a boot than a moccasin. 
Eainy days, and the nights, were spent in doing such kind of work, 
not by candle light, but by the hearth tire. It was at the same 
time that an axe-helve, a wooden plow, a reaping cradle, a wooden 
fork, &c., were made. But many a child, whose ^rand children are 
now occupying positions of wealth and influence, stayed in the log 
cabin the winter through, because he had nothing with which to 
protect his feet from the snow. The writer's father was not a shoe- 
maker by trade ; but he remembers when a boy to have w^orn shoes 
made by him. They were not conspicuous for their beauty, but it 
was thought by the wearer they would l&st for over ; within his 
recollection there was not a shoemaker in Thurlow. 

Much ingenuity was displayed in making clothes and blankets. 
What was called the *' Kearsy " blanket was made at an early date ; 
tho writer has seen the first one said to have been manufactured in 
Upper Canada, certainly the first on the Bay Quinte. It is yet in 
use and belongs to one, nearly one hundred years of age, who is the 
daughter of the maker, whom wo remember to have seen when a 



214 NO FURNITURE. 

boy, who, although then in the scni' and yellow leaf, was as tall and 
erect as if untold hardships had not crowned her life. Within fifteen 
miles of Be leville, across the Bay, was a log cabin, the occupants of 
Avhich luid for their first blanket, one made out of hair, picked out 
of the tanner's vat, and a helup-like weed growing in the yard. The 
hair was first cleaned by whipping it; then it was carded and 
woi-ked up with the hemp, and then spun. It Avas afterward doubled 
and twisted, and finally woven into a blanket. Tlie individual whose 
wife did this, and whose descendants are among the most wealthy 
farmers, bought his farm for a horse. For many a day, they had no 
furniture, not even a chair, and the bedstead was made out of two 
poles, driven between the logs of the shanty; andbassv/ood bark was 
twisted so as to bind them substantially together. Clean straw xipon 
this, wai5 really the only thing they had in the house. And so it was 
Avith very many, the exceptions being, sonie half pay officers, Avho 
had brought a table, or a chest of drawers. In 1100, the brother of 
an individual, holding an important post in Kingston, was near the 
head of tlie bay, staying at a house in a state of nakedness ; in which 
condition his brother writes, '* ho must remain until I am able to go 
up." "I have agreed to put him to trial with a carpenter to learn 
the trade," ho must therefore have been a large boy. 

It was not until the close of the last century, that Avearing arti- 
cles, oth-: than those made out of fiax and avooI, Avere to be obtained* 
A calico dress Avas a decided luxury. Tlie petticoat, and short gOAvn 
of linen, was more common, A long chintz dress to go to meeting, 
Avas the height of many a damsel's ambition, or a grogran dress and 
short petticoat. As years passed aAvay, and a grown up daughter Avas 
about to be married, efforts Avould be made to array the bride in 
fitting costume. Often a dress, AAorn by the mother in other days, 
amid other scenes, Avhich had been laid carefully away, Avas brought 
forth to light, a;id made by suitable alterations to do renewed service* 
although the Avhite had assumed a yelloAV oast, and had lost its lustre. 

As late as 1 8 1 6, a farmer OAvuing land in Sidney, and Avho died rich, 
made in winter a journey to Kingston Avith flour, Avearing noth- 
ing on his feet, but a pair of shoes, and A\'ho had his troAA'sers strapped 
down to keep his ankles Avarm. Leg boots took too much leather- 
It was many years before a bridle and saddle Avero knoAvn, and then> 
l)ut a feAv possessed such a convenience. Bare-back, or on a deer skin 
Avas the primitive mode. 

After the erection of Upper Canada into a separate province ', 
both Kingston and NcAAark, Avliei-e there were ahvays troops, and Avhere 



THE PEDLARS. 215 

articles of clotlilng were to b(( purohased tVoni :i few, who Imd cjone 
into the mercantile biisineHs, exhibited a degree of comfoTt and even 
gaiety in dress. 

At tlie first there was but little money in circulation. Bnt few 
of the refugees, or disbanded soldiers had any when they entered the 
wilderness. The government were constantly paying a certain sum 
to the troops at Kingston and Newark, and likewise to the retired 
half pay otficers. The few who could command money, were placed 
in a position of greater comfort, as soon as articles of provisions 
and merchandise, were brought to the new settlement. Mainly, 
however, trading Avas carried on by exchanging one coinmodity 
for another. Prol)ably the first articles for trade, was the ti(?ket 
for grants of land in the back concessions, often parted with so 
cheaply. The settlers required clothing, grain for sowing, and stock;, 
these wants in time, led to trade, two kinds of which were introduced. 
One carried on by merchants established at Kingston, the other by 
pedlars, Yankee pedlars, who would come from Albany with their pack 
in a canoe or small batteau, and who plied their calling along the bay 
shore from clearing to clearing. Both the merchant at Kingston, who' 
waited for his customers to come to him, and the pedlar who sought 
customers, asked for their wares, only grain or any other produce. 
But wheat aviis desired above all others. It was an event of no little 
hiterest to the back woodsman's family, when the pedlar's canoe or 
batteau came along, and halted before the log house, by the shore. 
And, even when their circumstances would not permit them to buy, it 
Avas a luxury to have a look at the things, which were so temptingly 
displayed. The toil-woni farmer, with well patched trowsers, would 
turn with an inward sigh from the piece of cloth, which although so 
much wanted, could not be got. Tiie wife looked longingly at those 
little things, Avhich would just suit baby. The grown up daughters 
gazed wistf ully,but hopelessly at the bright calico prints, more valuable, 
in their eyes than the choicest silks are to their descendants to day. 
But a calico dress was a thing not enjoyed, but by few, until it was 
bought for the wedding dress. Frequently some articles of family use 
was exchanged for goods, which were deemed of more use. The trade 
of merchants at Kingston steadily increased ; but not a cash business. 
A credit system was initiated and curried on. Goods would be 
purchased with an engagement to pay in wheat or potatoes, or some- 
thing else, at a certain time. Here and there along the bay were 
Indian fur traders. They, also, began to exchange with the settlers. 
While this was a great convenience, and gave immediate comfort to 



W19 TRAVELLING MECHANICS. 

many a fivniily, it, at tlio same time, knl to serious results with many. 
JJisappointotl in the return of cro|)s, or in some otiicr way, tlic pay- 
ment could not be made. ProiuisHory notes were given at interest; 
and, after a few years, sueing and seizing of stock was the result. 
Sometimes even the farm went to satisfy the creditor. Unfortunately, 
there are too many such cases in the records of the settlers of the bay. 
Not alone did pedlars come from the States, to pick up the fruit of 
the industry, of tliose they had driven away ; but there wore itinerant 
Yankee mochanics wlio would occasionally come along, looking for a 
job. Carpontei'fl, Alasons, &o., after a few years, found much to do. 
We would not speak disi)aragingly of these Americans, because they 
served a good turn in erecting buildings, as houses, barns, (kc. They 
also hitroduced many valuable articles of luisbandry and domestic use. 
And finally, many of them forsook their republican government, and 
pennanently settled under the King, and became the best of subjects. 
Even in the first decade of the present century, mechanics would go up 
and down the bay seeking work. For instance, there was one 
Travers, a atone mason, who found employment along the bay, and 
'even up the lake. Of this we are informed by one of his apprentices 
who is now upwards of eighty years old. (We make place in om* 
Eoview to state that John W. Mayboe, referred to, aged 88, died 
7th February, 1869.) 

' A hundred things enter into the list of what constitutes home 
comforts. But spare, indeed, were the articles to be found upon the 
kitchen shelves. Plain enough, was the spread table, at which the 
family gathered morning, nooh, and night. Many had but one or 
two dishes, often of wood, rudely made out of basswood ; and spoons 
of the same material. Knives and forks in many families were 
unknown. A few families had brought a very limited number of 
articles for eating, relics of other days, but these were exceed- 
ingly scarce. The wooden spoon was the most common table 
article with which to carry food to the mouth. By and by the 
pedlar brought pewter spoons, and once in a while the settler procured 
pewter and moulds and made spoons for himself. 

VAUIOUS HARDSHIPS. 

Apart from the suffering arising from want of food, and clothing 
to wear, and furniture to make the house comfortable, there were 
others of more or less magnitude. It would naturally be' expected 
that one of the first dangers in entering a wilderness, would be from 



ALCOHOL AND INDIANS. 217 

tho Indians, whose territory was being occupied. But in the main 
this evil whh not added to their other distress. The considerate and 
just policy pursued by tho British Government, left the Indians 
no cause of complaint, and they did not at any time a.s8ume 
an hostile attitude toAvai-d tho infant colony. But that curse of 
the hinnan race,— baneful curse to the Indians, alcohol, came with 
the white man ; and, too often, tho unscrupulous trader, and merchant 
would, not only sell the fire water to them, but rely ujion its intoxi- 
cating qualities, to consummate more excellent bargain.s for furs. 
The evil thus inflicted upon the Indian, returned in some oases, upon 
innocent pioneers. The Indians imder the influence of liquor are par- 
ticularly savage and ungovernable ; prone to exhibit their wild nature. 
Thirsthig for tho liquor, they would ; ometimes enter dwellings, when 
they new the men were absent, and endeavour to intimidate the women 
to give them rum. A few instances of alarm and actual danger, come 
to us, among the bay settlers. At one time particularly, there arose 
a wide spread-alarm, (long remembered as the " Indian alarms,") that 
tlie Indians were, upon some fixed night, when the men were away to 
Kingston mills, going to massacre the settlers. This arose from some 
remarks, let fall by a half drunken Indian. A few of the settlers, did 
actually leave their homos, and sought protection in a more thickly set- 
tled locality,while active steps were taken to defend their homes against 
the Indians. Mrs. Dempsey, of seventh township, gathered up what 
she couhl, and with her children crossed in a canoe to tho eiirht town- 
ship. On another occasion, when her husband was absent, several half 
dnmken Indians came to the house, and one stepping up to where she 
sat, trembling with fear, and with her little ones nestling close to her, 
drew his knife, and cutting a piece from the palm of his hand, held 
the bleeding wound before her face, crying out " look, look^ Indian 
no fraid." Then he brandished his knife in the most menacing man- 
ner. She hearing the sound of a passing team, got up and slowly 
walked backwards to the door, looking tho savage bravely in the eye 
all tho time. Her husband had opportunely arrived, in time to save 
his family, which he did by a free use of the hor.se-whip. On another 
occasion, Mrs. D. savod her life and the childrens from drunkeu 
Indians, by rushing up a ladder with them, into the garret, which 
could only be reached by a small opening through the ceiling, and 
then hauling the ladder up. The Indians endeavoured to assist each 
other up, and through the entrance, but she having a knife succeeded 
by cutting their fingers, when they attempted to get up, in keeping 7 
them back. These hostile attempts were exceptions, and always the 
result of intoxication. f 



218 WILD BEASTS. 

Since writing the nbovo, nn article has been pnbliHhod in the 
Dominion Monthly Magazine, in which it is stated tliat a family of 
fiettlers were massacred by the Indians upon the banks of the St. 
Lawrence in 1796. This statement is at variance with facts known 
to us, and witli the tostiraony of one who cannot be mistaken. His 
statement is as follows : 

JJrockville, 13th April, 1868. 
Mr Deak Sir, — 

I am in receipt of your note of this date, adverting to the 
statement of tlie massacre of a family in Upper Canada, by the 
Indians in 1Y95. I noticed the same statement in some paper I have 
lately read, and at the time I thought it to be a mistake in the date, 
or an entire fabrication. I am not awaro of the least hostility shewn 
by the Indians to any of the U. E. Loy.ali.sts since 1784, eleven years 
])revious to date stated, and I do not believe a syllable of it. 

Yours truly, 

.}^.M^;^'^-.'>'vMw'..|..>v^.,. * '■•■'■' AdIEL SUERWOOD. "■ 

Although tlie native Indians did not, as a general thing, alarm 
the settlor, there were wild beasts that did. For years the wolf, and 
tlic boar, and other ferocious animals were a source of terror and 
suffering. These animals, un.accustomed to the sight of man, were at 
first exceedingly tame. The settlers had but few fire-arms, and 
ammunition was very scarce ; and the beasts knew no terror of them. 
They would even by day, come to the very door of the cabin, ready to 
seize the little child, or the scanty stock of poultry, pigs, or sheep, or 
calves, or salted provisions which had been left exposed, government 
stores, &c. And at night they made the most hideous and incessant 
howls, until morning. Many instances of their rapacity in robbing 
the scanty yard of the settlers, and of hair breadth escapes of indivi- 
duals from wolves and boars, are mentioned. The destruction of stock 
by the wolf especially, caused the government of Canada, at an early 
date, (1793,) to legislate, with a view of gradually exterminating them; 
and an act was passed, granting a premium of four dollars to every 

, one who should bring a wolfs head to the proj^er officer ; and two 
dollars for a bears. It was withdrawn with regard to bears, in 1796. 
" A traveller," writing in 1835, remarks that in Kingston, resided a 
person who privately bred wolves to obtain the rewavd. But whether 
such an enterprising citizen did actually live in the good old town the 
writer saith not. Instances of narrow escapes from the wild beasts 

''are still remembered, for instance, Lewis Daly, of Ernest town, was 



0OMPOIIT8. 219 

suddenly attacki'(l by a boar within n mile of homo. lie sprung up 
n small troo, whioU bending over, ho was in monu'iitary danger of 
being reached. Ilis cries brought hcl)). 

In thoHe early days, the Hctl ler, loolced not for great things ; 
Bchooled by the hardHhips of civil war, ain^ inured to want, and half 
starvation, they asked not for riches. Enough to eat, and to be 
warmly clad, and housed from the winter's cold, was the groat point 
to which they stretched their longing hopes. I'lcnty in the future for 
the little ones, and for themselves, when thoy had growii old, was the 
single puri)osc of their toilsome lile. A descendant of a first 
settler nj)on the front of Sidney, tells of his grandmother whom he 
had heard say, that her great ambition at first, was to raise vegetable, 
onions and other useful articles in her garden bed ; to have poultry 
then, about her. After years she got the fowls ; but a mink, in a 
single night killed them all. Then, again, they hatl got a breeding 
sow, and one morning a bear walked out of the woods, and with one 
hug destroyed all their hopes of future porkers. 

Gradually, as years i)as8ed away, comforts began to reward the 
patient and industrious pioneers ; acre after acre was brought under 
cultivation. The log house received an addition, a little stock was 
procured, and the future brightened up before them, and by the year 
1808, tlio settlements in Uppor Canada were increasing in number, 
and spreading in every direction. "'Tlio frontier of the country was 
fast filling up. Persons were taking up land several milos from the 
water's edge. Some had ventured to take up land in the second tier 
of townships, in the midst of the wilderness, and many miles from 
any habitation. The population was now increased to about 70,000 
80ul8. The importations was chiefly li(piors and groceries, which by 
the St. Lawrence and the United States, brought a revenue of nearly 
£7,000. The bulk of the inhabitants manufactured and wore their 
own clothing. The way of trade was mostly by barter, as gold and 
silver were scarce, and there wore no banks to issue paper currency. 
Intemperance was very prevalent, and schools were scarce. The 
youth were too fond of foolish amusements." — (^Playter.) 



BRA8T8 OF IIURDEN. 



(HIAITKR XXI. 

CoNTBNTH — Hwoftt of till) Urow— No HoaHt of Jliiidcn — No Htotk — Kxcept by n 
Fow — HornoM uiul Oxiii — Kioiu I.dwt-r Caniida — York Htiitc — I.uUt coinori, 
broti^lit Hoinc — No Kodili-r — Kirnt Httxk in AdolphuHtown — Iik iderttM — Cock 
imd llfii — "Tiplcr" — (.'iittlc. Driving — Firnt (nw in Tlmrlow — First Houho in 
M»ryHl)urKli — Tlin Firnt Oft.-ii — No Market for Hiittor and ('luii'Mf — Sla't.«|)— 
It(!V. Mr. Stuart, hh un AgrkultiiriHt — lIomtiH at Napancc — An uflcr for n Yoko 
of KteurH, 

INTRODUCTION 01' STOCK AND DKASTS OV BURDEN. 

Wo littvo seen that the refugees and disbai'dod Holdiors who 
ontorod Canada, brought but a limited number of implements, and 
thoHO of an imperfect nature. The most of them had no moans of 
loHHoning lalior, no beasts of burden. All the work had to bo done 
by the sturdy arm, and l)y the sweat of the brow. For yoanj, 
mostly all aliUo thus labored, and for many years the increasing 
number continued to toil, being unable to jn'ocure boasts of burden, 
or any stock. The distance to go for them was too far, and the way 
too diftlcult to bo undertaken easily. But, a greater difllculty, an 
insurmountable reason was that they had not tho means to purchase, 
until years of struggling had extracted from the ground, covered 
with stumps, produce to exchange for tho much ro(iuirod help, in 
tho form of boasts of burden. Some of tho half-jjay oflicers, and 
other persons, favored by those holding some situations in tho gov- 
ernment, were enabled to got beasts of bui-dcn at tirst, or within a 
year or two. There were a few old soldiers who had a little money, 
received at being discharged ; and again, some sold their location 
tickets of a portion of their land, and thereby wore enabled to 
make purchase of cows or oxen. 

For beasts of burden, they, as a general thing, preferred oxen 
in preference to horses, to work among the stumps with. Both 
oxen and hor-sos were brought from Lower Canada and York State. 
Tho later comers, especially, fetched with them horses, oxen and 
cows from the latter place. 

A few of tho very first settlers, perhaps, brought one or more 
cows. Wo find it stated that tho disbanded soldiers had a cow 
allotted to every two families ; those must have been procured at 
Lower Canada, perhaps a few by way of O.swego, whore were 
stationed some troops. Sheriff Euttan, speaking of the famine, 
says : "Wo had tho luxury of a cow which the family brought with 
them." Thomas Goldsmith camo in 1786, and drove a I:* 
of cattle to the Bay : but he could not get enough for them to eat 



FIRST ilORSCS AND CATTLE. 221 

nnd thoy Htnrvo<l to (loath, oxcoptln^ om« hoifor and a yoko of oxtuj. 
TholVtorsoMH, who settlod in tho Fourth Toun in 17H5, and (doarod 
u Hmall lot of hind, wont " tho Col low in/if year to Montroal and 
brou^'ht up Homo horHcw and threo cowi*, which coinpriwod tho piiu- 
cipal Htock thon in tho Townnhip." 

After a fow yoarH, whon tho HottlorH had bccomo Homowhat 
ostahliwhod, HtopH woro taken more ^'onorally, to procure Htock, so 
nctossary to /rivo ordinary comfort to their familios; while thoHO 
who now entered the country hrou^r|,t cows with them. Althou^^h 
the cows and oxen vrore procured occasionally from Lower Canada; 
the moat of thorn wore obtained from tho States; but the horses 
were in the main at tirst, brought from Lower Canada. Many inci- 
dents attending the long and devious journey through the wilderness, 
are still told. Thomas (loldsmith, before mentioned, who settled in 
Prince Kilward, came into Camula by way of tho Mohawk, Wood 
Creok, Oneida Lake, and Oswego river, thonco to Calaracjui. Ho 
undertook to drive some cattle through tho woods to Cape Vincent, 
piloted by a friendly Indian, to swim them across tho St. Lawrence. 
In this journey ho sutt'ored almost every privation — hunger, fatigue, 
exposure. Resting one night in the ordinary manner, with his 
head slightly raised, upon the root of a tree, with no other covering 
than tho tree's branches, and sleeping very soundl}* after a day's 
walking, ho became benumbed from exposure, and knew not of the 
rapidly descending rain, which had actually covered his body when 
he awoke. Yet this man lived to be ninety years old. Driving 
cattle through tho woods was no easy matter, and dogs were often 
employed for that purpose. P^x-Sheritf Sherwood, in his valuable 
memorandum, relates an incident which throws light upon those 
primitive days. After remarking how well he recollects tho 
pleasure, he and an elder brother experienced fVom a present made 
them of a cock and hen, no common luxuries then, and with what 
care thoy watched over them, he says : " lot mo tell you tho tragic 
story of our little ' Tipler,' she Iiad become famed for driving 
cattle, and we thought much of her. Two persons, one named 
Urehart, from the Bay Quinto , and tho other Booth, started to go 
through the woods to Fort Stanwix for cattle, and prevailed upon 
my father to let them take poor little ' Tipler.' We saw them safe 
across tho river; but, sad to say, neither the men nor Tipler were 
ever heard of after." 

John Ferguson, Avriting from Sidney, in July 1791, says that 
he cannot get horses for the farm until winter. 



THE CATTLE, 1795. 



In tlio summer of 1787, Elisha Miller and Col. Richoy brought 
from Saratoga County several cattle and horses. They were driven 
by way of Black Eiver, and swam the St. Lawrence at Gananoque. 

The Reeds, who settled in Thurlow, in 1789, had a cow, which 
afforded the principal means of sustenance. This, with basswood 
leaves and other greens, constituted their food for many a day. 

Mr. Harrison, now living in Marysburgh, tells of the first 
horse " below the rock." It was brought, and owned by Colonel 
McDonald. This, and another wore the only ones for many years. 
Afterward, oxen were brought in, at; well as cows, by drovers from 
Lower Canada. 

Rochfoucault says, 1795: "The cattle are not subject to con- 
tageous distempers; they are numei'ous, without being remarkably 
fine. The finest oxen are procured from Connecticut, at the price 
of seventy or eighty dollars a j'oke. Cows are brought, either from 
the State of New York, and these are the finest ; or from Lower 
Canada ; the former costs twenty, and the latter fifteen dollars. 
These are small in si/.o, but, in the opinion of the farmers, better 
milch cows, and are, for this reason, preferred. There are no fine 
bulls in the country; and the generality of farmers are not sensible 
of the advantages to bo derived from cattle of a fine breed. In the 
summer, the cattle are turned into the woods; in winter, that is, six 
months together, they are fed on dry fodder. There is no ready 
market at which a farmer can sell that part of his cheese and butter 
which is not wanted for the use of the family. Of cheese and 
butter, therefore, no more is made than the family need for their 
own consumption." Sheep are more numerous here than in any 
part of the United States, which wo have hitherto traversed. They 
are eitlier procured from Lower Canada or the State of New York, 
and cost three dollars a head. They thrive in this country, but are 
high-leggea, and of a very indifferent shape. Coarse wool, when 
cleaned, costs two shillings a pound." 

The above information was derived, the writer says, from Mr. 
Stuart, the Curate of Kingstou, " who cultivates, himself, seventy 
acres of land, a part of 2,000 acres which had been granted him as 
a Loyalist. Without being a very skilful farmer, he is perfectly 
acquainted with the details of agriculture." These statements refer 
no doubt, to the settlements of the Bay. There is reference to 
horses, by Col. Clarke, whose father, living at the Napanee Mills in 
1788, had two favorite horses. Jolly and Bonny. 

In an old account book, now before us, for which we are 



THE FIRST HORSES. 223 

indebted to Mr. P. C. Clarke, of Collinsby, and which belonged to 
his grandfather, Eobert Clarke, who built the Napanoe Mills, we 
find the following entry, 

" Appenea Falls, 23rd November, 1785. 

" Acct. of work for Adam Bowcjr with his horses. Dec. 3, To 
" day's work, do., &c. Ho continued to work for sixty-two days 
with his horses." • ,. •.. . 

The following supplies valuable information : ';'j '" , /) 

" Appanno Mills, 3rd Axig. 1788. 

" Messrs. Collins and Frobisher, Dr." &c. (They must have been 
agents for the Government), 

"Aug. 2l8t. To David Bradshaw, one day with his oxen, 6s. 
"June 11. To Samuel Broweon, Jun'r., 2 days work with two 
" yoke of oxen, at 10s. March 28th. To 11 J days, Adam Arehart, 
" with a span of horses, at 68. . , ;./ ; <, , ,, i ..• 

u " 1789. Oct. 1. To Asa Richard; 9 days work with a pair of 
"horses anda woman, at 9s. . ,,,_. :;• „ ; . ,•..•%' ,= ;:: 

There is a memorandum in Eobert Clarke's book, as follows : 
" Mr. Joseph Crane got at Canada" (it will bo remembered that the 
first settlers spoke of the Lower Province as Canada) " a bay horse 
six years old. A brown mare four years old. Second Township 
13th March, 1787." 

f The Dempsey's drove in, 100 miles, some cattle in 1789 to 
Ameliasburgh. He was offered 200 acres of land for a yoke of 
four-year-old steers, which offer he refused. At another time h. 
was offered 100 acres for a cow. ,/■ .^ ,, i: 



224 ROADS. 

CHAPTEKXXII. ; ; .( . 

CONTENTB— Old Channels of Trade, and Travel— Art and Science— New Channels 
—The Wilderness— LoyaliKts Traveling on Foot, from Kingston to York- 
Formation of lloadK— Act of Parliamtnt— 1793— Its Provisions— Crooked 
■ Boads- Foot-path— Bridle-path- King's Highway from Lower Canada— 
.' When Surveyed— Roiid from Kingston Westward- Its Course — Sinicoe's 
Military Road— Dundas Street— Asa Danforth— Contract with Government 
—Road from Kingston to Ancaster— Danforth Road— 1 799— Misunderstand- 
;. . ingg— Danforth's Pamphlets— Slow I mprovemcnt.-CauHe— Extract from 
- Gourlay— Thomas Markland's Report— Ferries— 1 79G— Acts of Parliament- 
Statute Labor— Monev Grants— Commissioners-Midland District— Distri- 
■ bution— The Cataraqui Bridge Company— The Petitioners— An Act— The 
', Provisions— The Plan of Building— The Bridge— Toll— Completing the 
Bridge— Improvement of Roads— McAdam—D«!clines a Knighthood. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OP ROADS THROUGH THE WILDERNESS. 

The channels followed by the Europeans, as they penetrated 
the unknown wilderness of America, were those indicated by the 
Indians^, who h A themselves for centuries followed them, in their 
pursuit alter the chase, or when upon the war path. The great 
routes mentioned elsewhere, are the natural ones, and no other 
could have been pursued. It was only when art and science fol- 
lowed emigration to the new world that new channels were opened 
up, and the canal and railroad superseded the old devious ways 
along the windings of rivers. 

Prior to the visiting of Europeans, the Indian paths were more 
or less trodden as the requirements of food and the existence of 
prey led the hunter here or there, or the war cry led them to the 
deadly encounter. But when the Europeans initiated trade by 
giving for furs the attractive trinkets, and such articles as contri- 
buted to the Indian taste of comfort and grandeur, then there wore 
more regular and frequent travelings from the sea-board to the far 

west. '.'-'■'-"' - '•- ■'■'-■ '- '^ ?■' --^-r 

The occupation of Western Canada found the country in its 
primeval state ; a vast wilderness, and no roads. The only way 
of traveling from one clearing to another was by the canoe and 
batteau, or by foot through the trackless woods, guided by the 
banks of the bay, or a river, or the blazing of the trees. For 
a long time not even a bridle-path existed, had there been horses 
to ride upon. Even at a late date, journeys were made on foot 
from Kingston to York along the lake shore. The formation of 
roads was a very slow process. In the year 1793, an act was passed 
«' to Regulate the Laying out, Amending, and Keeping in Repair, 
the Public Highways and Roads." The roads were to be not less 



HOW ROADS WERE FORMED. 225 

than thirty feet, nor more than sixty wide. Each settler was under 
obligation to clear a road across his lot; but there was the reserve 
lands for the Clergy and Crown, which were not provided with 
roads. Any one traveling the older settled districts will be struck 
with the devious character of the highways. The configuration of 
the Bay Quinte, and the mode of laying out the lots to secure a 
frontage upon the water, tended to cause this irregularity. The 
settlements being apart, when a communication took place between 
them the shortest cut would bo taken, so far as hill, and marsh, and 
creek would permit. The consequences wore that many of the 
roads were angular with the lots, or running zigzag. In later 
years, some of these rgads were closed up, but many remain to 
mark an original foot-path. The banks of the bay and of creeks 
and rivers were naturally followed, as sure guides, or perhaps as an 
Indian path. And thus sometimes the road was made not direct, 
but round-about. In the survey of the concessions, provision was 
made for roads between the concessions, and cross-roads were to be 
left between every fifth and sixth lots. ' ">■'■" '■' '' " - > 

Many of the main roads were at first marked by the blazing of 
the trees, when made through the woods, after a while a foot-path 
could be seen, and then boughs were trimmed off, that one might 
ride on horseback ; and in time the sleigh was driven, and finally a 
waggon road was made. ■';•,--''■ 'i>'r''': 

* Government was slack in giving funds to open up the country, 
and the legislation, for many years, in reference to the subject, 
seemed as if it was intended to do as little as possible, forgetting 
the fact that "the first improvement of any country should be 
the making of good roads." But it soon became important to 
have a mail road between Montreal and Kingston, and between 
Kingston and York, and then by way of Dundas to the Thames, and 
to Niagara. Says Mr. A. Sheerwood, " I recollect when the King's 
highway was established from the Provincial line to Kingston, the 
line was run by a surveyor named Ponair, with a surveyor under 
his direction by the name of Joseph Kllborne. The distance from 
the Provincial line to my father's farm, three miles below Brock- 
ville, was ninety-five miles, and from Brockville to the fort, this 
side of Kingston, fifty miles, at the end of each mile was planted a 
red cedar post, marked on it the number of miles from the Pro- 
vincial line, this line of road was made some years after the first 
settlement, but I have forgotten the year." The original mail road 
between Kingston and York did not altogether follow the present 



226 THE DANl'OBTH ROAD. 

line. AL tii-Mt, from KingBton, the road followed the bay whore to 
Bath, and continued along- the shore to Adolphustown to Borland's 
Point, where was established a ferry to eoinmunicate with Marys- 
burg at the Lake of the Mountain ; thence the road followed the 
shore to the head of Picton Bay, and soon to Bloomfold, Wellington, 
Consccon, by the Carrying Place, and continued to closely follow the 
lake shore. Subsequently this groat highway was called the York 
Eoad when going towards York, and the Kingston Road when 
going towards Kingston. 

Gen. Simcoe intended to have a grand military road from one 
end of the Province to the other. This he lined out and gave it 
the name of Dundas Street. But he left the Province before his 
intentions were carried out, and but a small portion was then con- 
structed ; while settlers had located here and there along the pro- 
posed road, and had cleared land and built with the full expectation 
that the great thoroughfiu-c would shortly be opened up. But 
years passed away, before this was done. Piece after piece was 
hero and there made passable, until at last the road was made 
through the length of the Province. 

Tlie late Mr. Finkle of Ernest Town writes : " An American 
gentleman came into Canada, 1798, by the name of Asa Danforth, 
and made a contract with the Upper Canada Government, to open 
a road from Kingston through to Ancaster, at the head of Lake 
Ontario, which road he completed. Danforth's home was at my 
fathers (Henry Finkle), before and after the contract was taken. 
The work commenced in 1798, and was finished in three years 
time." This road passed through Prince Edward by Wellington. 
Danforth " became dissatisfied with the government when the settle- 
ment took place, and left Canada with a bitter feeling, so much so, 
that he, some time after, sent to my father a package of pamphlets, 
he had published to shew the injustice of the government transac- 
tion. He desired they should be circulated through the country 
along the road. However, the pamphlets were not distributed, and 
the fact never became generally known." For many years the main 
road was called the Danforth Eoad. 

As time advanced, the road between York -^nd Kingston was 
gradually improved. The great hindrance to - making is suffi- 

ciently indicated by the following, taken fror a-lay. It is the 

expression of a meeting of yeomen, held at tiit v^niage of AVaterloo, 
Kingston, February 2, 1818, Major John Everett in the chair. 
Among other things it is asserted that what retards the progress !■; 



ACTS OP PARLIAMENT. 227 

that "great quantities of land in the fronts and public situation.s, 
that remain unimproved, by being givQn very- injudiciously to 
persons who do not want to settle on them, and what is most shame- 
ful and injurious, no law is made to compel them to make or work 
any public road ; but this is to be done by industrious people, who 
settle around. Such lands remain like a putrid carcass, an injury 
and a nuisance to all around: at the same time, to the owners, this 
land increases in value, without their being made to contribute 
towards it, at other men's expense. Our worthies, a few years ao-o, 
passed an act, that required a poor man to work three days upjn 
the public roads, and these overgorged land-owners but twelve 
days, and others, with twenty times as much property, doing no 
more. It would excite surprise at Governor Gore's signing such a 
bill, if it was not known that the Parliament voted him £3,000, to 
buy a piece of plate." '"''"^' ' ■-^-'-5''*'«--'f*'w .^>i.i i o »;t 

Says Thomas Markland, in a General Report of Midland 
District: / , , . . ,. ' ,,.--- -.-^^.j .;-.j^, 






"The same cause which has surrounded Little York with a 
desert, creates gloom and desolation about Kingston, otherwise most 
beautifully situated ; I mean the seizure and monopoly of the land 
by people in office and favour. On the east side, particularly, you 
may travel miles together without passing a human dwelling; the 
roads are accordingly most abominable to the very gates of this, 
the largest town in the Province ; and its market is often supplied 
with vegetables from the United States, where property is less 
hampered, and the exertions of cultivators more free, accordingly.'" 

In 1797, Parliament passed an Act, which was the first " for the 
regulation of ferries." :. ..., . -...,.,,...; ., „. ^.,„.,.j ^„<,,i hrc^.i 

In 1794, an Act was parsed "to make further provisions 
respecting Highways and Roads." An Act was passed, 1798, 
respecting " Statute duties on Highways and Roads." In 1804 an 
Act was passed "granting £1,000 for repairing, laying out new 
roads, and building bridges in the several districts." Again, in 
1808 £1,600 Avas granted for the same purpose; and again the same 
sum in the following j-ear. In 1811, £3,450 tvas granted. In 1812, 
an Act was passed " to prevent damage to travelers on the highways 
of the Province. All persons meeting sleighs or waggons to turn 
out to the right, and give half the way. Two or more bells to be 
attached to every sleigh. Jia«t4»^i-n¥«.^«!s&«fr:^ 

In 1812, it was found that "many roads* were unnecessarily 



228 COMMISSIONERS, l826. 

laid out ; to remedy this, every one hud to bo confirmed by Justices 
of the Peace, and^if this wore not done, the party who applied for 
the survey should pay for .the wame. 

In 1814, £G,000 was granted for Highways and Bridges; and 
the year following, " £20,500 to bo appropriated," and Commis- 
sioners were appointed on the road, to receive £25 each. Again, 
the year after, £21,000 was granted. 

In 1819, Parliament passed an "Act repealing and amending 
certain portions of previous Acts," by which a more elaborate pro- 
vision was made to secure statute labor. This was again amended 
in 1824. In 1826 was enacted to grant £1,200 for making and 
reparing roads and bridges — Item : " In aid of the Society for 
improving the Public Eoads," in apart of Ernesttown and Kingston. 
In 1830, £13,650 was granted " for the improvement of Eoads and 
Bridges," of which the Midland District received £1,900, to be 
expended as follows, by contract after public notice: "On the 
Montreal road, between the Town of Kingston, and the limits of 
the County of Frontonac, the sum of fifty pounds. Joseph Franklin, 
Elijah Beach, and James Atkinson to be Commissioners for expend- 
ing the same : On the road loading from the Town of Kingston, to 
the Village of Waterloo, the sum of fifty pounds; and that Samuel 
Askroyd, Horace Yeomans, and Benjamin Olcott, be CommissionorK 
for expending the same. On the loading road from Kingston to the 
Village of Bath, the sum of one hundred pounds, and that Henry 
Lasher, Joseph Amy, and Prentiss J. Fitch, be Ccmmissioners for 
expending the same. On the road leading from the Village of 
Waterloo to the Napanee Mills, the sum of three hundred and fifty 
pounds ; and that tho Treasurer and Trustees of the Kingston and 
Earnesttown Road Society bo Commissioners for expending the 
same. On the road leading from Loughborough to Waterloo, the 
sum of fifty pounds ; and that Samuel Aykroyd, John Campbell, 
and Henry Wood be Commissioners for expending the same. On 
the road leading from the fifth Concession of Portland to the third 
concession of the Township of Kingston, fifty pounds ; and that 
Jacob Shibly, Byron Spike, and Thomas Sigsworth, be Commissioners 
for expending the same. On the road leading from Bath to the 
Township of Camden, the sum of fifty pounds; and that Ebeney^er 
Perry, Benjamin Clarke, and John Perry, bo Commissioners for 
expending the same. On tho road leading from Wessel's Ferry, in 
Sophiasburg, to Deraorest's Mill, tho sum of one hundred pounds 
and that Abraham VanBlaricum, Daniel B. Way, and Guilliam 



MONEY EXPENDED. 229 

Domorost, bo Commissioners for oxponding the samo. On the road 
between tbo widow M'Croady's and tbo north-cast of Chrysler's Creek 
Bridge, in the seventh concession of Thurlow, the sum of twenty- 
five pounds. On the road in the township of Huntington, loading 
to the township of Madoc, and sui'veyed by W. Ketcheson, in one- 
thousand eight hundred and twenty -eight, seventy-five pounds, and 
that Jacob Jowngs, of Thurlow, Garret Garritson, of Huntingdon, 
and James O'Hara, of Madoc, be Commissioners for expending the 
same. On the road leading from the Napanee Mills to Belleville, 
the sum of eight hundred pounds, and that Allan McPherson, John 
Turnbull, William Post, David B. Soles, and John Mabee, of Thurlow, 
be Commissioners for expending the same. On the road leading 
from VanAlstine's ferry to the Carrying Place, the sum of two 
hundred pounds, and that f imeon Washburn, Esquire, Charles Biggar, 
Esquire, and Jesse ncadcison, be Commissioners for expending the 
same." 

During the same session, " there being reas. i to believe there 
would not bo enough moans on hand to meet the grant, "an Act 
was passed to raise by loan £8000. The year after another Act 
was passed to raise by debenture the sum of £40,000 more to be 
appropriated to the several districts. The Midland district to 
receive £2,200. Among the specifications, were "in the Indian 
woods" £200 for the bridge at the mouth of the little Cataraqui, 
£50 " to assist in erecting new bridge across Marsh Ci*eek, near 
William Brickman's, in Ameliasburgh," £20. "To erjct a bridge 
across East Creek, at the east end of Bast Lake, £50." " On the 
road leading from Belleville to the Marmora Iron Works, £250. 

In March, 25, 1828, there was passed an Act respecting "a 
road between Ernesttown and the Gore of Fredericksburgh." 

The Preamble says, " whereas, in consequence of a dispute 
having arisen between the Justices of the Peace of Ernesttown and 
Fredericksburgh, respecting the right of eithei* party to take 
charge" of the road, and to which party the right of repairing it 
belongs, "in consequence of which dispute, the aforesaid road 
though much traveled from necessity, is dangerous and difficult to 
travel, on account of being left, in a great measure, for a long time 
past, without being mended," &c. It was enacted that the two 
townships should equally take charge and keep in repair the said 
road, certain portions being allotted to each. 

In 1827 an act was passed to incorporate "The Cataraqui 
Bridge Company." Up to this time the communication between 



230 CATARAQUI BRIDGE COMPANY. 

Kingston and tho opposite point of Frederick, was only by boat.. 
The Act, or some portions of it cannot but be interesting : " Whereas 
John H. Glover, John Marks, John Macaulay, John Kerb}'^, 
Christopher Alexander Ilagerman, Michael Sproatt, John P. Ilaw- 
kin.M, Robert Moore, Charles Jones, Stephen Yarwood, Augustus 
Barber, George Calls, Richard Williams, James B. Forsyth, George 
McBeath, Adam Krieu, John S. Cartwright, Robert D. Cartwright, 
Alexander Anderson, George O'Kill Stuart, Laughlin Currin, 
Donald McPhorson, James Jackalls, the younger, Francis Archibald 
Harper, John Gumming, James Sampson, Elizabeth Ilerchmer,. 
Catharine Markland, Anne Macaulay, John Jenkins, and Edward 
Fors^'th, have petitioned to be incorporated," &c. (This furnishes 
us with tho names of tho more prominent persons at that time 
interested in Kingston). "And whereas, they have represented, 
by their agents, that they have made arrangements with His 
Majesty's Government, in case the object above recited be carried 
into effect, for the passage of Military 'and Naval stores, and of the 
officers and men belonging and attached to the various Military 
and Naval departments, for a certain consideration to bo annually 
paid by the Government, and that for the purpose of this incorpo- 
ration, they have subscribed stock to the amount of £6000." r^^^^; ^ 
;» „ The Act of Incorporation provided that " the said Company arc 
authorized and empowered, at their own cost and charges, to erect 
and build a good and substantial bridge over the great river Cata- 
raqui, near the town of Kingston, from the present scow landing 
on the military reserve, opposite to the north-east end of the con- 
tinuation of Front Street to the opposite shore on Point Frederick, 
at the present scow landing on the Military Reserve, adjoining the 
western addition of the Township of Pittsburgh, with convenient 
access thereto at both ends of the bridge, to and from the adjacent 
highways, at present in use ; that the said bridge shall be at least 
twenty-five feet wide, and of sufficient strength for artillery car- 
riages," &c., &c. ; they shall also be at liberty to build toll- 
houses, and toll-bars ; Provided always, that there be a draw-bridge 
not less than eighteen feet, in some part, for the passage of all 
vessels, which bridge shall be opened at all hours required without 
exacting toll, and a space for rafts between the piers, forty feet." 

The amount of toll to be demanded from man and beast, and 
vehicle, was fully specified in the Act. 

a^t Tho Company was to be managed by five Directors, Stock- 
holders to hold office for one year from each last Monday in January. 
The bridge was to be completed within three years. 



M" All AM. 231 

It was pi'ovi«locl that no f'orry hIiouUI bo allowed, nor other 
barge 

The final elaiiso enacted that after fifty years W\h Majesty 
might assume the possession of the bridge, u])on paying to the 
Company the full value thereof, to bo ascertained by three arbi- 
trators. ., , . ' ' '. -" '- •' 

March 20, 1829, an Act was passed extending the time for 
completing the bridge, two years from the passing of the Act, 

We have seen how the roads throughout Canada, wore gradually 
constructed. As time advanced steps were taken, sometimes how- 
over very tardily, to place public thoroughfares in a more passable 
condition. We believe the road from Kingston to Napanoe, was 
the first to bo macadamized, which for many long years was the 
exception in an execrable road, stretching between Kingston and 
York. The originator of macadamized roads was John Loudoun 
McAdam. Ho was born in Scotland in 1756 ; emigrated to New 
York when a latl, and remained in that City throughout the Eevo- 
lution. Under the protection of the British troops, he accumulated 
a considerable fortune, as agent for the sale of prizes. At the 
close of the war he returned to his native land, with the loss of 
nearly all h\fi property. His system of making roads is too well 
known to require description. The British Clovernment gave him 
£10,000, and tendered the honor of knighthood, which he declined, 
but which was conferred on his son, James Nicholl McAdam. He 
died at Moffat, County of Dumfries, in 1836, aged eighty years. 

J^i).>ft(,''^ •■'niJ imni ■.>'(i}y»ji •.^■^I'h'j >;); h) -^Im-' ii'.r'^Ui ■f■.^■^•■)•.^^f .«;,,■• 
■:Ku>>i jii .U liiuU i.%tff*:.<\ hin-: 'li^ ynt\i ■: o^M lU ^mon'rii^ -tM ,^ nrrni-.i'r.- 
■Xi.': '■!T.'\\rnis.r^i>X.il^■•J■,^v^■^.h iiU-u;jUJM TO ^ •«.«*; ^ifhr/f J'jiii ovit yjitr^v. 



232 CANADA 



CnAI»TEU XXIII. 

CoNTiNTH. — Ode to Cftiiftdn — Karly evcntfi — First Kiif^linh child in Amoricn, 1587— 
In New Knpliind — Firnt Frt-nc h child, 1021 — FirHt in I'ltiu'i- C'anadii, 1783 
— In I'rlncc Edwnid — AdolphuHtown — Anic'liuHbuigh — North of the lUdcau 
— Indian marrinfie cereinony — Difhoulty among flrnt Hettlcrw to pet clergy- 
men — First miirriiige in Americti, 1008 — First in Now EnKhmd, l(i21 — First 
in('anadu, lO'JO — MarriuKcalilc t'olkH — No one to tie the matrimonial knot- 
Only one clergyman — Otheers marrying — MagiRtmtes empowered — Logisla- 
tion, 1703 — Its provision — MaJiing valid certain marriages — Fnrther legiHla- 
tion, 1798 — In 1818 — 18'21 — 1831 — Clergymenof all d(!nominations permitted 
to marry — Methodist miniHtors — Marriage liconse, 1814 — Five perBong ap- 
pointed to issue — A noticeable matter — St^itements of Hates — Mode of court- 
ing in the woods — Newcastle wedding expeditions — Weapons of defence- 
Ladies' dresses — The lover's " rig" — A wedding ring— I'aying the magistrate 
— A good corn basket — doing to weddings — "Hitters" — Old folks stay at 
home — The dance, several nights — Marriagi; outtit — Frontier life — Morals iu 
Upper Canaua — Absence of irregularities — Exceptional instanccg— Unable t<j 
get married, Peter and Polly — A singular witness — Kcv. Mr. Stuart — Lang- 
horn — McDowell — How to adorn the bride — What she wore — A wedding iu 
' 1808 — On horseback — The guests — The wedding — The banquet — The game 

. , of forfeits — The niglit — Second day wedding — The young folks on horseback 
— Terpischorean — An elopement by Canoe — The Squire — The chase— The 
lovers successful— The Squires who married. ^" '' 

J^, ^._^ ,. .;,;. ,. ,^;: _^,, .;,,., _.. .,,...,^,. , _, . , lifl^O 

e.iv,,,nAVi ^fn^:-- - *« ODE TO CANADA." "^-^ ^)»-'>'i- »<'^ '^''-^^'i 
«•..■•!.;< -SiW ?J ' /: .^r.^^r.>]^^*^^1^i^.:'iJA'■h 

Canada faithful 1 Canada fair ! • ' 

Canada, beautiful, blooming and rare 1 iuui MW' t :iniUii 

vn\i-t):i'u: 'til Canada, happiest land of tlie earth ! 'ji^/rjA . o ui*-' ;d 

. Hail to thee, Canada! laud of my birth ! ' ,, / 

«.)!,;; t'idi U) Land of fair freedom, whore l)ought not anij sold, * "'■ -^ 

' Vj?jiavlMvr Are sinews and sorrows, for silver and gold! , t,i i?^ li'S 

• ,- ^ ' Land of broad lakes, sweet valleys and plains ! ^ ,/.;■,; „i 

...nil iM J Land wliere justice for rich and poor reigns ! '. ' ^ i«v''i!*S 

.■;'. ,':'l.t ,/' Land of tall forests, fnmed rivers and rills I - M"j>.t Inj;, J,! 
, : , ^ \'. Land of fair meadows, bold mountains and hills! r ,^„^r<',/U 
*' ' ' '''^*'* ' Land where a man is a man, though he toil ! '.' ' ' 

i'J\^v^^'iir■\ ^ri Land where the tiller is lord of the soil ! l^^.l(.»/1.;J^»,i •■; ,>?.n?:-.) 
*•( ,,; '-., Land where a people are happy and free — „, i, , ,. i. ;i-,,i-y 
Where is the land that is like unto thee ? - 

,«?--4! hmi /J Thou hast for the stranger that seekoth thy shore ''^'f* ii if'«^ 
'i'iid* } -j.jjij; A smile, and a cheer, and a welcome in store ; ,,...: /.a1';> 

The needy, relief ; and the weary repose ; . '^ 

^'-i> I ' ",«YiV A home for thy friends ; and a grave for tliy foes. •'■S'vi 

jj Yi'i lidtZV- ^'^y nobles are those whose riches in store Trrt'if . (vflfci^ 

" " ' Is the wealth of the soul, and the heart's hidden lore ; ^. •, « 

They cringe to no master, they bow to no lord -^"-^ v •;«. 

piiCtjnft 10 It- ^^^^ Heaven's, each night and each morhing adored. ' f / 
Land of swift livers, sweet-gliding along ! ^'i .vc4 

Land of my pride, and land of my song ! ^•' " •' ' - 

'i«2|ik5 t'ltiflVf Canada, prosperous I Canada, true I ■ r- 

.,«^ . , J ,f Canada loyal, and virtuous, too ! , ll.. ,t 

J a ■a- Canada, happiest land of the- earth! 
r^i^AE Hail thee, forever, sweet land of my birth I 



NATIVB CAItADIAXS. 233 

THE FinST NATIVKS OF UPPEU CANADA. 

Wo turn from tho Hml pictures vvhicli have been truthiully, if 
imperfectly done, whicii reproHeut the darker Hide of the pioneer 
life of the rcfiijj^'c.s, to otberH more plonsiuuf. In those primitive 
times, events whicii now seem trivial to a general puhlic, were of 
general interest, and the recollection cherished l)y a whole commmuty. 
In the absence of those stirring events which characterize the present, 
incidents of comparative unimportance, became household words, 
and recollections. Hence, it comes that posterity may, in some 
instances, know who were first married in certain places in America, 
of the first bi'th, and who first died. .1 ., ^ • , ,, ,,i / ; 

"The first child born of English parents in America, was a 
daughter of Mrs. Dore, of Virginia, October 18, 1587." "There 
is now standing in Marshalfi eld, » Cape Cod, a portion of a house 
built by Perigrino White, the first male child born of English parents 
in New England.' According to the testimony of the registrar 
of Quebec, the first white child born in Canada, was upon the 24th 
October, 1621, which was christened the same day by the name of 
Eustache, being the son of Abraham and Margaret L'Anglois ; 
Abraham was a Scotchman, named Martin Abraham. He was king's 
pilot, and married to Eustache. The plains of Abraham derive their 
name from him. ■....<....>;,.. j,.i/..,. - . 

In the obituai*y notice of Eev. Mr. Pringle, a Methodist preacher, 
it is stated that he was born in Prince Edward, in 1780, but this must 
be a mistake. There is sufficient proof that the first settlement at 
Smith's Bay commenced in 1784, when the first part of Prince 
Edward became settled. Perhaps, indeed, very likely, the first 
children born of European parents, was the late Colonel John 
Clark, of Dalahousie, and an older brother and sister. Hifc father, an 
Englishman, came to Quebec, attached to the 8th regiment in 1708. 
From a sergeant-major, he was appointed in 1776, clerk and naval 
store keeper at Carleton Island. Here, Sarah and William Clark 
wore born during the progress of the war. Col. Clark says, " I was 
born at Frontenac, now Kingston, in 1783, and was baptized by the 
Rev. Mr. Stuart. 

The Rev. Mr. Pringle, before alluded to, was the first, or among 
the first-bom in Prince Edward. ii . „ * 

A son of Thomas Borland, claimed to be the first Avhite child 
born in the fourth township ; but the honor was disputed by Daniel 
Peterson. Mrs. Wm. Ketcheson, now living in Sidney, daughter of 



■#•'?'' 



234 THE FIRHT MAURI AHE. 

Elizabeth Hohlin, of AdolphuHtown, was l»orn tlujic^ in 17H4. Sho 
inuHt liavo Ijt'oii ono of tlio vory first, us the first si'ttlcrs eamu that 
sumo year. On the 16th Januury 1785, Ilonry VanDusen was boni 
in A<lol|(hustown, heini; one of tiu* first nativon. ■ ' i •' - ^•' 

Upon tlio 20tii April, 1868, was huriod Mrs. Bush, slio was tlic 
first fotnale horn in Ameliashurgh. Mr. Bleeker, yot living at Tren- 
ton, was the first male eliiiil born in Ameliasburgli. Mrs. Covert, 
was also one of tlu; first [)ersons born in Ameliasbnrgh. 

The first person said to have been born in Toronto, waa Mr. J. 
Cameron, of Yongo Street, in 1798. ' ' > •■•n ..' • 

The first child born of white parents north of the Rideau, was 
Colonel E. Burritt, liurritt's Rapids, a relative of Elihu Bnrritt. ■ 

■ i' '■ " 

"^ MARUYING IX EARLY TIMES. . . 

The native Indians of America practiced no important ceremony 
ineonnection with marrying. Certuin steps had to bo taken by the 
ono who njight desire to have a certain female as his partner, a»ul 
those procoodings were always strictly attended to. But the final 
ceremony consisted in little more than the affianced one, leaving the 
wigwam of her father and repairing to that of her fnture lord and 
maHter. In many cases the first settlors of America experienced some 
difficulty in obtaining the services of a Christian minister to solemnize 
matrimony. In French Canada there was not this tliificulty, as from 
the first the zealous missionary was ever beside the discoverer as he 
pressed on his way. 

The first Christian marriage solemnized in America, took place 
in Virginia in 1608, between John Loyden and Ann Burras. The 
first marriage in New England was celebrated the 12th May, 1621, 
at Plymouth, between Edward Waislow and Susannah White. The 
first marriage in the colony of French Canada, was between Guillauuie 
Couillard and Guillmet Ilebert, July 1620. This is found in the first 
p.arish register, which was commenced this year, 1020. 

Among the pioneers of Upiier Canada, were persons of every 
class as to age, from the tender infant at the breast, to the gray-headed 
man. There were young men and young women, as well as the aged, 
and as hopes and desires exist to-day in tho breast of the young, so 
did they then. As the gentle influence of love animates at the pre- 
sent time, so it did then. But there was a serious drawback ; the 
consummation of courtship could not easily be realized. Throughout 
the vast length of the settlements there were but few clei'gymen to 
celebrate matrimony, and many sighing swains had to wait months, 



WHO PEHFORMKD THE CEREMONT. 23ft 

and oven ycnrH of wcarisotno tiino to liiivo performotl tlio tnatrimonitil 
cerctnoiiy. At the Hi'st, wlioii i\ cliuplain was uttacluMl to a regiment, 
ho was called upon, but when the Hettlers eomnience<l to clear, there 
waH no chaplain connected with the rej^iinent. Indeed, Mr. Stuart, of 
Kingston, waH tho only clergyman in all Upper Car.ada for a few 
yearH. But the duticH of the chaplain were l'rc(iuently attended to by an 
officer, especially at Niagara, and many of tlu; first marriagcK in the 
yoimg colony were performed by a colonel, an adjutant, or a surgeon. 
SubRe<iucnlly, magiHtrates wero ap])oiuted, who were comuiiMHioned 
to tie the nuptial knot. " • .,..,...: 

In tho Hocond session of tho first Parliament, 1703, was passed 
'* An Act to confirm and make valid certain marriages heretofore con- 
tracted in the country now comprised within the Province of Canada^ 
and to provide for the future solemnization of marriage loithin the 
same." i^. ,. ' ■ l , ■ -^ i ,,,, _ , ' . , ■ ,. ..r , ,. . 

i " Whereas many marriages have been contracted in this Province 
at a time when it was impossible to observe tho forms prescribed by 
law for the solemnization thereof, by reason that there was no Pro- 
testiuit parson or minister duly ordained, residing in any i)art of tho 
said Province, nor any consecrated Protestant church or chapel 
within tho same, and whereas the pai'ties having contracted such 
marriages, and their issue may therefore bo subjected to various 
disabilities, in order to qtiiet tho minds of such persons ami to pro- 
vide for the future solemnization of marriage within this Province, 
be it enacted and declared by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by 
and with the advice and consent of tho Legislative Council and 
Assembly of tho Province of Upper Canada, that the marriage and 
marriages of all persons, not being under any canonical disqualifica- 
tion to contract matrimony, that have been publicly contracted before 
any magistrate or commanding officer of a post, or adjutant, or sur- 
geon of a regiment, acting as chaplain, or any other person in any 
public office or employment, before the passing of this Act, shall be 
confirmed and considered to all intents and purposes as good and 
valid in law, and that the parties who have contracted such mar- 
riages, and the issue thereof, may become severally entitled to all 
the rights and benefits, and subject to all tho obligations arising 
from marriage and consanguinity, in as full and ample a manner as 
if the said marriages had respectively been solemnized according 
to law. 
ii " And be it further enacted, that in order to enable those persons 



236 GIVING NOTTCIC. 

who luay be desirous of preserving the testimony of such marriage, 
and of the birth of their children, it shall and may be lawful at any 
time, Avithin three years from the passing of this Act, for any magis- 
trate of the district where any such parties as may have contracted 
matrimony as aforesaid, shjall reside, at the I'eqnest of cither of said 
parties, to administer to each an oath that they were manned on a 
certain day, and that there is now living issue of the marriage. This 
attestation to be subscribed to by the parties and certified by the 
magistrate. The Clerk of the Peace recorded these certificates in a 
register for the purpose, which thereafter was considered suflicient 
evidence of such matters. 

It was further enacted, " That until there shall be five parsons 
or ministers of the Church of England, doing duty in their respec- 
tive parishes in any one district," persons " desirous of intermarrying 
with each other, and neither of them living within the distance of 
eighteen miles of any minister of the Church of England, may 
apply to any neighbouring Justice of the Peace," who should affix 
m some public place, a notice, for which he should receive one 
shilling, and no more. The purport of the notice was that A. B. 
and C. D. wore desirous of getting married, and there being no 
parson within eighteen miles, if any person knew any just reason 
why they should not bo married, should give notice thereof to such 
magistrate. After which a form of the Church of England was to 
be followed, but should a minister reside within eighteen miles of 
either parties the marriage was null and void. ' 

It is related that those notices of marriage were often attached 
to trees by the road side, and as it was considered desirable in those 
days to keep intending marriages secret, not nnfrequently the in- 
tending parties would watch and remove the notice which had 
been put up. 

In the year 1798, an Act was passed to e"tend the provisions 
of the fii-st Act, which provided that " it shall be lawful for the 
minister of any congregation or religious community of persons, 
professing to bo members of the Church of Scotland, or Lutherans, 
or Calvanists" to marry according to the rights of such church, and it 
was necessary that one of the persons to be married sliould have been 
a member of the particul<.r church six months before the mamage. 
The clergyman must have boon regularly ordained, and was to 
appear before Six magistrates at quarter sessions, with at least 
seven members of his congregation, to prove his office, or take the 
oath of allegiance. And then, if the dignitaries thought it expo- 



LECilSLATION. 237 

(iicnt, they might grant him a certificate that ho was a settled 
minister, and therefore could marry, having published the intended 
marriage upon three Sundays previous. 

In November, 1818, a brief act was passed to make valid the 
marriages of those who may have neglected to preserve the testimony 
of their mamage. 

In the year 1821, an act was passed " for the more certain pun- 
ishment of persons illegally solenmizing marriage, by which it was 
provided, that if persons, legally qualiiied to marry, should do so 
without *he publication of banns, unless license be first had, should be 
guilty of a misdemeanor." !.'.:.< i. , /• .•r.vi-i',. 

There was no further legislation until 1831, when provision was 
again made to confirm marriages contracted " before any justice of 
the peace, magistrate, or commanding; officer of a jjost, or minister 
and clergyman, in a manner similar to the previous acts. It was at 
this time enacted that it should be lawful for ministers of the church 
of Scotland, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congi-egationalists, Baptists, 
Independants, Methodists, Menonists, Tunkers, or Moravians, to 
solemnize matrimony, after having obtained certificates from the 
quai'ter sessions. According to the act of 1798, only the <burch of 
Scotland, Lutherans, and Calvinists, beside the English cli oh, were 
permitted to marry persons. So it will be seen hy this act of 1831, 
important concessions were made to different denominations. This 
act wa« by the Methodists, especially regarded as a deserved recogni- 
tion of the constantly increasing number of that denomination. It 
certainly, at this time, seems remarkably strange, that so obvious a 
right, was for so long a time withheld, not alone from them, but other 
denominations. But the effort was strong, and long continued to 
build up the church of England to the exclusion of all others. 

The restriction upon the Methodist ministers was to them greater 
from the fact, that for a long time they were members of a Conference 
existing, where all denominations were alike endowed with the power 
to perform the marriage ceremony. And it is recorded, that in a few 
instances, the ministers stationed in Canada, either forgot the illega- 
lity of marrying, or felt indisposed to submit to the unjust law, and 
did actually marry some persons. Elder Eyan was one, and was 
consequently banished ; but was shortly pardoned by government, 
because of his known loyalty. His son-in-law, Eev. S. B. Smith, was 
another ; but he defended himself at the trial and got free. Another 
was the Eev. Mr. Sawyer, wnu ixi once, on being accused, fled tho 
country for a time. 



23R COURTINO IN THE OLDEN TIMK. 

It npponvH that on the 3lHt May, 1814, govtjriiinoiit ai»|K)intc(l 
five pcrHoriH to iHHiio mnrrifi^fe liccriKCH. One at QuccnHton, one at 
York, ono at KingHtoii, one at William.shurgli, anrl one al Cornwall. 
John Ciunminp^ was appoiiitiMl for KingHton. Prior to tliiH, liron.seH 
had lH!on ocicawlonally iH.siiod, probably, however, only by ap[>liration 
to government. Marrying by liccn.si! was ho noticeable an event, that 
it was considered elegant to Htate in the maiTiage notice, " married 
by licenHO." ■ ' '^i^' -' •*"•' ' " '' "'' '' i:- ^'''" ''J ^•"'••' ■ - •• ••'-^.'•r;, 

Accoi'diiig to a letter in onp pOH.scHHion, KometiTneH the iHHner of 
licetiHc M'onid be without any, wh(fn he would give a certificate to the 
applicant, by which the party could get manned, and HuVwerjucntly he 
woidd fiirniHh liim with the ruiftiiHi!. 

Having given tlu! legal and legislative facts relative to marrying 
in early times, it may not be inappropriate to adduce some items of 
a social nature. " -^'- '-«*.■....•,. | .m.j m .^,.,, .,,,,,:.,-, vim 

Roger liates, of Newcastle, in his memoir at the parliament 
library, speaks thus ))leaHantly Miid graphically in refetrlng to his 
father's courtsliip and marriage, wliich took j)lace at the commence- 
ment of the j)reHent vdi.Uiry. " The mod(! of courting in those days 
was a good fleal of tlic Indian fasliion. The buxom daugfiter would 
nm through the trees and bnsiies, and pretend to get away from the 
lover; but somehow or other lie managed to catcli her, gave her a kiss, 
and they soon got marri<?d, I rather think by a magistrate. Time 
was too valuable to mak(! a fuss about sudi matters." Whether this 
mode of courting was practiced elsewhere, than in Newcastle, it 
may be doubted. Hpeaking of the weddings, and the journey to 
get the knot tied, he say;4, " they generally furni.Hhed themselves 
with tomahawks and implements to defend themselves, and to 
camp out if required. The ladies hwl no white drosses to spoil, or 
fancy bonnets. With (l(!or skin petti(;oatH, home-spun gowns, and 
perhaps squiiTcl skin bonnet, they looked charming in the eyes of 
their lovers, who were rigged out in similar materials." Again, 
about the wedding ring, which could not then \)o procu -ed, ho says, 
"I have hoard my mother say, that undo Ferguson, a magistrate, 
rather than disappoint a happy couple, who hml walked twenty 
miles, made search throughout the house, and luckily found a pair 
of old English skates, to which was attached a ring, with this he 
proc(!cded with the ce^'cmony, and fixing the ring on the young 
woman's finger, rcmincicd her, that though a homoly substitute, she 
must continue to wear it, otherwise the ceremony would be difl- 
Holved. That curious token was greatly cherished, and is still 
among the family relics." 



I'HIMITIVK WEliMNOH. 239 

Mr. Sheriff Sherwood, nixjaking of hiM fhthor, oiio of the fir«t 
ma^intraUis ttj)]ioirit(!(l by Sijiu;o<!, Htiyn " hv, jiroluifjly joijied inoro 
individualH to/^othcr in tho liappy hoiidH of rnalrimony, than any 
otlior porHon over haH, in tho (iounty of LcodH. J havo oft(!n hoard 
liim mention tho circuinHtancc of u yoiin/jjinan asking him tomarry 
him, but who Haid, J cannot got tho monoy to ]my you, but J will 
mako you a good wJioat fan, wJiicdi horoa<lily accoptod, an it was an 
nrticl(! mucli UHC'd at that timo. At another time an »;hl man camo 
on tho wame errand, and Haid to him. I cannot got tho monoy to pay 
you, but I will mako you a good eoi'n baHkot, with oak HplintH, and 
HO tight that I will waiTant it to hold water, and tho old man 
punctually fulfilled niw promiwo." ( ,,!4 •,:,..•■, d (,;.-m' .Ah. 

We havo Homo intorosting information from an old latly who 
Hcttled in AmoliaHburgh, and who Htill lives. Getting married at 
tho beginning of tho prowont century wan a groat event. Tho 
Carrying Phuie was tho usual plac^o of resort. "They placed in a 
lumber waggon, a number of chairs, and each gallant was supposed 
to support his partner upon his knee, and thus economise room. 
"IMttors " Wore indulged in, but no fighting allowed. If one began 
that, }io was put out. Keeping goo^l naturod was u point of duty 
insistod upon. Noold ])or«on8 went to tho wedding, but they joined 
in the dance, when tho youngsters got back. A wedding without 
a dance was considered an insipid alfair; and it was generally kept 
up two or throe successive night« at ditferont places. Francis 
Woose's was a halfway liouso botwoon McMan's corners, (Rodncr- 
ville^, and tho Carrying Place. Wooso was a distitiguished player 
upon tho fiddle, and tho wedding parties often stayed with him tho 
first night. 

"A yoke of steers, a cow, three or four shoop, with a bed, table, 
two dozen chairs, was regarded a very decent setting out for the 
bride. And if the groom was heir to 50 or 100 acres of land, with 
a little cleared, ho was thought to have tho worldly "gear," to 
constitute a first-rato match." 

Tho hist-f)ry of i'rontior life; of tho advance body of pioneers 
in tho far west, frequently exhibits great irrogularitiy in morals ; 
a non-f)bsorvanco of God's commandmonlH. But tho record of the 
first settlors of Upper Canjwia is remarkably bright. When it is 
recollected thatthoy were but scattered sottlomontsin n wildei'noss; 
far away from civilized life; excluded Irom tho world, and rcjnoved 
from tho influence of the salutary power of public opinions, it is a 
matter of wonder, that great and frequent violation of God'8 law. 



240 AN EXCEPTION. 

with regard to marring did not tako place. But such was not tli^ 
cane, as a general tiling; the holy bonds of matrimony, wore 
employed to bind man and woman together, whether through the 
officer, the magiwtrate or the clergyman. For yoara there was but 
few clergymen to mai-ry, and also but few magistrates, and there 
were secluded settlements where the clergyman or magistrate 
came not, and from which the inhabitants could not go, perhaps for 
man miles to get married. But a few, and they are very 
few instances, are recorded where parties deviated from the right- 
eous v':<,y. Upon the shore of the bay, in a remote locality, about 
the year 1796, lived two individuals, whom we will call respectively 
Peter and Polly. They woi'e living in the same family, she has a 
"help," and ho has a hired man ujjon the farm. This couple had 
desired to enter the bonds of matrimony ; but the ministers and 
squires lived some distance off, and they could not get away to bo 
married, so they had to wait for the coming of one who would mai*ry 
them ; they liad to wait, it would seem for several years, in the 
mean time they consoled themselves with genuine, and no doubt 
honest love. At last it came to pass that a Squire visited that 
neighbourhood, and stopped at the house where they lived. 

The family bethought them of the wishes of Peter and Polly ; 
and that now was the time to have the legal knot tied. So Polly 
was called from the kitchen just as she was, and Peter from the 
field besmeared with sweat, and clean dirt, and the two were made 
one. Among the witnesses of the interesting ceremony, was a 
bright eyed boy who trotted unceremonously from the bride to the 
groom, calling thom respectively "mozzer" and " faddcr." The 
time came when this same boy was the owner of the land wheroon 
he had been born. This fact, from excellent authority, stands out 
as an exception to a general .rule, although there is not about it 
that flagrant violation of moral principle which is too often scon 
at the present day, under other circumstances which afford no 
excuse. 

The Eev. Mr. Stuart, living at Kingston, was not often called 
upon to marry, by persons outside of that village, and persons 
rarely found time to go all the way to him. When Mr. Langhorn 
came and opened a church at Adolphustown, and Bath, a more 
central place was supplied, and he consequently was often employed. 
But Mr. McDowell was the one who most frequently was required 
to mar^v. Being a minister of the church of Scotland, he enjoyed 
the J, .:o of marrying, and unlike Langhorn, he would marry 



A WEDDING IN 1807. 241 

them ttt their homoH. 80 when making his rouiulM throuirh the 
country, 011 his ])reuehin/^' excurHionH, ho W!is frequently called upon 
to ofticiato in this cuimclt}'. 

In tho region of the Bay, wore Homo who had in ])revious 
dayH, lived in comfort, had not wanted all that belonged to the well- 
to-do inhabitantH along the Ifudson, and at Now York. In some 
cases, those familicH brought with them the fine clothes that had 
adorned their bodies in former times. Not oidy was it difficult for 
them, in many cases, to get some one to perform the mai-riagc coro- 
raony; but to tho fomalo, especially, it was a grave matter how to 
adorn tho brido with that apparel which Itecomes tho event. In 
those ca.sc,s whore rich clothes, which had boon used by parents, 
were st/)i-ed away, they were brought forth, and by a littlo altera- 
tion, made U) do sorviw ; but by and by these relics of bettor days 
were beyond tlieir power to renovate, and like others, thoy had, if 
married at all, to wear tho garb mentioned by Roger Bates, or 
some other plain article ; a calico print, bought of a pedlar, or a 
calami nk, or linsey-woolsey petticoat, or a woolen drugget, were 
no common luxuries in tho wilderness homo. An old lady who i» 
still living, tolls us that she was married in 1807, and wore tho last- 
mentioned ; and was thought very extravagant indeed. A vener- 
able lady, a native of the jiay, and now well-nigh eighty, remom- 
bers to have attended a wedding about the year 1708, up tho i-iver 
Moira. She was living with her uncle. Col.' C. Tho wedding was 
one of st)mo im])ortance, as both parties were well-to-do. There 
was but a path along the banks of tho river, and thoy went on 
horse back. At that time riding on horseback was a common 
practice, not a single person merely, but in couples. It was no 
unusual thing to see man and wife riding along together, also 
brother and sister, and as well lovers. The guests to this weddino- 
all came on horse back, generally in paii-s. Thoy assembled early 
iti the forenoon, and the happy pair weio soon united. The bride's 
dress was unusually grand, being of lawn ; the two bridesmaids 
graced tho occasion by being diossod in mi.-slin. She bears a dis- 
tinct recollection of the entertainment. The banquet was crowned 
with a majestic chicken pie, in a pan capable of holding some 
twelve quarts; by roast goose, and with pi:.- and cakes of all sorts, 
in abundance. The bride's father was the deacon of a church, and 
did not allow dancing, buithe afternoon and evening wore sijont in 
joyous mirth and jovial "plays" in connection with which forfeits 
were last and redeemed. But, however much these plays may havo 
16 



342 AN EKOPCMKNT. 

(Jo^ciioruUid in n-cetit diiyn, they wcro flum i.ondudod with jjurily 
of lh«Mi/<lit, and iiinoconco of mu.\. Tht; parly did not, br»;uk uf» tho 
iii-Ht, day. Half of thci oonipany ropaiicd U> t,ho Ikmiho of tho ^room'M 
liith<!r, whoro hcdw wor(3 arrun^od tor th<iin. In tho morning tlxjy 
went, buck to th« M<'.one of the wedding, upon \\w ImrdcHof the river, 
whi<'h at thiH point in pttrlicidariy attractive. After hnakfaHt, the 
yoiiu^ people, with th<5 iHiwiy married pair, Mctout for the front, to 
the mouth of the river. Tliey i'ovmwi a joyf)iiH, and it niUHt have 
been a [»ictureH<juo cavaleade. I'Jich /^entlianan wdeeted his fair 
partner, and having mounted \i\n horse, Hhe was duly Heated l»(diiiid 
him. And thuH tJiey net out for thoir dewtination. i.'leaHant, 
indeed, munt liave been the ride; Htrikin^ the Heene, ftH they 
wonded their way along the running water, an<l the bright autumn 
Mun Mhono upon thcin through the variegaloti ioavoH wliich clothed 
tlio thickly Htanding trees. This night was Mpent at Myers' OVeok, 
in following the notes of the fiddle with the nimble feet. ThiH 
terniinateil tJio wtxlding party. This is wiductxl an an illustration 
oj' marrying in early times. Another will be briefly given, it whm 
a case of elopement, and occurred many years bcdore the wedding 
nbovo mentioned. A certain S<iuire had been for many years in the 
enjoyment oi' wedd(Ml bliss. His wife wjw th(! daughter f)f Capt. 

, a half-pay officer, an honest l>ut vvaywanl I)ut<diman. The 

Hquire's wife died, and, in due time, he sought the hand of another 
daughter of the Captiiins, But this the latter would not listen to; 
he was determined they should not marry ; because she was his 
late wife's Bistor. The worthy H<juire could not see the fbnjoof tjhe 
objection, and the lady in rjuestion was likewise blinded by love. 
They resolved to run away, or rather to piuldle away, iti a conve- 
nient canoe. Clandestinely they set out upon the heiwl waters of the 
bay, inteiuling to go to Kingston to obtain the services of a clergy- 
man. But tlie Captain learned the fact of their diiparture and 
fltartc<l in j»ursuit with hirt battoau and oarsmen. According to 
one account, the flying wr>uld-be groomsman, who was paddling his 
own canoe, saw the angry purentcoming, arul mfwie haste to quicken 
hiH speed, but finding that ihity would be overtaken, they landed 
upon an island in the bay, and hauled up the canoe ; and concealed 
it with themselves, in a cavity n]xm the islan<l ; and, after the 
Capluin ha<l passed, returned h'.>meward and procured the services 
of a H(piire to marry thorn. But, according U) another statement, 
the lovers set out while the Captain was absent at Montreal, and i 
arrived at Kingston, unfortunately, as ho was returning home. 



I>KATII AM(tN(» IMONKKHS. 2^5 

Seeing' t)w .Sqtiirn, ho hfid his HUMpicioiiH uroiiHcjil, and he/^uji l<» look 
nUmi for his duii^'htor. She hu.I, however, coriceHh'-l herHolf hy 
throwin;,' iiri Iii<liiifi hliinket iihout her perHon, itrid over her head, 
iirid hy Hittin/,' down nwou^f Horne HqiijiWH. The Hfutirriienl /,'oeH, 
that itwnH well (ho ihi\,Ui\n did not find her, um ho would, uh mooiI 
iiH not, have nhot the S<|iiire. Tho im\ of it wuh, they were inarriod, 
U) live II lon^ und happy dornoHtie life. i\lthou/^'h (here may he a 
little doiiht aH to the <h'tJiilH of this early elopement on the hay, 
there is no doiiht that It took place in Home Hiieh manner an dcf.serihed. 
Among theH(piireH upon tho Buy, the following wcne thcmoHt 
frequently ealled upon to marry : Young, of the Carrying T'lace ; 
Bleekor, of tho Trent; Im/.wt, of 8oi)hiaHhurgh. The Tnagistraton 
rcHiding nearer KingHton and AdolphuHt^)wn had Iobm of this to do^ 
m clergymen could there he more (fUHiiy ohtainod. 

> -' . •v-.t -.i.t «, • , J-:/- M:.i i' ,-• ; w mV; .11 '».;;) ^^1■*/'n .'I 

■ •■W t-'.i'f'". <V ^ V. ■/••■'l' -■• ' '" ' ,-!',' , ■♦(, ,' • f .[}'{, '<■■/• .< 'i ' vu'wf ' 

■' • . ■ I'M ,' : I ,., ,7, . 

' C'lIAPTKK XXIV. Mo,,, ) v., 

'■ . .,,, .: .. .,,,. ,•!.,■ . 

CoJiVKNTH— RiirylriK Vhrv.n—Uow Holi-ct-d— Kmnily I'.uryini? I'Iiucm— Kor fli- 
N.!lKli).oiirhoo(l— The UwUh—Upnu thi; TfiulMf)n— Mriy giiint(V— A Su. r,-f| 
Hpot to f,h« Loyftli»t.K— AhIioh to AwhcK—l'riniitivu Mrxlo of Uiiri(il--Th(i 
t'oliiti— At tho (Jmvo— Thi! i<'(ithc'i'H lU-m(irk»— Uctiiru to Lal.or— Kr;-ii. 1, 
l)iirylnK-i)lm;() at Kronb-njif — Hh Sito— tl. R. LoyiiliHtH IliirviiiK-r)la< .• ,if, 
KliiKttton— ThC'lI. K Huryfrirc Oroimfl," AdolpJiiiHtowri—WoVthy Sir.-H of 
Canmlii'HKoiiK—Dbray— Neglect. (jt I IIUHtrioimd.wJ—Ucpuir W'niil. r|. - OldcHt 
liiiiyiriK (Jroiind in I'ritico Kdward— Kohh I'la<o— At Kast I^ak.-— Ujion tlic 
JloKi! Fnriri— "Tho Diit.h iJiiryinpc (Jround "— Socoriil (Jrowth Trocil-In 
SopliiaHburKh— fnmk Kan.i— In Hidiioy— Undo Tomb Storic«-dJ«rial-plac.' 
of(;apt.. My.rK— U,dli( tioiiH— DiiKt to DiiHt— In TliiiHow—" Taylor JiiirviriL' 
Oroitnd"— Th(! rir«t IV-rnon Bnri.'<!— Lieut. Fv-ranmiir^An A«^d i^./milc— 
Her Work Dom—WhccUStnud Still. .,.,;,- n:nior, ; »#; > jn.-t ,,,=,•, 

TJIB KAIILY HUItyiNU PLAOKH UPON TUB HAY QUINTE. 



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" your /"afhc-rt, where are they ?" ., 



•<U «V, n';^ 



Hurying j)la('OH in all the now HOttlomotitH were, aw a gonoral 
tiling, Hclected hy tho family to which death inight first come. 
ThiH was true of every part of America. Ere the fonnt hiuJ /all<;n 
'"fore tho hand of tho axeman, or while the roots and Htumps of 
the treoH yet thickly encumhered the ground, before the scythe had 
I'tiOti UHed U) cut tho firHt productw of t}io Hoil, tlio great reaper 
Jt-ath pasHod by, and one and another of the number were cut 



244 A DUTCH CUSTOM. 

down. Some suitable place, under the circunistances, was (^elected 
for the grave, and quietly the body was laid away. In time, a 
neighbour would lone a member of the family, and the body would 
be brought and laid benide the fii-wt buried. And bo on, until a 
certain circle would be. found burying in a common place. But 
Homotimes families would prefer to have a private burial ground, 
Bomo conHpicuou8 npot being selected upon the farm, where the 
ashcH of the family might be gathered together, m one after 
another jjaswed away. The Dutch are particularly attached to this 
custom. This may be seen even yet in thoHO old sections of New 
York State, where the Dutch originally settled, especially at 
Hoboken, opposite Now York City. Sacred spots were appropriated 
by each family upon the farm, in which the family was buried. The 
descendants of these Dutch who became such loyal subjects, and 
guttering refugees who settled around the bay, followed the same 
practice. These spots may be seen along the Hudson, and the ]ky 
Quinto, which may be regarded as the Hudson of Canada, and arc 
indicated by the drooping willow, or the locust or cjTpress. Some 
from whom reliable information has been received, state that the 
spot selected on the Bay Quinte was often that, whore the family 
had first landed— where they had rested on the bare earth, beneath 
the trees, until a hut could be erected. This spot was chosen by the 
refugee himself as a suitable place to take his last rest. Indeed, 
the devotion of the settler to the land where ho luul wrought out 
his living, and secured a comfortable homo, was sometimes of an 
exalted character. One instance by way of illustration :— There 
came to the shores of Hay Bay an heroic woman, a little rough 
perhaps, but one whose soul had been bitterly tried during the con- 
fliot between her king and the rebels. Her husband had been on 
many a battle-field, and she had assisted on many an occasion to 
give comfort to the British troops. The log hut was duly erected, 
and day after day they went forth together to subdue the wilder- 
ness. In the sear and yellow leaf, when competence had been 
secured and could be bequeathed to their children, when the first 
log tenement had fallen to decay, she caused her children to promise 
that her ,bo4y. should be laid upon the sj)ot where that old hut had 

stood. r V •'■ •,*: '• f ■'•■" ■.■..y->v--;-r^f r;: •'■;;'';''{^' '-■•;l-v fi;??)'?";' 'v. 
., ,/ The mode of burial was often simple and touching, often there 
was no clergyman" of any denomination; no one to read a prayer 
over the dead for the benefit of the living. Frequently, in the hush 
of suspended work, through the quiet shades of the trpQswhost; 



ILLirsTRIOUS DEAD. 245 

boiiKhs Highod jv requiem, like as if un^'ols whispered peace to the 
8a<l and toju-fnl mourners who silently, or with sui)pressod sobs 
followed the coffin of the plainest kind, often of rou/,'h construction,' 
which contained the remains of a loved one to the grave, in somJ 
spot selected. The rude coffin being placed in the grave, those 
present would uncover, and the father, in sad tones, would make a 
few remarks respecting the departed, offer a few thoughts which 
the occasion suggested, and then the coffin was hidden out of siglit 
The men would return to thoir labors, and tho women to their 
duties. _ , . . . ,.1 .,, , ,•; 

We learn, on excellent authority, that tho burial place for 
the Froncli, at Fort Prontooac, was where tho barracks now stand 
near the bridge. But not unlikely tho French, when one died away 
from the fort at any distance, committed the dead to tho earth in 
Indian burial places. The first burial place for tho U. R Loyalists 
in Kingston, was situated where St. Paul's Church now stands, on 
Queen Street, which was formerly called Grove Street. ' ' -li' '' 

No township is more rich in historic matters, pertaining to 
Lliu a. E. Loyalists than Adolphustown. Hero settled a worthy 
band of refugees whose lineage can be traced back to noble names 
in France, Germany and Holland. Here was the birth-place of 
many of Canada's more prominent and wortliy sons, and here 
repose the ashes of a largo number of the devoted pioneers. 

As the steamboat enters to the wharf at Adolphustown, the 
observer may notice a short distance to the west, upon tho summit 
of a ridge, a small enclosure in which are a number of second 
growth trees, maple and oak. He may even see indistinctly a few 
marble tombstones. If he walks to tho spot he will find that the 
fence is rough, broken, and falling down. Casting his eye over 
the ground he sees tho traces of numerous graves, with a few 
marble head-stones, and a long iron enclosure within which are 
buried the dead of the Casey family, with a marble slab to the 
head of each. Tho ground generally is covered with the debris of 
what once tormcd enclosures of individual graves or family plots 
When visited by the writer, one grave, that of Hannah Vandusen* 
had growing out of its bosom a largo poplar tree, while the wooden' 
lonce around was falling and resting against the tree. The writer 
gazed on these evidences, not alone of decay but neglect, with 
great regret, and with a sigh. For here, without any mark of 
their grave, lie many who were riot only noble U. E. Loyalists 
hut who were men of distinction, and ibo fathers of men well 



24C RECJUIKHCAT IN I'ACK. 

known in Canadian IliHtory. Mr. Josepli Jl. Allison, uccoini.ttiiiwl 
iih, iind ])()int('(l out tlio Hovmul upotw whoro ho hud Huon buriod 
th(!H() illiiHlrioUH dcud. 

In the noith-wt'Ht corner oftlio ground, with notrnco ovon of a 
^'ravD to nuulf tlio Hpot, IIch the old Miijor who convnmndod the 
fonipuny. Mr. Alli.son wuHproKunt, ullhouKh a littlo boy at hiw burial. 
The ovont is fixed upon his mind by the (act tlio militia turned out 
and buried him with military honors. We stood on the sjiot ovor- 
^rn.wu with thorn trees, and felt a pan^' that his name waH thus 
Jor;;ottcn, and liiw name almost unknown. (Jloso by is tt neat 
ma'rbic headstone to a frrava, uj.on which is the following': 
"Ifcnn/ Hover, departed this life, Awjust 23rd, 1842, ayed 79 years, 5 
months and n days " Nobleman! Impriwmmont with chains for 
nearly two years, with man} hardships during, and after the war, 
did not mak(! his life short, and we were thankful ho hml left des- 
cendants who forgot not to mark his resting-place. For account of 
this person see under '« lloyal Combatants." , . , < :«, > . 

The entrance gate to the ground is at the east sido. To the 
right on entering, a short distance otV, is an oak tree. Between the 
gate and tree was laid the body of Nicboliis llagerman. Sad to say, 
nothing indicates the reHting.])l!ice of the earliest lawyer of the Pro- 
vince, and the father of Ju<lge Jlagerman. (See distinguished Loy- 
aliBts). In the middle of the ground roHts the dead of the Casey 
family. The; two old couple whom wo remember to have seen when 
a boy in their green old age, lie here. " Willet Casey died aged 80. 
Jane, his wife, aged 93." W<^ would smv to all here buried, Requiesmf 
injjace. IJut the very cnunblings of the enclosures which were put 
around the graves by sorrowing friends wluiU they died cry out against 
the neglected stale of the ground. The elforts which have rei)eat- 
edly been made to put the place in rei»aii- ought to be repeated, and 
a stone wall at least made to eHectually inclose the sacred dust. 

The oldest burying jilace, we believe, in Prince Edward, is sonic 
distance from Indian Point, upon the Lake Shore, and east of the liock, 
coniinonly known as Ros.s's Burying Ground. In this sj.ot nrc 
buried some of the. Hrst and most distinguished of the iirst settlors 
of Marysburgh. ■ ■ > •■ ''■•-■' • v ■"••" '-- ■' t'**' '•''-' 

Another old burying plact; in Princic Edward is at East Lake, 
at the commencement of tlu; Carrying Place. Here may be found 
the graves of some eighteen persons who made the first settlement ot 
East Lake. The lot upon which it is situated belonged to Mr. 
Dyse. It is no longer used, but is parti :'lly in a I>lo»Slit!d field, niul 
partially covered by a second growth o- trees. 



OM) nriivrv(» plaoks 247 

Upon tho ivm«l jilon^' flio Hoiitli hIidpo of Mnryfthiif^', n hliort 
.listniico woftt of tli<> ]{4)vk, ii|)Oii f|i(! Him' farm, nin to bo hocii tho 
liiiKoriii/^ rcMiaiiiH of tho Hrst cliiirch of thin fowiiHhip. It was 
«n!C'to(l at an onrly date, iind waH twenty four foot Hquaro. lloro 
W(fant wan wont to proach to hiH ttoc.k of LnthoranM, an<l honi at 
timoH Fian^rhorn from Huth alno hold forth. Tho Hituation i.«* 
pl»!a«an(, upon IIk* l)n»w of a oomparalivoly Mrvp hill, ovorlookini^ 
li ploasiint IowImihI, with th(! HJiinin/-- Ontiirir), and l.onp; Point 
Ktrotchint? away into itn wat»!rM; whilo lo thc! ri^'ht \h tim woll 
Hlicltorod VVajipooHo iKland. Miit anotlxM' objoct attraotH oni- atton- 
tion. Almost immcdiatoly fronting: hh upon a Hand-hill oIoho by tho 
\vat(!r'H od^ro is to Ix, hooii " tho old batch burying' i^roimd." It Ih 
about half.a-milo from the road, and w(^ will doHcond tho hill and 
tako tho road Ihrough tho lioldH alon/^ tho thm-c, the? way by wlii(di 
HO many hav(^ pasHod to their lon^ homo. Tho old graveyard i« 
ovorftha(h)Wod by good Hi/.od woond ^'rowth jiinoH, wIioho waving 
lopH sigh not unharmoniouNly over tho aHh«(s of th(!old irossinn and 
Dutch HottlorH. Tho adjacont Hhoro waHhod by tho over throbbing 
iaicc gives forth to day tho gontlost Hounds. Thoso old burying 
placoH remind one that Canada is <!Vt)r growing old. Hero lio, not 
ulono tho oarly pionoors, but thoir gratjd-childron ; and over tho spcjt 
cloarcd aro now good si/.od Hocond growth troos. Tho hoad boards 
tiro fallen in decay, tho fonoc aroiuul th<! plots have criunblod in 
the dust. . ,. . ,. . ., , . ; , , 

Tho oldost burying placo in Bophlasluirgli is upon'thc Cronk 
farm oast of North j)orf. 

Nearly midway botwoon Jiollovillo aiul Trenton is situalcid 
tho oldest burying ground of Sidney. It is pleasantly located 
upon an eminence by tho bay shore, and alloi-ds a lino view of tho 
bay, and opposite sliore. Tl»o visitor will Ik; struck with tho 
iiTogularily of tho graves in the placo ])rimarily used, as if tho 
graves had been dug among the stumps. Sorn oC them aro almost 
north and south. At tho ends of mostly all aro i)lacod st(uios, rough 
they are, but lasting, and have, in a large number of (!asos, moi-o 
permanent iy indicated the position of the graves. Upon some of 
those rough stones aro rudely cut tho initials of tho occuj)ant of tho 
gmvo. in a great number of cas<is tablets ])aintod on wood have 
been placed to commomorate tho individal deceased. Hut these aro 
UAiiWy ol)litoi-ated, and the wood is falling U) decay. Probably tho 
temporary mark of affectionate sorrowing was as lasting as the life 
of the bereaved. We lingered auiong tho graves hero, and they 



,• fc- 



248 TAYLOR BURYING GROUND. 

are numerous. We see the name Myers. And we know that oUl 
Capt. Myers was buried here, after an eventful life. Around him 
also repose his old acquaintances and fi'iends — and enemies. They 
are gone with the primeval woods that covered the slopes by the 
Bay Quint(J — gone with the hopes and aspirations, and prospects, 
and realizations that crowned their trying and eventful life — gone 
so that their ashes can no longpr be gathered, like the old battoau 
which transported them thither — gone like their old log houses 
whose very foundations have been plowed up — gone like their 
rude implements of agriculture — gone by the slow and wearisome 
steps of time which marks the pioneer's life. 

It is gratifying to see that while the ground has been extended, 
a new fence has been built, and elegant tomb-stones, 1868. 

The first place set apart in which to bury the dead, in the town- 
ship ot Thurlow was the " Taylor Burying Ground." It is situated 
in Belleville, at the east of the mouth of the Moira, in view of the 
bay. The first person committed to the earth here was Lieut- 
Ferguson, who had been associated with Capt. Singleton. The 
second individual is supposed to have been the mother of John 
Taylor. She had been brought to the place by her son, her only 
son, two having been executed by the rebels during the war, when 
almost ninety years of age. But her stay on earth had alrtiost 
ended; not long after, she was one day engaged in spinning flax, and 
suddenly ceased her work, and told them to put away the wheel, 
as she would spin no more. A few minutes after she ceased to 
live, and the weary Avheels of life stood still. For many years this 
ground was the repository of the dead, about the mouth of Myers' 
Cree(k. , , _ , ..,.,. .. ,;J* 

' l^-f^aolod hn'n ,fedmmt{iiTiiC>]:'e'fb-?/ ^^oiiT llJlcif Vn'^^/iii: 
iJOC'a* i ,ttt^ii^'rfainj&i|8 1p ,a^^ ^!^I"iu jtoij-io.ajli' 



\::r,'\ : ■ ■ >,i'-,>j •^' ff ,;{ jf. , ^ 



■ •■•» 7.)' Wini^: ''mT '•■•^■'''- "r^-- fV;-'*» ;■' "f- 'i '^r■>^(■i^j•^.■t^ vtv?- ?{ij'^ ifiJl '•>' 'r- 

' ,' ' THE EAELY CLERGYMEN AND CHUECHES. '*""-"' 
' ''; " "!.' '':' ' CHAPTER XXV. "f-'^' •'■'''^-^^'^'^t'^ V-v,tv 

Contents.— French Missionaries— First in 1615-— Recollets— With Champlain— 
Jesuits, in 1625 — Valuable records — Bishopric of Quebec, 1674 — First 
Bishop of Canada, Laval— Rivalry— Power of Jesuits— Number of Mission- 
aries — Their " Relations" — First mission field ; Bay Qninte region — " Antient 
mission" — How founded — First missionaries— Kleus, abbe D'Urfe— La 
Salle, to build a church— The ornaments and sacred vessels — The site of the 
" Chappcl," uncertain— Bald Bluff, Carrying Place— Silver crosses— Mission 
at Georgian Bay— The " Christian Islands "—Chapel at Michilmicinac, 1679 
—The natives attracted— Subjects of the French King— Francois Picquet — 
La Presentation — Soegasti — The most important mission — The object — Six 
Nations— The Missionary's living-" Disagreeable expostulations— Putting 
stomach in order— Trout — Picquet's mode of teaching Indians—The same 
afterward adopted by Rev. W. Case— Picquet's success-Picquet on a voyage 
—At Fort Toronto — Mississaugas request — Picquet's reply — A slander — At 
Niagara, Oswego— At Frontenac— Grand reception— Return to La Presenta- 
tion— Picquet in the last French war — Returns to France— fly Mi8> 'ssippi — 
" Apostles of Peace "—Unseemly strife — Last of the Jesuits in Canada. 

s/,ii«^'.>-i. '■'HE FIRST FRENCH MISSIONARIES. '. ,^j . 

In inti*oducing this snbje .t, we propose fii-st to glance at the 
original French Missionaries and then at the first Protestant 
Missionaries and clergymen, who labored in the Atlantic Provinces. 

The first missionaries of Christianity to America, came to 
Canada in the year 1615. They wore four in number, and belonged 
t'Uhe order of Recollets, or Franciscans, of Spanish origin, a sect 
who attended to the spiritual wants of the people without accepting 
any reraunevation. Four of these devoted men attended Champlain 
on his second visit to Canada in 1615. Three years later the Pope 
acco 'lod the charge of missions in Canada to the Recollets of Paris. 
In 1625 members of the society of Jesus likewise entered the mis- 
sion of America. Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuit society in 
1521. Theao two orders of Roman Catholics, especially the Jesuits, 
contributed much to the advancement of French interests in Canada, 
and by their learning assisted greatly to elevate the people. Side 



250 FIRST MISSION FIELD. 

by side they traversed the vast wilderness of America, with the 
intrepid explorers, and by their close observations, committed to 
paper, they have left most valuable records of the country in its 
primeval state ; and the different tribes of savages that held posses- 
sion of the country, l'. '/■'^■'■'^f JU .l.i;^,V'!;i .: >:! -v ,;u:J >nw 

Canada was "constituted an apostolic vicariat," by the Pope, in 
1657 ; and became an episcopal see, named the Bishopric of Quebec, 
about 1673. The first bishop of Canada was Pi-ancis de Laval, of the 
distinguished house of Montmorency. The rivalry which existed 
between the Jesuits and the Eecollets, led to the withdrawl from 
the country of the lattei-. But they returned again about 1669. 
They were welcomed by the people, who preferred their self-sup- 
porting principles to the Jesuits, under Laval, who required susten- 
tation from them, which was exacted by a system of tithes. The 
Jesuits became a very powerful ecclesiastical body, and commanded 
even sufficient political influence to secure the recall of the Governor, 
who was obnoxious to them, in 1665. Yet the people did not like 
them, in their usurpation of temporal power. The second bishop 
of Canada was M, de Saint Vallier, who was elevated to tliat position 
in 1688. 

•'Between the years 1635-1647, Canada was visited by eighteen 
Jesuits missionaries." It was due to these missionaries, who 
remained with, and adapted themselves to the Indian tribes, that 
Canada held such a position among the Aborigines. The relations 
of these missionaries are of thrilling interest, and deserve the 
attention of all who desire to become a student of history. 

When there were no more than sixty inhabitants at Quebec, in 
1620, the Eecollets had begun to erect a convent and chapel ?ipon 
the banks of the St. Charles Kivcr, *..,;. 

The Bay Quinte region may be regarded as the earliest mission 
field in America. Of the four Missionaries who came with Cham- 
plain from France, in 1615, one at least accompanied him in his 
journey up the Ottawa, across to Georgian Bay, and down the 
Trent to the Bay. This was in July, and Champlain was under the 
necessity of remaining in this region until the following spring, 
in the meantime visiting several of the tribes all along the north 
shore of Lake Ontario. During this period the zealous EccoUet 
earnestly labored to lay the foundation of Christianity among the 
natives, and planted the " antiont mission" spoken of by father 
Picquet, 1751. We have positive statement to this effect. Probably 
when Champlain returned to Montreal, in the spring of 1616, he was 



" THE ANTIENT MISSIONS." 86J 

not accompanied by the missionary ; who stayed to estr.blish the 
work ho had commenced. We find it stated that the earliest mis- 
sionaries to this region were M. Dolliero de Kleus, and Abbe 
D'Urfe, priests of the Saint Sulpico Seminar3^ Picquot remarks 
that the ancient mission at the Bay Quinte was established by 
Kleus and D'Urfe. ^^i- i,..^i;j;7,4, ■■, -^ , ,,„ ijf,>;,,^ 

In June, 1571, DeCourcelles, as we have seen, visited Lake 
Ontario, coming directly up the St. Lawrence. On this occasion, it 
is recorded, he sent messages from Cataraqui " to a few mission- 
aries residing among the Indians." Two years later, when Fron- 
tenac came, with a view of establishing a fort, we find it stated 
that as he approached Cataraqui, he was met by a canoe with the 
" Abbe D'Urfo, and the Captains of the Five Nations." The fol- 
lowing year, 1674, LaSalle, in his petition for the grant, of Fort 
Fi'ontenac. and adjacent lands, projwsed " to build a church when 
there will be 100 persons, meanwhile to entertain one or two of the 
RecoUet Friars to perform divine service, and administer the sacra- 
ments there." In the reply to this petition by the King, it was 
stipulated that LaSalle should " cause a church to be erected within 
six years of his grant." 

When Bradstroet, nearly a hundred years later, in 1751, cap- 
tured Fort Frontenac, the Commandant, M. de Moyan, obtained the 
promise from Brudstreet, to <' permit the ornaments and sacred 
vessels of the chappel to bo removed in the luggage of the Chaplain." 
'■]: By the foregoing, we learn the interesting fact, that for 150 
years before the captui'o of Canada by the English, and nearly 170. 
before Upper Cajiada was first settled, there existed at the Bay 
Quinte an active mission of Eoman Catholic Christianity. The exact 
location of the " chappel" cannot bo fixed ; but there is every reason 
to suppose that it was upon the shores of the Bay, at some distance 
westward from Cataraqui, inasmuch as reference is made to the 
chapel as quite apart from the Fort, at Cataraqui. ^<% ^wi\,:,i..,..ir 

From the nature of the relics found in the Indian burying 
ground, near the Carrying Place, at Bald Bluff, by Weller's Ba}^ it 
might even have been situated there. Silver crosses, and other 
evidences of Roman Catholic Christianit} , have been found in this 
place. Father Picquet remarks that the laud was not good, but the 
quarter is beautiful. 

Tliere seems every probability that not muny years after the 
establishment of the mission by the Bay Quinte, another was estab- 
lished in the neighboi-hood of Lake Huron, or Georgian Bay. 



252 LA PRESENTATION. 

Upon the river Wye, Kome 'six miles north of Penetanguishene, 
Pc-na-tang-que shine, so called by the Indians upon first seeing the 
sand banks, meaning " see the sand is falling," was established a 
French fort, at an earl}^ date, the foundation of which may yet be 
seen. It appears likely that at this point, at the Christian Islands, 
(a significant name,) situated between the Manitoulin Islands and 
the mainland; and also at Michilmicinac, were commenced mis- 
sionary labors b}' the Eecollets and others. We find it stated that 
in 1679 there was a chapel at Michilmickinjic, which may refer 
to the Christian Islands. Here LaSallc, on his way westward, 

stopped and attended mass, with the celebrated Eecollet, Pere 
Hennenin "''^■''^''^■^' ''^^'^■^ «<'»!?»>.«■, '>'ff ;.'.-..?•! ,«•'■.•;;•?»>. Y^'fttn? -^r^ a ».vc>'i?' 

The natives were strongly attached to these French mission- 
aries. Presents of porcelaine beads to make wampum, with a kind 
t:'emeanor, soon won many of them to become Eoman Catholics ; and 
the cross was set up in their midst. And the time came when they 
wore willing to acknowledge themselves under the protection of, 
and subject to the French King. 

At the present site of Ogdensburgh, in the year 1748, " Francis 
Picquet, Doctor of the Sarbonne, King's Missionary, and Prefect 
Apostolic to Canada," began to found the miBsion of La Presentation. 
By the river Oswegotchie, then called by the Indians Soegasti, he 
succeeded in planting a mission, which became the most important 
in all Canada, The object was to convert the Six Nations to Eoman 
Catholic Christianity, and thereby to win them from their connection 
with the English, M. Picquet was a devoted man. " He received at 
that time neither allowance nor presents. From the King he had 
but one half pound of pork a day, which made the savages say, 
when they brought him a buck and some partridges, " We doubt 
not, Father, but that there have been disagreeable expostulations 
in your stomach, because you had nothing but pork to eat. Here 
is something to put your affairs in order." They sometimes brought 
him trout weighing eighty pounds. - *^^^- - 

In 1749, when French interests were declining in the new world, 
and w^hen every effort to secure the alliance of the Iroquois was 
devised, Governor de Veudreuil sent the Eev. Abbe Picquet of the 
missionary house at La Presentation, he being well and favorably 
know among the Five Nations. The object was to draw within the 
bounds of La Presentation many of the families, where they should 
not only be taught the Catholic religion, but also the elements of 
husbandry. It was somewhat the same idea Wi that which led the 



l'abbe picquet. 263 

Eev. William Case, in latci- days, to domesticate the Mississaugas on 
the Graj^e Island. L'Abbe Picquet was successful in his mission, 
and in 1751, he had 396 heads of families living at the place. 
Among these were the most distinguished and influential families 
of the Iroquois. The settlement was divided into three villages, 
and much taste and skill were displayed in the planning. Great 
attractiveness characterized the place up to the conquest of Canada. 

In the month of June, 1751, Father Picquet set out upon a 
voyage up to Fort Fi-ontenac, and thence up the Bay Quinte, and 
the Eiver Trent to Fort Toronto, and so on around Lake Ontario. 
He embarked in a King's canoe, accompanied by one bark, in which 
were five trusty savages. The memoir of this trip is curious and 
edifying. . , . ■ / 

Proceeding to Fort Toronto, by way of the Trent, then an im- 
portant trading post with the Indians, he found Mississaugas there 
who flocked around him ; they spoke first of the happiness their 
young people, the women and children, would feel, if the King 
would be as good to them as to the Iroquois, for v hom ho procured 
missionaries. They complained that instead of building a church, 
they had constructed only a canteen for thtm. Abbe Picquet did 
not allow them to finish, and answered them, that they had been 
treated according to their fancy ; that they had never evinced the 
least zeal for religion; that their conduct was much opjjosed toit;— 
that the Iroquois, on the contrary, had manifested their love for 
Christianity, but as he had no order to attract them to his mission, 
he avoided a more lengthy explanation," (Paris Doc). This con- 
duct on the part of Abbe Picquet must be regarded as heartless in 
the extreme. Such language ought not to come from the lips of a 
missionary. It shows that the Iroquois, because of his relationship 
with the English, had souls of far more imijortance th :a the Mis- 
aissauga, whose character for peace rendered him of mi ii or import- 
ance. The reflection upon the character was uncharitable; and, 
judging by the light supplied by later daya, it wau untrue— shame- 
fully untrue. That the Mississauga Indians acquired a taste for 
the brandy vended to them by the French trader was certainly a 
fact; but that did not indicate an unwillingness on their part, to 
become christians. Missionaries, of the present centurj^ have 
succeeded in raising the Mississauga, not alone from paganism, but 
from a degrading love of spirituous liquors acquired of the French, 
to a distinguished place among converted Indians. 

Abbe Picquet went from Fori, Toronto, probably by the River 



254 THE LAST OP THE JESUITS. 

Don, and thonco across tho lake, to Fort Niagjira, to negotiate with 
the Sonocas. Passing along tho south shore, ho visited tho English 
fort at the mouth of the River Oswogo, called Clwneguen, He also 
visited the River Gascouehogou, (Genesee) and returned to Fron- 
tenac, where a grand reception awaited him. "The Nippissings and 
Algonquina who wei'e going to war, drew up in a line of their own 
accord above Fort Frontenac, where three standards were hoisted. 
They fired several volleys of musketry, and cheered incessantly. 
They were answered in the same style from all the little crafts of 
bark. M. dd Verchere, and M. de la Valtrie, caused the guns 
of the fort to be discharged at the same time, and the Indians, 
transported with joy at tho honors paid them, also kept up a con- 
tinual fire with shouts and exclaraations which made every one 
rejoice. The commandants and officers received our missionary at 
the landing. No sooner had he landed than all the Algonquins and 
Nippissinga of the hike came to erribrace him. Finally, when he 
returned to £a Presentation, he was received with that affection, 
that tenderness, which children would experience in recovering a 
father whom they hsid lost." Three years later war was, for the 
last time, in progress between the French and tlnglish in America. 
Father Picquet contributed much to stay the downfall of French 
domination. He distinguished hifnsel^in all the principal engage- 
ments, and by his presence animated the Indian converts to battle 
for the French King. At last, finding all was lost, he retired on 
the 8th May, 1760. He ascended the Bay Quinte and Trent by 
Fort Toronto, and passed on to Michilmicinac, and thence to the 
Mississippi ; and then to Now Orleans, where he stayed twenty-two 
months. Died 15th July, 1781, called tho " Apostle of the Iroquois." 
During the Fi-onch domination in Canada, the dissent' ots 
between the Recoll^ts and Jesuits were almost incessant. .'fow 
the one was sustained and patronized by the governor regnant, now 
the other, and many wore the struggles between Church and 
State. Tho closing days of French rule witnessed scenes of un- 
seemly strife between the clergy and the governors. The last of 
the Jesuits in Canada, Father Casat, died in 1800, and the whole of 
their valuable possessions came to the government. 



PR0TB8TANT CLERGY. ^ 

CHAPTEE XXVI. ' ' " , 

djJrcho^FirHt bS oTK Yo^kf W^^^^^vT^^^^^^^^^^^ -'' 

First Citholic Bishop in America 1780 Vn,-«™r b-^ Barclay, 1746- 
stato of Pioneers in CanadH etig oS^^o^Ste?^^^^^^ .HOG-Moral 

Rev Joijn Doughtyri o'^lX oTd LKfi^Xur^^^^^^^ 

Nations-Tlio I)utch-~Ilev Mr F, ir!:' <^^"^1^ '-MiSBlon Work-The Fire 

Dr. Whelock— Tho Indian Vanv^rtl %Z r .^nglan^ Missionaries— Rev. 

-John Stuart selector Im^sRiZrv^^^ *''• !«?"« 

' cent-A Graduate P 11 STn;;«r?**'r ""l P^n^y'vania-Irish des- 

Ordinatlon-Holy-OnS l^ll^rl:'^':^^^^^'''-- ■''' "°^^^'^^- 
THE FIRST PROTESTANT CLERGYMAN IN AMERICA. -'^^^''^ ^ 

According to the Rev. J. B, Wakley, "The Keformed Dutch 
Church w,,. the first orga„i,.od in New Amsterdam, (New Yo"kT 

(Manhatten). It was built on what is caUed Broad Street It »-,^ 
a «ma 1 frail wooden building. The n.ame of the first D™ „ie pT 

Zt ,^'" "'^r'"'*" ""«"'^"^- H« «»">« over from hX 
w> h the cdebrat^d Wanter Van Twiller. The Dutch and the Hu:,^ 

nots as weU as the Pilgrims, brought the church, the schoolmlsC 
and «,e,r bible, with them. They erected a dwdlin; t Eev 
M . Bogardu, to res de in. This was the first parsonage b ilfon 
fte island, if not m America. This first minister in New Imsterdam 
« vthasadend. After spending some year, in the new world 
m r tnmmg ,„ his native land, he, with eighty-one others was lost 
«. coast of Wales The Bogarts are proUly descc-Zf ot 
th. pioneer mm.ster, he having left children behind him in America 
«>„,e near connection The first KeC^r of the Church of E^g nd 

Sv S T l^\- '^"'"'" ^°"^' ""'"' "' ^"""^ Church 
"eiiev.D,. Henry Barchay was the second Eector, who ha.) pre 

»«ame Hector October 22, 1746. "He was the father of the l-ite 
I^«s Barclay Consul-General of His British Majesty ^n h 
United Slates, and gr.andfather of Mr. Anthony Barclay, late British 



266 I'iKTY. 

Consul at New York, who was under the necessity of r-turniiighome 
during the Russian war, in consequence of the jealousy and partiality 
of the American Government. i ' ' --i' 

We find it stated that Dr. Carroll, of Maryland, was the first 
Catholic Bisliop in America, 1V89. 

Dr. Seabury, Bishop of Connecticut, was the first Episcopalian 
Bishop of that State, he died in 1790. 

The circumstances of the settlers in Upper Canada were not 
such as would conduce to a growth of religion and morality. Apart 
from the eftect upon them resulting from a civil war,and being driven 
away from home— isolated in a wilderness, far removed from civiliza- 
tion ; there were circumstances inimical to the observance of religious 
duties. The earnest contest for life, the daily struggle for food, 
and more especially, the absence of ministers of the gospel, all 
combined to create a feeling of indifference, if not a looseness of 
morals. In a few instances, there was on the part of the settlers, 
a departure from that strict virtue, which obtains at the present 
time, and in which they had been trained. But on the whole, there 
was a close adherence, and a severe determination to serve the God 
of their lather's. From many a log cabin ascended the faithful prayer 
of the foUowers of Luther ; of the conscientious Episcopalian, and the 
zealous Methodist and Baptist. Yet, for years, to some the word of 
life was not preached ; and then but rarely by the devoted missionary 
as he traveled his tedious round of the wilderness. After ten yem, 
the average ol inhabitants to the square miles, was only seven. This 
paucity of inhabitants, prevented regular religious sermons by clerg)'- 
men, as it did the formation of well taught schools. This absence ol 
educational and religious axlvantages, it might be expected, would 
naturally lead to a demoralized state of society, but such was not the 
case with the settlers of the tea townships. This sparseness of popu- 
lation, arose in part, it must be mentioned, from the system pursued 
by government, of reserving tracts of land, of granting to the clergy, 
and to non-resident owners, all of which remained to embarrass the 
separated settlers, and prevent advance of civilization, by begetting 
io-norauce and indifl^erence to religion. 
' ■ * When it is remembered how great had been the trials of the 
refugees during the continuation of the war ; when we call to ramd 
the school of training belonging to a camp life ; and still more, when 
it is taken into consideration to how great an extent the settlers were 
removed from the salutary influences of civilized life, it at once strikei» 
the thoughtf'd mind as surprising, that the early colonist did not 



FIRST PROTKSTANT CLERGYMAN. 257 

relapse into a «tnte of non-rolicrion and cfi-oss imnionditv. But it is a 
re7narkal)Ie fact that the loyalists who j)lant.'(l Upper Canada not 
only honore<i their King, bnt feared (4od, and in a very eminent 
degree fnlfilled the lat^'r commandment to love one another. Cer- 
tainly there wore excei)tions. Even yet are remembered the names 
of a few who availed themselves of their neighbors' necessities to 
acquire proj^erty ; and tlie story still floats down the stream of time 
that there were those who ha.l plenty and to «pare of gover.nnont 
Htores, while tlie people were enduring tlie distress of the " Hnn-^ry 
Year." But even these reports lack confirmation, and even if true 
are the more conspicuous by their singularity. There is no intention 
or desn-e to clothe the founders of Upper Canada >vith a character to 
which they are not entitled, to suppress in any respect facts that 
would tend to derogate the standing of the loyalists. This is unne 
oessary to phice them upon an elevated ground, but were it not it 
would b. contrary to the writer's feelings, and unfair to the reader' 
There will be occasion to alhide to a few instances, where <rross evils 
manifested themselves, yet after all, they are but the dark corners 
which only serve to bring ont the more gloomy colors of the picture 
presented. In arriving at a just estfmate of their state of morals it 
18 necessaiy to take into consideration, that many of the views held 
by truly religious men a hundred years ago, dkered widely from 
those held by many to day. Eeforence is made to certain kinds of 
amusements then unhesitatingly indulged in, which to-day arc looked 
npon as inimical to sound christ-anity. One of these is the habit of 
using mtoxicating liquors. It was also charged against them that 
they were " wofully addicted to carousing and dancing.'' - »- ' . - 

'm^mam'^fimH^s^^ kev. john ooilvik, n.Oi, .i, , .<.■. 

■^- This divine was probably the first Protestant clergyman that 
ever ofKciated In Canada. He did so in the capacity of chaplain to a 
^ntish Regiment in an expedition to Fort Niagara, in 1759 when 
that trench stronghold was surrendered. Dr. Ogilvie, was a 'native 
of New York, and a graduate of Yale college. He was employed by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts as a 
missionary with success. In 1 165 he succeeded the Rev. Dr Barclay 
as Rector of Trinity Church, New York. Ho died in 1774 ^^ a 
portrait of him is still preserved in the vestry office of Trinity Church " 
The next Protestant clergyman we believe, was the Rev John 
Doughty. ' 

"An Episcopal minister. He graduated at King's College, New 



258 ' RKV. JOHN 8TUART, D.D. 

York in 1 770. He waK ordained in England for the church at Peeks, 
kill bnt wan Hoon transferred to Schenectady. In 1775 political 
troubles put an end to divine service, and he suflered much at the 
hands of the popular party. In 1777, he obtained leave to depart to 
Canada, (after having been twice a prisoned where he ^ec'^"-' « '^P" 
lain of the "Kings Koyal Beginient." of New York. I" 1^«1 /'« 
went to England; but returned to Canada in 1784 andofticiatedaB 
missionary at Sorel. He resigned his connection with the society tor 
the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts, in 18O3."-0Sa6m6.) 

The first clergyman to settle in Canada, and one ot the refugee 
pioneers at the first settlement of Kingston, was the Eev. John 
Stuart. We are fortunate in having before us a transcript of the 
memoir of this distinguished person. 

u Memoirs of the Eev. John Stuart, D.J)., father of the Upper Canada 
Church. He opened the first academy at Cataraqm— Kingston 1186. 
The last missionary to the Mohawks." 

"The conversion and civilization of the American Indians, 
engaged the attention of Europeans at an early date." The Jesuits 
first gave attention to the Mohawks, 1642, a few years later, father 
Jovnes laid down his life on the Mohawk Eiver. The first colonizers, 
the Dutch did not give the subject much attention. "The govern- 
ment of New York, did not make any effort to christuMUze the live 
nations, further than to pay, for some time a small salary to the clergy- 
man, at Albany, to attend to the wants of such Indians, as might 
apply to him " The Eev. Mr. Freeman, translated into the Mohawk 
language, the Church of England Prayer Book, with some passages 
of the Old and New Testament. " In 1712 Mr. Andrews was sent as 
a missionary to the Mohawk, by the society, for propagating the 
eospel, and a church was built at the mouth of the Schoharrie creek, 
but that missionary soon abandoned the place. As he was the first, so 
he was the last that resided among them for a great many years. 
After that the only ministration was at Albany. In 1748, the Kev. 
Mr Spencer, Mr. Woodbridge and Howly, were sent successively by 
the people of New England," to this field of labor. 

The French war soon interrupted this, and not until 1761, was 
anything more done, when the Eev. Dr. Wheelock, directed his atten- 
tion to that quarter, with missionaries, and schooknasters. The testi- 
mony mainly of aU these mentioned, who labored among the Indians 
is to the effect that, although they were quick to learn, and would to 
a time live a christian Ufe, they mostly all lapsed into their forraer 



RB0KIVB8 HOLY 0RDBR8. 259 

mvHire 8tate. " The neocHHity of Imving missionai-ioH of the Church of 
E norland, resident amonff tlie MohawkH, was atrain brought before 
the Hociety for promoting of the gospel, a few years before the revo- 
hjtion, both by 8ir William Johnson, and the Rev. Mr. Inglis, of 
Now York, the last of whom also laid the subject before the govern- 
Jiient of England, in the form of a memorial. In 1770 the society 
again consented to ordain a missionary for the exclusive service of the 
Mohawks. John Stuart, who was selected foi this purpose, was born 
at Ilarrisburgh, in Pennsylvania, in 1730. The family mansion in 
which he was bom was still standing in 1836." His father, an Irish- 
man, came to America in 1 730. John Stuart had two brothers who 
sided with the Americans. When he " graduated at the college of 
Philadelphia, he made up his mind to join the communion of the 
Church of England." His father being a Presbyterian, this was 
extremely distasteful to him. But his father finally consenting, he 
proceeded to England for ordination, and received Holy Orders in 
1770, and was appointed missionary to the Mohawks at Fort 
Hunter. 



260 Av A MISSIONARY. -»f= 

'-/<rt^r»^r?^vt/^-i- t".- CHAPTER XXVII. ^^fff^nq^t^^a t^^xi-j*^^'"^^ 

CoNTKNTs— At Fort Himtcr— Mx. Stuart's first sermon, Christmas — OfBciates in 
Indian tongue—Translates — The Kebellion— Prayers for the King — The 

«■ Jolinsons — Rebels attack his house— Plunder— Indignity — Church dese- 
crated — Used as a stable — A barrel of rum — Arrested — Ordered to come be- 

' fore Rebel Commissioners — On Parole — Limits— Idle two years — To Albany 
Phil — Determines to remove to Canada — Not secure — Exchanging — Secu- 

V rity— Real estate forfeit>.d— Route— Negroes— The journey, three weeks— 
At St. John's — Charge of Public School — Chaplain — At the close of the wai 
—Three Protestant Parishes— Determines to settle at Cataraqui— Chaplain 
to Garrison — Missionary — Bishop of Virginia, Dr. Griffith— Visits Mr. Stuart 
—Invitation to Virginia Declined—" Rivetted prejudices," satisfied-" The 
only refugee clergyman"— Path of duty— Visits the settlement, 1784— Mo- 
Jiawks, Grand River— Reception of their old Pastor— First Church— Mo- 
hawks, Bay of Quints— Remains in Montreal a year— Assistant— Removes 
to Cataraqui, 178.5— His land— Number of houses in Kingston— A short cut 
to Lake Huron — Fortunate in land — 5000 settlers — Poor and Happy — Indus- 
trious — Around his Parish, 1788 — Two hundred miles long — ByBatteau— 
Brant — New Oswego — Mohawk Village church, steeple, and bell— First in 
Upper Canada— Plate— Organ— Furniture— Returns — At Niagara— Old Pa- 
rishioners—Tempted to move — Comfortable not rich — Declines a Judgeship 
—New Mecklenburgh— Appointed Chaplain to first House of Assembly- 
Mohawk Mission— At Marysburgh— Degree of D. D.— Prosperity— Happy 
—Decline of life— His duties— Illness, Death, 1811— His appearance— 
"The little gentleman" — His manners — Honorable title — His children- 
Rev. O'Kill Stuart. ^ 

MEAIOIES OP DR. STUART CONTINUED—" FATHER OP THE UPPER CANADA 

,i:i^.j;j^ CHURCH." 7>t/jf<i^ -^A.: '■ :;Kffin;«:* 

■*-i'' Mr. Stuart immediately returned to America and procc(}ded to 
his mission, preaching his first sermon to the Mohawks on Christ- 
mas of the same year, 1770. He preached regularly every Sunday 
after the service had been read in Indian. In the afternoon ho 
officiated in the Mohawk chapel to the whites, mostly Dutch.- " In 
1774 he was able to read the liturgy, baptize ahd marry in the 
Indian tongue, and converse tolerably well with them. He subse- 
quently, assisted by Brant, translated parts of the Bible. After 
the commencement of the rebellion, until 1777, Mr. Stuart did not 
experience any inconvenience," although in other places the clergy 
had been shamefully abused ; he remained at Fort Hunter even 
after the Declaration of Independence, and constantly performed 
divine service without omitting prayers for the king. Mr. Stuart's 
connection with the Johnson family, and his relations to the Indians 
rendered him particularly itoxious to the Whigs. Although they 
had not proof of his being active in aiding the British, everything 
was done to make his home unbearable. " His house was attacked, 



SACRILEGE BY RHBELS, 26t 

his property plundered and every indignity offered his pei-son, 
His church was also plundered and. turned into a tavern, and in 
ridicule and contempt, a barrel of rum was placed in the reading 
desk. The church was afterwards used as a stable, July, 1778. 
He was ordered by the Board to detect conspiracies, to leave hia 
home and repair forthwith with his family to Connecticut uitil his 
exchange could be procured." He was to leave within four days 
after receiving the orders, or be committed to close confinement. 
"Mr. Stuart appeared before the Commissioners two days after 
receiving the above order, and declared his readiness to convince 
them that he had not corresponded with the enemy, and that ho was 
ready and willing to enter into any engagement for the faithful 
performance of such duties as may be enjoined him." The Board 
took his parole, by which he was obligated to abstain from doing 
anything against the Congress of the United States, or for the 
British, and not to leave the limits of Schenectady without per- 
mission of the Board. Soon after he writes there are only three 
families of my congregation, the rest having joined the King's forces, 
nor had he preached for two years. In the Spring of 1780, the 
Indians appeared in the county infuriated because of the conduct of 
General Sullivan the previous year. Mr. Stuart had to abandon his 
house and move to Albany. So imminent was the danger that the 
fleeing family could see the houses about in flames, and hear the 
report of arms. At Albany, Mr. Stuart received much civility from 
General Schuyler, and obtained permission to visit Philadelphia, 
Having returned, he made up his mind to emigrate to Canada, and 
communicated his resolution as follows : " I arrived here eight days 
from the time I parted with you (at Philadelphia) and found my 
family well, and after being sufficiently affrighted, the enemy having 
been within twenty miles of this place, and within one mile of my 
house in the country, considering the present state of affairs in this 
part of the Province, I am fully persuaded that I cannot possibly 
live here secure, either in regard to ourselves or property during the 
ensuing season ; this place is likely to be a frontier, and will pro- 
bably be burnt if the enemy can effect it. For these and other 
weighty reasons, materially weighed, I have resolved, with the appro- 
bation and consent of Mrs. Stuart, to emigrate to Canada, and having ' 
made an application for an exchange, whicli I have reason to believe;"* 
will be granted. 

Mr. Stuart applied by letter to Governoi- Clinton, to be ex- 
changed, March 30, 1781. His application received prompt attention. 



262 EXCHANGED — THE CONDITIONS. 

and he was the same day allowed permission on certain conditions, 

which are stated by Mr. Stuart in a letter to Rev. Mr. White, of 

Philadelphia. The letter is dated Schenectady, April 17, 1781. 

" Being considered as a prisoner of war, and having forfeited my 

real estate, I have given £400 security to return in exchange for 

myself, one prisoner out of four nominated by the Governor, viz.: 

one Colonel, two Captains, and one Lieutenant, either of which will 

be accepted in my stead ; or if neither of the prisoners aforesaid can 

be obtained, I am to return as a prisoner of war to Albany, when 

required. My personal property I am permitted to sell or carry with 

me, and I am to proceed under the protection of a public flag, as 

soon as it will be safe and convenient for women and children to 

travel that course. We are to proceed from here to Fort Arin in 

waggons, and from thence in Batteaux." The danger of the journey 

was adverted to, and the probability of obtaining a chaplaincy in 

Sir William Johnson's 2nd Battalion of Eoyal Yorkers, which is 

nearly complete on the establishment. " My negroes being personal 

property, I take with me, one of which being a young man, and 

capable of bearing arms. I have given £100 security to send back a 

white person in his stead." 

" Mr. Stewart set out with his family, consisting of his wtfe 
and three small children, on his long and tedious journey, on the 
19th of Sept., 1781, and arrived at St. Johns on the 9th of the fol- 
lowing month, thus accomplishing the journey in three weeks, 
which is now done in twelve or fifteen hours. As there was no 
opening in Montreal, ho took charge of a public school, which, with 
his commission as Chaplain, gave him support." In a letter to Di-. 
White, dated Montreal, October 14, 1783, he says : *' I have no reason 
hitherto to dislike my change of climate ; but, as reduction must 
take place soon, my emoluments will bo much diminished, neither 
have I any flattering prospect of an eligible situation in the way of 
my profession, as there are only three protestant Parishes in this 
Province, the Pastors of which are Frenchmen, and as likely to 
live as I am. " Soon after, Mr. Stuart determined to settle at Catai- 
aqui, where was a garrison, and to which a good many loyalists had 
already proceeded. He was promised the chaplaincy to the garri- 
son, with a salary of one thousand dollars a year, and ho writes, "I 
can preserve the Indian mission in its neighborhood, which, with 
other advantages, will afford a comfortable subsistence, although I 
wish it laid in Maryland. After the acknowledged independence of 
the United States, and the separation of the Episcopalian Church 



A TRUE LOYALIST. 263 

of America from the mother Church, Dr. Griffith, the Bishop elect 
of Virginia, invited Mr. Stuart to settle in his diocese ; hut Mr. 
Stuart declined. He writes, "The time has been when the chance 
of obtaining a settlement in that part of Virginia would have 
gratified my utmost desire ; but, at my time of life, and with such 
rivotted principles in favor of a Government totally different, < it 
is impossible.' " Though Mr. Stuart did visit Philadelphia in 
1786, he never seems to have repented his removal to Canada. Yet 
the isolation in which he sometimes found himself, would sometimes 
naturally call up memories that could not fail to be painful. " I 
am," he writes, '' the only Eefugee Clergyman in this Province, 
&c." As a relief from such thoughts, he turned to the active duties 
of his calling. " I shall not regret," said he, " the disappointment and 
chagrin I have hitherto met with, if it pleases God to make me the 
instrument of spreading the knowledge of His Gospel amongst the 
heathen, and reclaiming only one lost sheep of the house of Israel." 
In this spirit he set out on the second of June, 1784, to visit the new 
settlements on the St. Lawrence, Bay Quinte, and Niagara Falls, 
where he arrived on the 18th of the same month. Already, 3,500 
Loyalists had left Montreal that season for Upper Canada. His 
reception by the Mohawks, ninety miles from the Falls, was very 
affectionate, even the windows of the church in which he officiated 
were crowded with those who were anxious to behold again their 
old Pastor, from whom they had been so long separated." This 
church was the first built in Upper Canada, and it must have been 
commenced immediately after the Mohawks settled on the Grand 
River. He officiated also at Cataraqui, where he found a garrison 
of three companies, about thirty good houses, and some 1,500 souls 
who intended to settle higher up. He next proceeded to the Bay 
of Quinte, where some more MoJiawks had settled, and were busy 
building houses and laying the foundation of their new village, 
named Tyendinaga. Though Mr. Stuart had now received from 
the Society, whose missionary he continued to be, discretionary 
powers to settle in any part of Canada, he remained in Montreal 
another year, as assistant to the Eev. Dr. DeLisle, Episcopal Cler- 
gyman of that town. He finally removed to Cataraqui, in August, 
1785. His share of the public land was situated partly in Catar- 
aqui, aud partly at a place, which, in memory of the dear old place 
on the Mohawk Eiver, was now called Now Johnstown. Sometime 
in 1785, Mr. Stuart says, "I have two hundred acres within half a 
mile of the garrison, a beautiful situation. The town increases fast ; 



264 ■■■ HIS PARISH. - 

there are already about fifty houses built in it, and some of them 
very elegant. It is now the port of transport from Canada to 
Niagara. We have now, just at the door, a ship, a scow, and a 
sloop, beside a number of small crafts ; and if the communication 
lately discovered from this place by water, to Lake Huron and 
Michilmackinac proves as safe, and short as we are made to believe, 
this will shortly be a place of considerable trade." Eeference here 
must be made to the i-oute up the Bay and Kiver Trent. " I have 
been fortunate in my locations of land, having 1,400 acres at differ- 
ent peaces, in good situations, and of an excellent quality, three 
farms of which I am improving, and have sowed this fall with thirty 
bushels in them. TH a number of souls to westward of us is more 
than 5,000, and we gain, daily, new recruits from the States. We 
are a poor, happy people, industrious beyond example. Our gi-acious 
King gives us land gratis, and furnishes provisions, clothing, and 
farming utensils, &c., until next Sej)tember, after which the gene- 
rality of the people will be able to live without his bounty." The 
above must have been written in 1786, as in May, 1786, he opened 
an academy. In the summer of 1788, he went round his Parish, 
which was then above 200 miles long. He thus describes his voyage 
on this occasion. *' I embarked in a batteau with six Indians, com- 
manded by Capt. Brant, and coasted along the north shore of Lake 
Ontario, about 200 miles from the head of the lake ; we went 
twenty-five miles by land, to New Oswego, the new Mohawk village 
on the Grand Eiver ; these people were my former charge, and the 
Society still styles me their Mohawk ViU. Missionary. I found 
them conveniently situated on a beautiful river, where the soil is 
equal in fertility to any I ever saw. Their village contains about 
700 souls, and consists of a great number of good houses, with an 
elegant church in the centre ; it has a handsome steeple and bell, 
and is well finished within." By this we learn, that not only was 
the first Protestant Clmrch built at the Grand P'ver, but as well 
here was the first steeple to contain a bell, which was the first to be 
heard in Upper Canada. Brant, when in England, collected money 
for all this. With the above, they had the service of plate, pre- 
served from the rebels on the Mohawk ; crimson furniture for the 
pulpit, and " the Psalmody was accompanied by an organ." "This 
place was uninhabited four years ago." " I retui*ned by the route 
of Niagara, and visited that settlement. They had, as yet, no 
clergyman, and preached to a very large audience. The increase of 
population there was immense, and indeed I was so well pleased 



HIS PROSPERITY. 265 

with that country, where I found many of my old Parishioners, 
that I was strongly tempted to remove my family to it. You may 
suppose it «ost mo a sti'uggle to refuse the unanimous and pressing 
invitation of a large settlement, with the additional argument of a 
subscription, and other emoluments, amounting to near £300, York 
currency, per annum more than I have here. But, on mature reflec- 
tion, I have determined to remain here. You will suppose me to 
be very rich, or very disinterested ; but, I assure you, neither was 
the case. I have a comfortable house, a good farm hero, and an 
excellent school for my children, in a very healthy climate, and all 
these I could not have expected had I removed to Niagara. But, 
that you may be convinced that I do not intend to die rich, I have 
also declined an honorable and lucrative appointment. Our new 
settlements have been divided into four districts, of which this place 
is the capital of one, called New Mecklenburgh, and Courts of Justice 
are to be immediately opened. I had a commission sent me, as first 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. But, for reasons which 
readily occur to you, I returned it to Lord Dorchester, who left 
this place a few days ago."vi- , .ru ,.:... v.: > ; .^. *^ . • 

In 1789, Mr. Stuart was appointed BfshOii'e CommissiOnftry fbr 
the settlements from Point au Boudette to the western limits of the 
Province, being the district now constituting Canada West. Though 
this appointment added nothing to his emoluments, it increased 
considerably his duties. At the meeting of the first Session of 
Parliament in 1792, he was named Chaplain to the Upper House of 
Assembly, an appointment which required for a time his preseuce 
at Niagara. " He occasionally visited and officiated for the Mohawk 
Village, at the Bay of Quinte. But, notwithstanding the laudable 
exertions of the society, and the partial indulgence of the British 
Government to this tribe, no flattering accounts can be given either 
of their religious improvements, or approach to civilization ; on his 
return he usually stopped at Col. McDonnell's, Marysburgh, and 
preached in his house. In the year 1799, the degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred on Mr. Stuart, by the University of Pennsylvania, his Alma 
Mater, a complement he appreciated from his native state. About 
the same time he received the appointment of Chaplain to the 
Garrison of Kingston. " He had secured about 4000 acres of valu- 
able land to which ho occasionally made additions." In his pros- 
perity and wealth he exclaimed: " How mysterious are the ways 
of Providence ! How short-sighted wo are! Some years ago I 
thought it a great hardship to be banished into the wilderness, and 



266 HIS WORK FINISHED. 

Avould have imagined myself completely happy, could I have ox- 
changed it for a place in the City of Philadelphia, — now the best 
wish we can form for our deai'est friends is to have them removed 
to us." It must be remarked that the above is taken from letters 
written to a friend in Philadelphia, and no doubt, being private and 
social in their nature, there is often a coloring favorable to the 
States which eminated from no love to that country. " The re- 
mainder of Dr. Stuart's life seems to have passed in the routine of 
his duties, interrupted however by attacks of illness, to which the 
increase of years, and the fatigue attendant on a mission in so new 
a country, could not fail to subject him." Dr. Stuart departed this 
life on the 15th of August, 1811, in the seventy-first year of his 
age, and was buried at Kingston, where he lives (says one of his 
cotemporaries) in the heart of his friends. *' He was about six feet 
four inches in height, and from this circumstance, was known among 
his New York friends as "the little gentleman." His manners were 
quiet and conciliating, and his character, such as led him rather to 
win more by kindness and persuasion, than to awe and alarm them 
by the terrors of authority. His sermons were composed in plain 
and nervous language, were recommended by the affectionate 
manner of his delivery, and not unfrequently found a way to the 
conscience of those who had long been insensible to any real re- 
ligious convictions. The honorable title of Father of the Upper 
Canada Chiu'ch, has been fitly bestowed on him, and he deserves 
the name not more by his age and the length of his services, than 
by the kind and paternal advice and encouragemeat, which he was 
ever ready to give those younger than he on their first entrance on 
the mission." " By his wife, Jane O'Kill, of Philadelphia, who 
was boi'n in 1752, he had five sons and three daughters." All of 
his sons subsequently occupied distinguished positions. His eldest 
son George O'Kill, graduated at Cambridge, England, in 1801, 
entered Holy Orders, and was appointed missionary at York, now 
Toronto, from whence he returned on his father's death to Kingston, 
where he became Archdeacon. He died in 1862, at the age of 
eighty-six. 



REV. MB. ADDISON. 267 






J- - , . . I- > :,i\"/iX) 



',';«■ .,»*•, 



CHAPTEE XXVIII 



CoNTKNTB— A Missionary— Chaplain at Niagara — Pastor to the Settlers — Chaplain 

>, to Legislature— Visits Grand River — Officiates— A Land Speculator— Re- 

. ceives a pension, £50— 1823— Rev. Mr. Pollard— At Amherstburgh— Mr. 

Langhorn — A Missionary — Little Education — Uselul — Odd — On Bay Quint6 

i In Ernesttown — Builds a Church— At Adolphustown- Preaches at Hager- 

man's- Another Church— A Diligent Pastor— Pioneer Preacher around the 

Bay— Christening— Marrying— Particular— His Appointments— Clerk's Fees 

." —Generosity— Preserit to Bride— Faithful to Sick Calls— Frozen Feet— No 

,, Stockings—Shoe Buckles— Dress—Books—Peculiarities— Fond of the Water 

—Charitable— War of 1812— Determined to leave Canada— Thinks it doomed 

—Singular Notice— Returns to Europe— His Library — Present to Kingston 

—Twenty Years in Canada— Extract from Gazette— No One Immediately to 

take His Place— Rev. John Bethune— Died 1815— Native of Scotland 

U. E. Loyalists — Lost Property — Chaplain to 84th Regiment — A Presby- 
terian — Second Legal Clergyman in Upper Canada— Settled at Cornwall — 
Children— The Baptists— Wyner— Turner— Holts Wiem— Baptists upon 
River Moira^First Chapel— How Built— Places of Preaching— Hayden's 
Comers — At East Lake — The Lutherans — Rev. Schwerclfeger — Lutheran 
Settlers — County Dundas — First Church East of Kingston — Rev. Mr. Myers 
Lived in Marysburgh— Marriage— His Log Church— Removes to St. Law- 
rence — Resigns — To Philadelphia — Mr. Weant — Lives in Ernesttown — 
Removes to Matilda— Not Supported— Secretly Joins the English Church— 
Re-ordained— His Society Ignorant — Suspicion- Preaching in Shirt Sleeves 
—Mr. Myers Returns, by Sleigh— Locking Church Door— The Thirty-nine 
Articles — Compromise — Mr. Myers continues Three Years a Lutheran— He 
Secedes — The End of both Secedcrs — Rev. I. L. Senderling— Rev. Herman 
Hayunga — Rev. Mr. Shorts — Last Lutheran Minister at Ernesttown, McCai-ty 
— Married. 

n, 
THE FIRST EPISCOPALIANS, CONTINUED — PRESBYTERIANS, BAPTISTS, . 

AND LUTHERANS. ■ 

The Rev. Robert Addison came as a missionary from the 
Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in 1790. He 
probably discharged the duties of chaplain to the troops stationed at 
Niagara, and also was Clergyman, and officiated as such, to the 
settlers. When the government was formed at Niagara, in 1792, 
Mr. Addison, was appointed Chaplain. Ho occasionly visited 
the Grand River Indians, officiating though an interpreter, and 
baptizing and marrying. Col. Clark says, Mr. Addison was a land 
speculator. In 1823, an act was passed by Parliament, granting 
Mr. Addison a pension of £,50 per annum during life, for service 
rendered as Chaplain to the House of Assembly for thirty years. 
Another Episcopalian Clergyman, who came to Canada about the 
same time, was the Rev. Mr. Pollard, whoso station was at Am- 
herstburgh. 

A fourth Church of England Clergyman, and one with whom 



268 REV. MR. LANOUOaN. 

we must become more familiar, was the Rev. Mr. Langhorn. Ac- 
cording to the statement made to us by the late Bishop Strachan, 
Mr. Langhorn was sent to Canada as a missionary by a Society I.i 
London, called "The Bees," or some such name. Ho was a Welsh- 
man by birth, possessed . of but little education or talent, yet a 
truthful, zealous, and useful man. Odd in his manner, ho never- 
theless worked faithfully among the settlers from Kingston to 
Hay Bay. Upon arriving he took up his abode in Ernesttown, 
living at Hoyts, the present site of Bath. Here he was instru- 
mental in having, before long time, erected an English Church. 
Soon after coming he visited Adolphustown, and preached at Mr. 
Hagerman's, where Mr. Stuart had previously occasionally held 
service. Stops were at once taken to build a church also at 
Adolphustown, and Mr. Langhorn came to hold service regularly 
every second Sabbath. Mr. Langhorn was a diligent pastor in his 
rounds among his flock, over an extensive tract with great regularity, 
and once in a great while he went as far as the Carrying Place, 
where it is said he preached the first of all the pioneer ministers. 
He likewise occasionally visited Prince Edward, and preached at 
Smith's Bay, and at Congers, Picton Bay. He was very careful to 
have all the children christened before they were eight days old, and 
never failed to question the larger in the catechism. Marriage he 
he would never perform but in the church, and always before 
eleven in the morning. If the parties to be joined failed to reach 
the church, by the appointed time, he would leave; and would 
refuse to marry them, no matter how far they had come, generally 
on foot, or by canoe. Sometimes they were from the remote 
townships, yet were sent away unmanned. After performing the 
marriage ceremony, ho would insist on receiving, it is said, three 
coppers for his clerk. For himself he would take nothing, unless 
it was to present it to the bride immediately. Seemingly he did 
not care for money ; and ho would go in all kinds of weather when 
wanted to officiate, or administer to the wants of the sick. One 
person tells us that he remembers his coming to his father's in 
winter, and that his feet were frozen. No wonder, as Mr. Langhorn 
never wore stockings nor gloves in the coldest weather. But his 
shoe buckles were broad and bright ; and a broad rimmed hat turned 
up at the sides covered his head. Upon his back ho generally carried 
in a bag some books for reading. Wo have referred to his pecu- 
liarities ; many extraordinary eccentricities are related of him, 
both as a man and clergyman. He was very fond of the water, both 



REV. JOHN BETUUNS. 260 

in Mimmer and Avinter. "Tn summer," (Playtor says,) " ho would, 
at times swim from a cove on the main nhoro tx) a covo in the 
opposite island, three miles apart, and in winter, ho would cut 
a hole in the ice, and another at some distance, and would divo 
down at one hole, and come up the other. He had some occentrici- 
ties, but he seemed to be a good and charitable man." ''»'*>1^WJ!, '• . 
Mr. Langhorn, when the war of 1812 commenced, acquired the 
belief, it is said, that Canada would be conquered by the United 
States, and so determined to escape. The following somewhat 
singular " Notice" appeared in the Kingston Gazette :— " Notice- 
To all whom it may concern,— That the Eev. J. Langhorn, of 
Ernesttown, intends returning to Europe this summer, if he can 
find a convenient opportunity; and all who have any objections to 
make, are requested to acquaint him with them, and thej^ will much 
oblige their humble servant,— J. Langhorn,— Barnesttown, March, 
1813." The Kev. gentleman did go home, and some say that he was 
again coming to Canada, and was shipwrecked. Before leaving 
Canada, ho made a valuable present to Kingston, as the following 
notice will show : .v .,..,- ,>..,, .,..\ ,-/.>;.•: 

" The Rev. Mr. LangWn, of Ernesttown, who is about return- 
ing to England, his native country, has presented a valuable collec- 
tion of books to the Social Library, established in this village. The 
directors have expressed to him the thanks of the proprietors for 
his liberal donation. Many of the volumes are very elegant, and, 
It is to be hoped, will, for many years, remain a memorial of his 
liberality and disposition to promote the diffusion of useful know-" 
ledge among a people, with whom he has lived as an Episcopal 
Missionar}" more than twenty year^. During that period his aets 
of charity have been frequent and numerous, and not confined to 
members of his own church ; but extended to indigent and merito- 
rious persons of all denominations. Many who have shared in his 
bounty, will have reason to recollect him with gratitude, and to 
regret his removal from the country. " — (^Kingston Gazette'). 

After his departure, the churches where he had preached were 
vacant for many a day; and, at last, the one in Adolphustown went 
to decay. 

There died, at Williamstown, U. C, 23rd September, 1815, the 
Kev. John Bethune, in his 65th year. He was a native of Scotland. 
Came to America before the rebellion, and was possessed of pro- 
perty, all of which he lost, and was thereby reduced to great distress 
for the time being. The foundation was then laid for the disease of 



270 BARLY OLBROYMBN. 

Which he died. During tho robellion, lie was appointed Chaplain 
to the 80th Eogimont. At the close of the war he settled in Canada. 
Ho left a widow and numerous family. 

Ex-Sherilf Sherwood, of Brockville, says that "the Kev. Mr. 
Bethune, a Presbyterian Clergyman, was the second legalized Cler- 
gyman in the country. He settled at an early period at Cornwall 
He was father of the Rev. John Bethune, now Dean of Montreal, 
(1866)." 

' " BAPTISTS— WYNER, TURNER, HOLTS, WIEM. 

' The first Ministers of this sect were Elders Wyner and Turner, 
a brother of Gideon Turner, one of tho first settlors of Thurlow. 
One Elder Holts, also preached around the Bay, but a love of brandy 
hindered him. Yot ho was an attractive preacher. This was pro- 
bably about 1194. 

A considerable number of Baptists settled up the river Moira, 
in Thurlow. Tho first chapel built hero was for that denomination, 
in the fifth concession. Its sizo was thirty feet square. But, prior 
to the building of this, a dozen or so would meet for worship at the 
house of Mr. Eoss. Tho chapel was , nainly built by each member 
going to tho place and working at the building, from time to time, 

until it was completed. . 

Mr. Turner traveled through different sections, preaching 
wherever he found his fellow communionists. He occasionally 
preached at Capt. Mcintosh's, at Myer's Creek, and now and then 
at the head of the Bay. The Baptists were, probably, the first to 
preach at Sidney, and Thurlow. Myer's Creek was not a central 
place at which to collect the scattered settlers until it becanie a 
village. Before that, the preaching place of the Baptists, and after- 
wards of the Presbyterians and Methodists, was up at Gilberts 
house, in Sidney, or at Col. Bell's, in Thurlow. When the village 
grew, services were held at Capt. Mcintosh's and Mr. Mitz s, at the 
mouth of the river, by different denominations, and still later, in a 
small school house. Preaching also was held up tho river, at Eeed s 
and Hayden's Corners. 

The first Baptist Minister that preached at East Lake, Halio- 
well, was the Eev. Joseph Wiem. Not unlikely, he and Elder 
Wyner are the same. ^ 

THE LUTHERANS— SOHWERDBRaiR, MYERS, WBANT. 

Among the early ministers of religion who attended to the 
spiritual interests of the pioneers, were several of the Lutheran 



8BOK8SION. 271 

ChurcL. Of this denomination, there waH a conHidoiablo number 
in the County of DundaH, chiefly Dutch. There were also a com- 
munity of them in Ernenttown, inid another in MaryHburgii. The 
first church built in Upper Canada, east of Kingston, perhaps the 
next after the one built at Tyendinnga, was erected by the Luther- 
ans. It was put up in 1790, named Zion's Church, and a Mr. 
Schwerdfoger, who resided near Albany, was invited to be their 
Pastor. This invitation was gladly accepted, as he and his family 
bad suffered severe persecution from the victorious rebels. Ho died 
in 1803. 

! At an oaly period, indeed it would seem probable before Mr. 
Schwerdfeger came to Canada, although the time cannot be posi- 
tively fixfid, the Rev. Mr. Myers, from Philadelphia, lived in Marys- 
burgh and preached to the Lutheran Germans of that Township. 
He married a daughter of Mr. Henry vSmith, one of the firstsettlers 
there, where stood his log church, about twenty-four feet square, 
upon the brow of a hill overlooking a lovely landscape. Mr. Myers 
removed to the St. Lawrence, and "in 1804 became Pastor of the 
Lutheran churches there." (History of Dundas). He resigned 
in 1807, not being supported, and removed to Pennsylvania. 

The second Lutheran clergyman to preach upon the Bay, was 
the Eev. Mr. Weant. He lived a short distance below Bath, and 
went every four weeks to preach at Smith's Bay ; and, in the mean- 
time, preached to the Lutherans of Ernesttown, where he built a 
log church, the first there. In 1808, he received a call from 
the Lutherans of Matilda, " which he accepted, and for some time 
preached acceptably, residing in the parsonage. Ho, too, seems to 
have been inadequately supported by the people, and yielding to 
inducements, too tempting for most men to resist, he, in 1811, 
secretly joined the Church of England, and was re-ordained by 
Bishop Mountain, in Quebec. Upon his return, he pretended still 
to bo a Lutheran minister, and preached, as usual, in German exclu- 
sively. Suspicions, however, soon arose that all was not right, for 
he began to use the English Book of Common Prayer, and occasion- 
ally to wear the surplice, practices which gave such offence to his 
former friends, that they declared they would no longer go to hear 
a man who proclaimed to them in his shirt sleeves. A few were 
persuaded by him to join the Church of England. The majority 
remained faithful. In 1814, the Lutherans again invited the Rev- 
Mi-. Myers ; upon his consenting to come, they sent two sleighs, in 
the winter, to Pennsylvania, and brought him and his family to 



272 LUTHERANS. > 

DnnduH. But Mr. Wennt would not give up the pat^onngo and 
globe, und put ft padlock on Iho church door, and torbado any one 
to enter, unlosBaoknowledgintctlio thirty-nine urticlos of the Church 
of Kngland. A compromiHe resulted, and the LutheranH wore per- 
mitted to UKO the building (»nco in two weeks. For throe years. 
Mr. Myorn continued his njinintrationH as a Lutheran, in the moan- 
timo being in straitened cirenmHtancos. In 1817, stmngbly 
enough, Mr. Mj'ors also fornook the Lutheran Church, and oon- 
i'ormed to the Church of England. (Hist, of Dundas. ) The end of 
Mr. Weant and Mr. Myers, according to accounts, was not, in either 
case satisfactory. The latter died suddenly from a fall, it is said, 
while ho was intoxicated, and the former was addicted to the same 
habit of intomporanco. 

The successor of Mr. Myers was the Rov. I. L. Sendirlino. He 
came in 1825, and stayed only a short time. 

In ia2(), Rov. Herman Hayunioa became the Pastor ; and suc- 
ceeded, after many, years, in restoring to the church its former 
prosperity, notwithstanding much that opposed him. He had a new 
church erected. His succcssoi- was the Rev. Dendrick Shorts. 

The Kingston Gontte contains a notice of perhaps the last 
Lutheran Minister at Ernest town. "Married. In Ernosttown, 
29th Jan, 1816, the liev. Wm. McCarty, Minister of the Lutheran 
congregation, to Miss Clarissa Fraliok." 



HTRACIIAN H RELIGIOUS CHART. ' 27.'^ 

.>7')-' '.,'".'.5,,..., , . ■■./'.<.,, ■ , . 

, ,. .. .-. , CIIAITKR XXIX. . ,.,. , , 

CoNTENTM— ni«liop Striuluiii— A tciiclu!!— -A prcii(li.i_A 8(u(icnt— Holy Ovdor* 

—A rrcHbytorinn— Bi'couicH an KpiHcojmliiui— A Hiipportcr of tli-.'" Kamily 

coini)att"—Sinffre-.HiM opinion of the puopic— iKiiomiit—Uniucpnr.Ml for 

8clf-goveiniiU'iit--Htmrhaii'H rt'ligious tliait — \h^ was (lc(eived--Tlif Milho- 

(iist— AnomiilouH coiuicction—A filiilaistciirii,' people — Ilepul.licaniHiu o^'o 

tirttical —Loyalty of Met}io(li8tH~AiiuTiian miiuHteiH— Dr Stiiiilian'H powi- 

tion—HiH birth place— His education— A. M., 17'J3— HtiidyinK ThcoloKV— 

ComeH to Canada— A Htiident of Dr. HtuartH— Ordained Deacon— A niisHion- 

; nry n« Cornwall— Hector at York— Arclideacon— HiHhop of Toronto— Coad- 

. jiitor— Death— A public burial— licv. Mr. McJ)owell— FirHt Presbyterian at 

■• Bay Quint('--Invited by VanAlstine- On hiH way— At Hrockville-SetHes 

• in second town— His circuit— A worthy ininister—FidflllinK IiIh nilHHion— 

Traveling on foot— To York— Marrying tlie people— His death— His dosccn- 

dants— Places of Preaching— A CalviniHt— Invites controverHy— Mr. Coatc 

accepts the challonge— The disputation— Excitomont— The result— Itcv. Mr. 

« Smart— Called by Mr. McDowell— Pr(!S. clergyman at Brockville— Fifty 

years— An earnest Christian — A desire to write—" Observer" A pioneer— 

A cause of regret — Not extreme— Mr. Smart's views on politics— 'I'he masses 
une«lucated— The " Family Compact "—Rise of responsible government 
—The Bidwells— Credit to Dr. Straclian— Brock's funeral sermon- 
Foundation of Kingston gaol— Maitland — Demonstration — Sherwood's 
statement. 

UISHOP STRACHAN RKV. MR. MCliOWELL AND RKV. MU. SMART. 

' Having elsewliere spoken of thiis distinguislied man as tlie first 
teacher of Higher Education in Upper C^anada, it is intended to give 
him H proper place among the first who preached the Gospel. Dr. 
Strachan, who had studied Divinity at Kingston, under the guidance 
of Mr. Stuart, took Holy Orders while engaged in teaching at Corn- 
wall. Although he had been brought up in the Presbyterian faith, he 
deliberately connected himself with the Church of England, as the 
church of his choice. 

From the first. Dr. Strachan took a decided stand in favor of the 
exclusive power claimed by the government and the " Family Com- 
pact." This step was no doubt, deemed by him the very best to 
secure the interest of the rising country, believing as he did, that the 
people generally were unfitted by want of education to perform the 
duties of legislation and self-government. His devotion to the 
government, led doubtless, in some instances, to errors of judgment, 
and on a few occasions placed him in a false position. Yet he was 
always seemingly conscientious. The course pursued by him, in pre- 
paring, and sending to the Imperial Government (a religious chart, 
which subsequent investigation proved to be incorrect, had, at the 

time, an unfortmiate effect. But it is submitted, that it has never 
lo 



274 AMEEICAN METHODIST MINISTERS. 

been shewn, that Dr. Strachan was otherwise than deceived when 
preparing the document. He ma^e statements of a derogatory 
nature with respect to the Methodist body ; but can it be shewn that 
there was no reason whatever for his statements. The history of the 
Methodists of Canada, exhibits a loyalty above suspicion. But was 
there no gi-oundon which to place doubts respecting the propriety ot 
any body of Canadians receiving religious instruction from men who 
were subjects of another oountry-a country which was ever threat- 
ening the province, and who had basely invaded an inoffending 
people— a country that constantly encouraged her citizens to pene- 
trate the territory of contiguous powers with the view of possessing 
it While there is sufficient proof that the Methodist rainiste.s who 
came into the country were actuated by the very highest niotives, it 
cannot be denied that any one taught in the school of repubhoanism 
will carry with him wherever he goes, whether among the courtly of 
Europe, the contented and happy Canadians, or the blood-thirsty 
Mexicans, his belief in the immaculate principles of repubhcamsm. 
He cannot, even if he would, refrain fi'om descanting upon the supe- 
riority of his govei-nment over all others. The proclamation of Gen. 
Hull at Detroit, and of others, shews that the belief was entertained 
in the States, that many Canadians were favorable to the Americans- 
Whence could have arisen this belief ? Not certainly from the old 
U E Loyalists, who had been driven away from their native counti7.' 

Not surely by the English, Irish, or Scotch ? Dr. Strachan, with the 
government, could not close their eyes to these facts, and was it 
unnatural to infer that American-sent Methodists had something to da 

Bishop Strachan was a man of education, and as such, he must 
be judged in reference to his opinion that Methodists were unqual- 
ified to teach religious truth, from their imperfect or dehcient 
education. We say, not that much book learning is absolutdy 
essential to a successful expounding of the plan of salvation, although 
it is always most desii-able. But having taken our pen to do justice 
to all of whom we have to speak, we desire to place the reader so 
far as we can upon the stand of view occupied by the distinguished 

Divine and Scholar. , a -i i 't'th 

Dr. Strachan was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, I2th April, 1778. 
He was educated at the Grammar School, and at King'^s CoUege, at 



that city, where he took the degree of M. A., in 1793. 
removed to the neighborhood of St. Andrews, and studied ..^^ 
as a Presbyterian. As stated elsewhere, he cume to America m 



FIRST PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER. 275 

reaching Canada the last day of the year. Disappointed in his expec- 
tations respecting an appointment to establish a college, he became a 
school teacher in Kingston, and at the same time a student of Divinity, 
imder the guidance and fri(mdship of Dr. Stuart. He prosecuted his 
Theological studies durmg the three years he was in Kingston, and 
in 1803, was ordained Deacon, by Dr. Mountain, the first Protestant 
Bishop of Quebec. The following year he was admitted to Holy 
Orders, and went as a missionary to Cornwall. Here he continued 
nine years, attending diligently to his duties as a minister, all over 
his widening parish ; and also conducted a Grammar School. In 1 8 1 2 
he received the appointment of Eector at York, the capital, and in 
1825 he was made Archdeacon. Enjoying political appointments with 
these ecclesiastical, he finally, in 1839, was elevated to be the first 
Bishop of Toronto. Dr. Strachan discharged the duties of his high 
office with acceptability. In 1 860 Archdeacon Bethune was appointed 
as Coadjutor Bishop, the venerable prelate beginning to feel that his 
tune was almost done. He died 1st November, 1867, having attained 
to his ninetieth year, and was accorded a public funeral. No higher 
marks of esteem and veneration could have been exhibited than were 
displayed by all classes at the death of this Canadian Divine, j.c ta?i'^ 
The most of the settlers from the Hudson, not Lutherans, were 
Presbyterians, or of the Dutch Keformed Church. Mr. McDowell 
was the first Presbyterian minister to visit the Bay. He came about 
1800, perhaps before; when yet there were but few clergymen m 
the provmce. We have seen it stated that he was sent for by 
Major VanAlstine, who was a Presbyterian. On his way he tarried 
a day in the neighborhood of Brockvillc. Adiel Sherwood was then 
teaching school, in connection with which he was holding a public 
exhibition. Mr. McDowell attended, and here first took a part as a 
mmister, by offering his first public prayer in the country. He pro- 
ceeded to Kingston, and settled in the second township. But his 
circuit of travel and places of preaching extended from Brockville 
to the head of Bay Quinte. The name of this worthy individual is too 
little known by the inhabitants of the bay. No mancontributed more 
than he to fulfill the Divine mission " go preach ;" and at a time when 
great spiritual want was felt he came to the hardy settlers. The spirit 
of Christianity was by hun aroused to no little extent, especially among 
those, who in their early days had been accustomed to sit imder the 
teachings of Presbyterianism. He traveled far and near, in all kinds 
of weather, and at all seasons, sometimes iit the canoe or batteau, and 
sometimes on foot. On one occasion he walked all the way from Bay 



276 REV. MR. SMART.'- ' 

Quiiile to York, following the lake shove, ami swimming the rivers that 
could not be otherwise forded. Ho probably married more persons 
while in the ministerial work tkan all the rest in the ten townships 
aromid the bay. This arose from his being the only minister legally 
qualified to solemnize matrimony, beside the clergymen of the English 
Clmr(!h, Mr. Stuart, of Kingston, and Langhorn, of Fredericksburgh. 
Persons wishing to be married repaired to him from all the region of 
the bay, or availed themselves of his stated ministerial tours. The 
writer's parents, then living in •Adolphustown, were among those 
married by him, the cerificate of which now lies before him. Mr. A. 
Sherwood thus speaks of him, " He lived to labor many years in 
the service of his Master, and after an honorable and good old ag(i 
he died highly esteemed by his friends and much respected by all who 
knew him." '• Mr. McDowell had at least two sons and a daughter. 
The last is Mrs. Carpenter, now living at DemorestviUe. One of his 
sons removed to New York and there established a Magdalene Asy- 
lum Mr. McDowell, used to pass around the bay twice or three 
times a year. He was one of the first, to preach at the extreme 
head of the bay, the Carrying Place, and for that pui-pose occupied 
a barn. Another of his preaching places was in Sophiasburgh. 
on the marsh front. He preached here four times a year. He 
was a rigid Calvinist, and preaching one Sabbath at the beginning 
of the present century in the Court House at Adolphustown, he 
offered to argue with any one publicly the question of Calvanism. 
The Methodist minister of the bay, the Eev. Samuel Coate, was urged 
by his societv to accept the challange, and after a good deal of hesi 
tation did so. So a day was appointed for the discussion. The 
meeting took place at a convenient place, three miles from Bath, in 
the Presbyterian church . The excitement was great ; the inhabitants 
coming even from Sidney and Thurlow. Mr. McDowell spoke first 
and occupied half a day. Then followed Mr. Coate. After he had 
spoken two hour.s Mr. McDowell and his friends left; why, it is not 
said Mr. Coate continued speaking until night. We have the state- 
ment of the Methodists, that Mr. Coate had the best of it, but wi 
never learned the belief of the other party. Mr. Coate's sermon wa« 
published by request, and thereafter, it is said Presbytenamsm 

waned in the locality. ,. i • • *«, 

Kev Mr. Smart,— This truly pious man, and evangelical minister, 
came to Canada in 1811. He never a<jtually lived within the pre- 
cincts of the Bay; but he was called to the wilderness of Upper 
Canada bv the Rev. Mr. McDowell at least he was chiefly mstru- 



" THE FAMILY COMPACT." 277 

raental in bringing him out, even before his student days were ended. 
For upwards of fifty years he discharged the duties of Presbyterian 
clergyman at Brockville, the first clergyman of any denomination 
within fifty miles. We shall ever remember the kind genial person 
with whom we spent a few pleasant hours in the evening of his 
eventful life, a life spent earnestly in the service of his Master, 
and for the welfare of his family, for, to use his own words, " In his 
day it was no easy matter to live and rear a family." This he said 
not complainingly, but because it hindered him from indulging a 
desire he once felt to do something with his pen — to record, as he 
was desired to do, the events connected with his early life in Upper 
Canada, and his cotemporaries. At first he did contribute to the 
Kingston Gazette, over the cognomen " Observer." But other things 
pressed upon him, and when repose came he fancied the fire of his 
early days, for scribbling, had too far sunk. This is much to be 
regretted, for as a close observer and upright man, and living in 
eventful times of Canadian history, he was pre-eminently qualified to 
treat the subject. Mr. Smart was always distinguished for moderate 
and well-considered views upon Religion, Political Government and 
Education. He lived when the battle commenced between the 
"Family Compact" and the people. While he fii-mly set his face 
against the extreme stand taken by the Rev. Mr. Strachan, he never 
identified himself Avith the party that opposed that worker for, and 
with the Government. On this point, Mr. Smart makes judicious 
remarks. In speaking of the rise and first days of the Province, he 
says, *'it was necessaiy tht. Government in Council should create 
laws, and govern the people, inasmuch as the vast majority of the 
inhabitants were unlettered, and unfit to occupy places which required 
judgment and discrimination. There were but few of the U. E. 
Loyalists who possessed a complete education. He was personally 
acquainted v^ith many, especially along the St. Lawrence, and Bay of 
Qiiinte, and by no means were all educated, or men of judgment; 
even the half-pay officers, many of them, had but a limited education. 
Many of them were placed on the list of officers, not because they 
liad seen service, but as the most certain way of compensating them 
for losses sustained in the Eebellion. And there were few, if any, 
of them fitted by education for office, or to serve in Parliament 
Such being the case, the Governor and his advisers were at the first 
necessarily impelled to rule the country. Having once enjoyed the 
exclusive power, they became unwilling to share it with the repre- 
sentatives of the people. But the time came when the mass, having 



brock's funeral sermon. 

acquired some idea of Eesponsible Government, were no longer to 
ho kept in obscurity, and thence arose the war between the Toiy and 
the Eadical. In all the contentions arising therefrom, Mr. Smart 
teld an intermediate position witli the Bidwell's and others. In 
speaking of aU this, Mr. Smart is particularly anxious to give credit to 
Dr. Strachan for his honesty of purpose, saying that the Colony is 
much indebted to him in many ways. 

Mr. Smart was called upon to preach the funeral sermon of 
Canada's great hero, General Brock. 

He also delivered an address on the occasion of laying the foun- 
dation stone of the gaol in Kingston, in presence of the Governor, 
Peregrine Maitland, who was down from York, on which occasion 
there was great demonstration of Free Masons, and the farmers of 

the Bay. 

Mr. Sherwood thus speaks of Mr. Smart : " On his arrival, he for 
some little time made his home at my house, he was then 23 ♦j-ears 
old, he has now (1863) entered his 78th year, has retired from a 
public charge, and is now residing quietly, and I trust comfortably, 
at Gananoque ; and I feel quite sure, all that know him throughout 
the whole Province, will join with me, in wishing him long life and 
happiness, both here and hereafter." 



QUAKER WORSHIP. 279 



CHAPTEE XXX. ' 

Contents — The Quakers — Among the SettUii-s — From Penn. — Duchess County — 
First Meeting-house— Dnvid Sand — Elijah Hick — Visiting Canada — James 
Noxen — A first settler — Their mode of worship— In Sophiasburgh — The 
meeting 'house — Joseph Leavens — Hicksites — Traveling — Death, aged 92 — 
Extract, Picton Sun — The first preaching places — First English church — 
In private houses — At Sandwich — The Indian church at the, bay — Ernest- 
town — First Methodist church — Preaching at Niagara — First church in 
Kingston — At Waterloo — At Niagara — Churches at Kingston, 1817 — In 
Hollowell — Thurlow — Methodist meeting-houses, 1816 — At Montreal — 
Building chapels in olden times — Occupying the frame — The old Methodist 
chapels — In Hollowell township — In the fifth town — St. Lawrence — First 
English Church, Belleville — Mr. Campbell — First time in the pulpit — How 
he got out — The old church superseded — Church, front of Sidney— Rev. John 
Cochrane — Rev. Mr. Grier — First Presbyterian Church in Belleville — Rev. 
Mr. Kotcham — First Methodist Church in Belleville — Healey, Puffer — The 
site of the church — A second one. 

THl EARLY CLERGYMEN AND CHURCHES OP UPPER CANADA. — THE 
QUAKERS. — NOXEN, LEAVENS, HICKS, SAND. 

Anjong tne early settlers of tlie Bay wore a good!}' number of 
the Society of Friends, Some of them were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania; but the majority were fi'om the Nine Partners, Duchess 
<3ounty, New York, where had existed an extensive communit}^ of 
the follr. wers of Fox. The fii'st meeting-house built by the Quakers 
in Canada was in Adolphustown upon the south shore of Hay Bay, 
toward the close of last century. 

About 1790, two Quaker preachers of some note visited Canada, 
they were David Sand and Elijah Hick. By appointment they 
held service in Adolphustown ; it is uncertain whether this was 
before, or after the building of the meeting-house. The first and 
principal preacher among the Quakers was James Noxen, one of 
the first settlers of Adolphustown, under whom the Society was 
organized. He subsequently in 1814 removed to Sophiasburgh, 
where he died in 1842. 

The worship of the Quakers consiets in essentially spiritual 
meditation and earnest examination of the inrao^<t soul, a quiet 
holding of the balance, to weigh the actions and motives of every- 
day life. To the proper discharge of these duties no place can bo 
too quiet, too far removed from the busy haunts of men. 

The sixth township, or Sophiasburg had among its settlers a 
good many of this sect, which at first had meetings at Jacob Cronks, 
until the year 1825, when they erected a meeting-house upon the 
northern front of the township. 



280 JOSEPH LEAVENS. 

Two inilcs bolow the village of Northport, isfiituated a Friends' 
meeting-house. Hero twice a week, on Thursdays and Sundays> 
congregate few, or many of the adherents of this persuasion, to 
commune with their God. The mooting-houso, reposing upon the 
very verge of the shore, and half shJKlowed by beautiful maples and 
evergreens, is a fit place in which to submit oneself to strict self- 
examination. There is nothing here to disturb the supreme quie- 
tude of thp place, unless, the gentle ripples of the water, or the 
more restless murmuring of the wave. ?• *' ■ ■ ,i. '■ - ■ 

Joseph Leavens "was an early settler of Canada, an emigrant 
from New York," he was for many years an esteemed preacher of 
the Hicksite branch of Quakei*s, and was accustomed to travel from 
place to place, to talk to his co-religionists. He had a place for 
preaching in a loft of his brother's store in Belleville. He was one 
of the first Quaker preachers in Canada and travelled through all 
the townships at the Bay, and to East Lake. 

"Died in the township of Hallowell, about the 24th of May, 
1844, the venerable Joseph Leavens, in the 92nd year of his age. 
He was amongst the early settlers of the Canadian forest, and 
emigrated from New York State, and probably was a native of 
Nine Partners District. He had long been a Preacher in the 
Eeligious Society of Friends, and though not possessed of more than 
one talent, yet it is believed that, as he occupied that to his Maker's 
glory, his reward will be as certain as though he had received ten 
talents. He was a diligent reader in the sacred volume. He wa& 
much beloved both by his neighbours and friends, and it is desired 
that his gospel labours may be profitably remembered by them and, 
his relatives." — (Picton Sun.) 

In sjieaking of the individual clergymen Avho first came to 
the Province we have referred to many ol' the fii'st preaching 
places and churches: but there remains to be added some further 
remarks. 

We have seen that the first church erected in Western Canada 
was at the Mohawk settlement. Grand River, which was built the 
first year of their habitation in that place — 1785-6. Strange that 
the natives of the wood, should take the lead in erecting places of 
worship. It was several years later before even log meeting- 
houses were put up by the loyalists. For many years the pioneer 
clergymen or preachers officiated in private houses. Now the ser- 
vice would be at the house of one, to which a considerable number 



THE FIRST CHURCHES. 281 

could como from a circuit of ten or fifteen miles, then it would be at 
the place of some settler whose larger log house aifordod a more 
commodious place of worship. 

A church was built at an early date at Sandwich, but the year, 
we know not. The first church erected upon the Bay, the Rev. 
Mr. Smart thinks, was at the Mohawk village, Tyendinaga. At an 
early period a log church was built in Krnesttown by the Lutherans 
and another Tv South Bay; one also for Mr. Langhorn to 
preach in, and then another in Adolphustown. The first Methodist 
church was built in Adolphustown in 1792, and a second one a 
month later in Ernesttown.j^v ^im/si ivivj^* . 

The Eev. Mr. Addison, went to Niagara in 1792. When 
Governor Simcoe lived in Navy Hall, the Council Chamber a 
building near the barracks it was said, was used alternately by the 
English Church, and Church of Eome. 

The first English Church was erected in Kingston in 1793, and 
up to 1810 it was the only one. A Methodist church was built at 
a very early date at Waterloo, it was never finished, but used for 
many years. The fii-st at Niagara, was in 1802. 

In November 28, 1817, there were in Kingston, "four 
churches or meeting-houses, viz: 1 Episcopalian, 1 Roman Catholic 
and 2 Methodists ; there were 4 professional preachers, viz : 1 
Episcopalian, 1 Presbyterian and 2 Methodists. This enumeration 
does not include a chaplain to the army, and one to the royal navy." 
In Ernesttown there was one resident professional preacher, a 
Methodist. 

In Sophiasburgh there were no churches ; but the Quakers, 
]^[ethodists and Presbyterians had meetings at private houses. 

In HoUowell, says Eben. Washburne, " we have one Methodist, 
and one Quaker meeting-house ; preparations ai-e making also for 
a Presbyterian meeting-house. The former is attended by a circuit 
preacher every two weeks ; the latter by a Quaker every Sabbath. 

In Thurlow, " the Gospel is dispensed almost every Sabbath of 
the year, in different parts of the township, by itinerant preachers 
of the Methodist and Baptist sects. 

In 1816, there were eleven Methodist meeting-houses in 
Canada. These were all of wood excepting one in. Montreal, built 
in 1806, which was of stone. "The mode of building chapels in 
the olden times was by joint labor, and almost without the aid of 
money. The first step was for scores of willing hands on a 
given day, to resort to the woods, and then fell the trees, and 



282 ERECTING CHURCHES. 

square the timber ; others, with oxen and horses, drawing the 
hewed pieces and rafters to the appointed pl?.;;e. A second step 
was to call all hands to frame the building, selecting the best genius 
of the carpenter's calling for superintendent. A third step was a 
"bee" to raise the building; and the work for the first year was 
done, The next year, the frame would be enclosed, with windows 
and doors, and a rough floor laid loose. As soon as the meeting 
house was thus advanced, it was immediately used for preaching, 
prayer meetings and quarterly meetings. Some of the early 
chapels would be finished inside ; others, would be used for years 
in their rough, cold, and unfinished state. The people wei*e poor, 
had little or no money, but loved the Gospel, and did what they 
could." 

The oldest of the eleven chapels is the Adolphustown, on the 
south shore of the Hay Bay, and on the old Bay of Quinto circuit. 
" The next for age is the chapel in the fourth concession of 
Brnosttown. It was not erected here at first, but on the ftont of 
the township, lot No. 27, and close to the Bay of Quinte. After 
some years, (some of the principal Methodists moving to the fourth 
concession), the frame was taken down, drawn to the present site, 
and put up again. It stands on the public road, leading from 
Napanee to Kingston, and near the village of Odessa. A rough- 
cast school-house, now stands on the old site, east of Bath. Some 
challenge the antiquity of the Ernesttown, with the Adolphustown 
chapel; but both were commenced at about the same time, by 
William Losee; the latter was first erected. As the travelei- 
passes, he may look on this old and useful meeting-house, still used 
for public worship, and see a specimen of the architecture of the 
pious people settled in the woods of Ernesttown seventy years ago. 

" About nine miles from Odessa toward Kingston is the village of 
Waterloo, and on the top of a sand-hill, formerly covered with lofty 
pines, is a well proportioned and good looking Wesloyan stone 
church. It is on the site of an ancient frame meeting-house, decayed, 
and gone, which bore an antiquity nearly as great as the other two 
chapels. The meeting-house in the Township of Kingston was an 
unfinished building, a mere outside, with rough planks for seats. 

" Two miles fi-om the Town of Picton, and in the first concession 
of the Township of Hollowell, is still to be seen one of the oldest 
Methodist chapels in Upper Canada. The ground and the lumber 
were the gift of Steven Conger. The first work was done in June, 
1809. An account book, now existing, shows the receipts and pay 



FIRST OHUROH IN BELLEVILLE. 283 

monts for tho building. Some paid subscriptions in monoy, some 
in wheat, some in teaming and work; and one person paid ono 
pound "by way of a turn." The first trustees were named Conger, 
Valloan, Vanblaricura, Dougal, German, Benson, Wilson, and Van- 
dusen. They are all dead, but children of some'of them are still 
living in the vicinity. Tho building is square, with pavilion roof, 
of heavy frame timber, yet sound, having a school-house on ono 
side, and a mill on the other. Here is a burying ground attached, 
in which lie many of the subscribers to, and first worshippers in, 
the chapel. It is still used as a place of worship, and for a Sabbath 
school. Those four chapels were all in the old Bay of Quinte 
circuit. 

" In the fifth township east of Kingston is another relic of the 
times of old, called the Blizabethtown chapel. It is now within the 
boundaries of the village of Lyn, about eight miles from BrocLtville, 
and near tho river St. LaAvrence. A chapel jiarticularly remark- 
able for the assembling of the Genesse conference in 1817, and 
the great revival of religion which there commenced." ' 

The first English Church erected west of Adolphustown, was 
at Belleville. It was commenced in 1819, and finished tho next 
year. The Kev. Mr. Campbell was the first clergyman, and came 
to the place some little time before tho building was completed. 
An anecdote has been related to us by one who saw the occur- 
rence, whi^h will servo to illustrate the character of those days. 
Mr. Campbell one day entered the church, when near its comple- 
tion, and walked up a ladder and entered the pulpit ; immediately 
one of the workmen, named Smith, removed the ladder, leaving the 
Eev. gentleman a prisoner ; nor Avould they release him until he 
had sent a messenger to his homo for a certain beverage. This 
church when erected was an ornament to the place, and is well 
remembered by many, having been taken down in 1858, the present 
handsome structure being completed. Mr. Campbell continued in 
charge until his death in 1835. During this time he caused to be 
erected a church at the front of Sidney, midway between Belleville 
and the Trent, and he held seiwices there every second Sabbath, in 
the afternoon, for a time ; but the congregation was never large. 
Methodism seemed to take more hold of the feelings of the people. 
Mr. Campbell's successor was the Rev. John Cochrane, who was 
pastor for three years, when the present incumbent, tho Rev. John 
Grier, who had been at the Carrying Place for some years, took 
charge. 



, 284 KIR8T WKbLEYAN GUUaCU. 

The rirst Presbyterian clergyman of Belleville, was Mr. 
Ketcham, under him the first church wa« built. 

The first Methodist church to bo built in the woHtorn part of 
the Bay country was at Belleville. It was probably about the 
beginning of thin century that the itinerant Methodist began to 
vieit the head of the Bay Quinte. They wore accustomed to preach 
in private houses, and barns, hero and there along the ft'ont, and 
up the Moira River, and at Napaneo. 

Ilealy and Puffer were accostomed to preach at Col. Bell's, 
Thurlow. 

Belleville was laid out into lots in 1816 ; Mr. Ross applied to 
government for one, as the society was disqualified from holding 
landed property until 1828. The land was accordingly granted to 
him, and recorded, January 7, 1819. A frame building was im- 
mediately commenced 60 by 30 fee ; , ' 5efore it was inclosed, servico 
was held within the frame. The building was never completed. 
The pulpit was of rough boards, and the seats were of similar 
material, placed upon blocks. In 1831, a second chapel was com- 
menced, and the old one removed. :.: 






J::.,*.,. 



METHODIST BRITISH OFFICERS. 286 

CHAPTER XXXI. , ,.« 

(JoNTRNTH. — The first Mt'thodiHt ProacherH — Tlic iiriny — Oiipt. Webl> — Tnffey — 

Ooorgo Ncal — Lyonn — Scliool-teachor — Exhortor — McCarty ^I'orfiucution 

'^■' — Bigotry — Vagabonds — McCarty arrcstod — Trial — At Kingston — Kanished 
;f — "A martyr" — Doubtfid — Losee, first Methodist nuHsionary, 170() — A niiti- 
i istcr — A loyalist — WJioro ho first preathcd — " A curiosity" — Earnest pioneer 
Methodist — Olass-mectings — Suitable for all classes — JiOsee's class-meetings 
Determines to liuild a meeting-house — Huilt in Adolphustown — Its si/e — 
i,' The BubHeriberB~.Member8, amounts — Embury— ThoHo wlio sulmcribed for 
•^ first church in New York — Same names — The centenary of Methodism — 
New York Methodists driven away — American Methodist forgetful — 
^■- Embury and Heck refugees — Ashgrove — No credit given to British 
officers — Embx;ry's brother — The rigging loft, N. Y. — Barbara Heck — 
Settling in Augusta — First Methodist Church in America — Subscribers — 
,: " Lost Chapters" — The Author's silence — What is acknowledged— -" Severe 
threats" — Mr. Maun — To Nova Scotia — Mr. Whately " admires piety" — 
*' not "loyalty" — Second cluipcl, N. Y. — Adolphustown subscribers — Con- 
•f»' radVanDusen- Eliz. Roblin — Huff— Ruttan — The second Methodist chapel — 
1 The subscribers — Commenced May, 1792 — Carpenters wages — Members, 
' Cataraqui Circuit — Going to Conference — Returns — Darias Dunham — Phy- 
*i sician — First quarterly meeting — Anecdotes — Bringing a "dish cloth" — 
" Clean up'' — The new made squire— Asses — Unclean spirits — Losee discon- 
tinues preaching — Cause — Disappointment — Return to New York — Dunham 
useful — Settles — Preachers traveling — Saddle-bags — Methodism among the 
," loyalists—Camp-meetings — Where first held, in Canada — Worshipping in 
; the woods — Breaking up — Killing the Devil — First Canotlian preacher — 

Journey from New York. 

1. - ' '■■\ ,' .; ' :■(■ '■.; '. -I" .,••■ ■• ' -ji 

'■V '" - 

, ; •. THE FIRST WKSLEYAN METHODISTS IN CANADA. 'i' . '?'^ 

The first Methodist Preachers both in Lower and Upper Canada 
were connected with the British Army; also, the second one in 
America, who was Capt. Webb. "In 1780, a Methodist Local 
Preacher, named Tuftey, a Commissary of the 44th, came with his 
regiment to Quebec. He commenced preaching soon after his arrival, 
and continued to do so at suitable times, while he remained," or 
until his regiment was disbanded in 1 783. The second Methodist 
Preacher in Canada was George Neal, an Irishman. During the 
war he was Major of a cavalry regiment He " crossed the Niagara 
river at Queenston on the 7th October, 1786, to take possession 
of an officer's portion of land, and soon began to preach to the 
new settlers on the Niagara river — his labours were not in vain." 
-(Playter). 

" In 1788 a pious young man, called Lyons, an cxhorter in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, came to Canada, and engaged in 
teaching school in Adolphustown." He collected the people 
together on the Sabbath, and conducted religious services. " In 
the same year came James McCarty, an Irishman, to Ernesttown."- 



286 WILLIAM L08KX. 

ilo was a follower ot'Whitfiold, but acted with the MothodiHt, holding 
religious meotingH. His preaching caused severe persecution 
against him on the part of* certain loyalists, who held the doctrine 
that none could ho true subjects who adhered not to the Church of 
England; but to o])p()8e the Church was to oppose the King. 
Advantage was taken of this loyalty to try to prevent tlie intro- 
duction of any other roligious denominations. A law had been 
enacted by the (jrovernor in Council, that persons wandering about 
the country might bo banished as vagabonds. McCarty was arrested 
on a charge of vagabondism in Adolphustown, and brought before 
a magistrate at VanDusen's tavern, at tho front, who i-emanded 
him to Kingston. According to Playter, ho was preaching at 
Robert Perry's when arrested ; our informant is tho Rev. C. Van- 
Duson, at whose father's he was first arraigned. After being 
released on bail, ho was finally tried before Judge C, and was sen- 
tenced to be banished, tradition says, upon an island in tho St. 
Lawrence. At all events he was placed in a batteau and taken 
away by French l)oatmen. McCarty has obtained the name of 
martyr, but it is the belief of unbiassed persons that he was not left 
upon the island, but was conveyed to Montreal. 

William Losee was the first regular preacher of the Methodist 
denomination in Canada. He first visited the country in 1790, 
preached a few sermons along the Bay of Quinte and St. Lawrence, 
eud returned with a petition from tho settlers to the Conference, to 
send him as a preacher. In February, 1791 he again came, as an 
appointed mihister from the Methodist Episcopal Church of the 
United States. ''Losee was a loyalist, and knew some of the 
settlers in Adolphustown, before they left the United States. He 
desired to see them and preach to them the glad tidings of salva- 
tion. Had he been on the revolutionary side, tho warm loyal iete 
would not have received him — rather would have driven him from 
the country." — (Playter). One of the first places at which he 
preached, was at the house of John Carscallian, in Fredericksburgh. 
The tavern of Conrad VanDuson, in Adolphustown, was another, 
and at Paul Huff's, on Hay Bay, another. "A Methodist Preacher 
was a cui'iosity in those days, and all were anxious to see the phe- 
nomenon ; some would even ask how he looked, or what he was 
like ! A peculiarity in Losee, too, was, that he had but one arm 
to use, the other being withered." A true pioneer Methodist, he 
set earnestly to work to form class-meetings and organize societies, 
and "during the summer his circuit embraced the settlements in 



TUK bmbuhy'h. 287 

tho TowiiMhip of KingHton, Krnowttown, FrodorickHburgh, Murys- 
burgh, ami ovoti SophiuHburgh. Olusn- moo tings form tho cornor 
Htone of Wosloyau MothodiMm. But littlo undorHto(xl, ofton 
entirely miHundorHtood by othors than MothodirttH, thoy aro genor- 
fllly rogai-dod as tho abode of cant or of prioHtly control. No greater 
error could exist. Rightly conducted thoy aro invaluable as » 
means of training tho religious mind, and ontablishing it upon tho 
Eock of Ages. It has been said that thoy aro only suitable for tho 
uneducated; not so, they are alike beneficial to the peasant and the 
noble, tho clown and the litterateur. Losee, in accordance with the 
principles of Methodism, at onco sot to work to create classes, and 
on tho Sabbath of February 20, 1792, in the 3rd concession of Adol- 
phustown, at Paul llutf' s house, ho established tho first regular 
class-mooting in Canada. Tho second class was formed on tho 
following Sabbath, in Ernesttown, four miles from Bath. 

A third class was formed in March, at Samuel Detlor's, three 
miles from Napaneo. The following year tho congregation had so 
increased, which met at Paul Huff's house, that a determination 
was formed to erect a meeting house. A paper was drawn up, in 
which was set forth tho great blessing of God in sending a minister 
to their wilderness home, that a " Meoting-house or Chui'ch" is 
requisite. Then follows an agreement of the subscribers to build 
a Church, under tho direction of Losee ; to bo thirty-six feet by 
thirty feet, two stories high, with a gallery. "Said house to be 
built on the north-w^st corner of Paul Hutt's land, lot No. 18, third 
concession. Fourth Town; " and promising to pay the sums of 
money annexed to their respective names. This interesting docu- 
ment, with the names of subboribers, and tho subscription of each, is 
to be found in Playter's History of Methodism, a work thatought to bo 
in the hands of every Canadian, no matter what his creed, because 
of the fund of general knowledge upon Canada it contains. The 
total number of subscribers was twenty-two ; the amount subscribed 
was £108. Among the names are those familiar to every inhabi- 
tant of the Bay, some known throughout Canada. To one, espe- 
cially, reference must be made, Andrew Embury, a name of historic 
interest in connection with Methodism in America. It is a remark- 
able fact, that this and other names are to be found among those 
who planted Methodism in New York. The celebration of the 
centenary of Methodism in America, in 1866, was marked by fre- 
quent and glowing accounts of those who introduced Methodism 
into America. Too much credit, too much honor could not be given 



f 



IfH; AMERICAN METHODIST ORATORS. 

to tlie Emburys, the Hecks and others, which was was quite correct. 
But no reference was made in the United States, nor in Canada for 
that matter, to the dark days of the infant Society in New York, 
when the cruel rebellion interrupted the meetings in that place ; 
and where persecution followed the retirement ofthe British forces, 
1783. It is a page of history in connection with that body, which 
American writers of Metliodism endeavor to wipe out, when the 
very founders of the Church in America were made to flee from 
their homes ; and had all their property sacrificed. The names of 
Embury and Heck ; of whom bO much was said, were among the 
refugees from rebel oppression. No word has been said of the 
cause of the removal of these persons to the wilderness of Canada. 
Barbara Heck, who enjoys the everlasting honor of causing Philip 
Embury to begin Preaching, was driven away from his Methodist 
home. Philip Embury was not likewise treated, because death had 
sealed his eyes a year before the declaration of independence, ere 
the demon of rebellion was evoked by the spirit of radicalism, and 
unhallowed desire fur neighbor's goods; otherwise his bones, the 
resting place of which they have given so glowing a picture, would 
likewise be sleeping in ora' midst, in the quiet shades of the Cana- 
dian forest, as do those of Paul Heck, who died in 1788 ; and of his 
wife, Barbara, who died in 1804. The remains of Philip Embury, 
instead of being urnod, as they were, in 1822, in Ash Grove, Wash- 
ington County, New York, after lying buried for fifty-seven years 
in the old burying ground of Abraham Beninger, should have 
found a burying place on Canadian soil, where rests his widow, the 
place to which his brother and the Hecks were driven. We have 
listened to some of the American orators, and read more of their 
speeches, and could not help noticing that they forgot to mention 
that their impetuous rebellion drove away from them the founders of 
Methodism ; ihey forgot to give any credit to Capt. Webb, who was 
the second Methodist preacher in America ; forsooth, because he 
was a British officer, and it would be unpleasant to associate such 
with centenary orations in this their day of Anglophobia. 

Upon the north shore of Hay Bay, in Fredericksburgh, settled 
David Embury, brother of Philip, who officiated as a Methodist Minis- 
ter in New York, in a Eigging Loft, on William St., about 1766. To do 
this he was urged by Barbara Heck, wife of Paul Heck, both of whom 
were among the first to settle on the St. Lawrence, in Augusta, in 1785. 
The first Methodist Church erected in America, was in 1768, on John 
Street, New York. Among the 250 subscribers, was the name of 



THE LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR. . 289 

David Embury, the same who settled on Hay Bay; he gave £2. 
Also, the name of Paul Heck, who contributed £3 5m. Twenty-four 
years later, and among the twenty-two subscribers to build the first 
Methodist meeting-house in Canada, again appears the name of 
Embury— Andrew, son of David Embury. The author of the " Lost 
Chapters of Methodism," gives interesting accounts of the forma- 
tion of the Methodist Society in New York ; but he is remarkably 
silent in this instance, an others are, about the treatment they 
received from the Americans; not a word to make it known that 
they were driven into the wilds of Nova Scotia and Canada uy a 
relentless people. Yet, at the conclusion, he acknowledges this 
much : He says, " At the conclusion of the Revolutionary war, 
severe threats having been thrown out against the Loyalists who 
had taken refuge within the British lines, Mr. Mann thought it his 
duty to embark, with a considerable number of the Society, for the 
wilds of Nova Scotia." Mr. Mann was a class leader, and local 
preacher, and, during the war, at the request of the Trustees, kept 
the chapel in John Street open, after the regular preacher had left 
"We see what became of a part of the Society, in John Street! 
Some of them had been so loyal to their sovereign, they were afraid 
they would suffer if they remained." Of course they were, and 
had they not sufficient reason from the "threats" which had' been 
" thrown out." Mr. Wakely, the author, continues, '« We can 
admire their piety without endorsing their loyalty." How kind 
The second Methodist Church of New York was built on the land 
of DeLancy, who had his immense property confiscated. 

Of the subscribers to the chapel in Adolphustown, Conrad Van 
Dusen gave the largest amount, £15. He had been a Tavern 
keeper on the front, and was one of the first fruits of Losee's 
missionary labors. " He lived a little east of the Court House. Of 
liim many pleasing and amusing anecdotes are told; though a 
taverr . peper, as well as a merchant, he opened his house for the 
Gospel, and when that Gospel entered his heart, he deliberately 
took his axe and cut down his sign posts."— (P%?er.) 

The second largest contributor, was Elizabeth lioblin, who gave 
£12. She was the widow of Philip Roblin, who died 1788. They 
Jad been among the first settlers of Adolphustown. (See U. E. 
Loyalists.) Mrs. Eoblin afterwards became the wife of John 
Camiiff, the founder of Caniftou, and her remaius now rest on the 
l>ill m the old family burying ground, in that village. She was the 
ifrand-parent of John P. Eoblin, of Picton, "a man who has served 



FIRST METHODIST CHURCHES. 

his country in scvoral Parliamonts of Upper Canada. Her daughter 
Nam;}', born in 1781, is the mother of a large branch of the 
Ketcheson family in the County of Hastings." — (Playter.) She, 
will) her husband, still live in the fifth concession of Sidney, yet 
hale and hearty, in the Jiutumn of their genial, though toilsome, 
life. '' The subscription of the widow was liberal ; indeed, the 
Koblins of the Bay of Quinte have always been a hospitable and 
liberal minded people." Paul Huff and William Ruttan, each gave 
£10. The others gave smaller sums ; but, considering the date, it 
is noteworthy that so much Avas contributed. 

The same month, it is said, Losec nndertook to build a second 
Church in Krncsttown, a short distance below Bath. "The prin- 
cipal persons who aided in building this meeting-house were James 
Parrot, John Lake, Eobert Clarke, Jacob Miller, and others. There 
is cvidoiice iji the account book of Eobert Clarke, who was a car- 
penter, that the chapel was commenced May, 1792. He credits 
himself with then working twelve and a-half days; and with 
working in October twelve and a-half da^^s, at five shillings and 
six-pence per day, which shows carpenter's wages at that time. But 
like a good hearted man, seeing the building fund^not too full, he 
reduced his wages to two shillings and nine-pence per day. His 
paymmit to the chapel was £10. James Parrot received the sub- 
scriptions. The two buildings were to be of the same size and form. 
As soon as these two chapels were inclosed, the congregations sat 
on boards to hear the preaching. They were the first Methodist 
Churches in Canada. At the end of the year Mi*. Losee had 
165 members enrolled in the "Cataraqui Circuit." He set out 
on his long journey to attend conference at Albany. Mr. Losee 
returned the following year, accompanied by Eev. Darius Dunham. 
The latter took charge of the Bay of Quinte district — the " Catar- 
aqui Circuit," while Losee went to the St. Lawrence to organize a 
new society — this was called the " Oswegotchie" circuit. 

On Saturday, September 15, the first " Quarterly" meeting 
was held, in Mr. Parrot's barn, Ist Con., Ernesttown, to which many 
of the settlers came from the six t/)wnships. Darius Dunham was 
a Physician by profiession. "He was a man of strong mind, 
zealous, firm in his opinions." He labored well on the Cataraqui 
Circuit, and was in high repute by the people." — (Playter). 

Many anecdotes are told of Dunham, On account of his quick 
and blunt way of speaking and rebuking evil doings, he acquired 
the name of " Scolding Dunham." Withal, he was witty, and ho 



DARIUS DUNHAM. 291 

loved, it would socm, next to Godliness, cleanliness, so ho would, if 
at a house, Avhere it wore not observed, according to his ideurand'as 
there was only the one room, he could see the whole process of 
preparing for the table,) he would tell the housewife that the next 
time he came lie would " bring a dish-cloth along," or perhaps, he 
would bluntl}- tell the woman to "clean up." CaiToirrelales'the 
following .story, yet often told and lauglietl at by the old settlers of 
thcT^ay. " His reply to the newly appointed magistrate's banter 
ing remarks, is widely reported. A new-made 'Squire' rallied 
Dunham before some company, about riding so fine a horse, and told 
him he was very unlike his humble blaster, who was content to 
ride an ass. The preacher responded with his usual impcrturable 
gravity, and in his usual heavy and measured tones, that he agreed 
with him perfectly, and that he would most assiiredly imitate his 
Master in that particular, but for the difficulty of finding tlie animal 
required— the Government having made up all the asses into luagis- 
trates." " A person of the author's acquaintance, informed him 
that he saw an infidel, who was a fallen Lutheran clergyman, endea- 
voring, one night while Dunham was preaching, to turn the whole 
into ridicule. The preacher affected not to notice him, but went on 
exalting the excellency of Christianity, and showing the formidable 
opposition it had confronted and overcome ; when, all at onoe he 
turned to where the scoffer sat, and fixing his eyes upon him, the 
old gentleman continued : " Shall Christianity* and her votaries, 
after having passed through fire and water," &c.— " after all this| 
I say, shall the servants of God, at this time of day, allow them- 
selves to be frightened by the braying of an ass." In those days it 
was believed, by some at least, that unclean spirits and devils might 
be cast out by the jiower of God through the faithful Christian, and 
Dunham had the credit of having, on several occasions, cast out 

devils. - ■--:': ./ ,.,;.:./. ) . . 



: .;^. ^-t.\ •*'.- 



Mr. Loseo remained a preacher only two years, when he 
became mentally unfit, having encountered a disappointment of a 
crashing nature. The uncertainty of the cause of his dis- 
continuing to jireach, has been dispelled by Playter, in the 
most touching language, "He was the subject of that soft, yet 
powerful passion of our nature, which some account our weakness, 
and others our greatest happiness. Piety and beauty wore seen 
connected in female form then as well as now, in this land of woods 
and water, snows and burning heat. In the family of one of his 
bearers, and in the vicinity of Napanee river, was a maid, of no 



292 A TRUE LOVE STORY. * 

little moral and personal attraction. Soon his (Losee's) attention 
was attracted ; soon the seed of love was planted in his bosom, and 
soon it germinated and bore outward fruit. In the interim of 
suspense, as to whether he should gain the person, another preacher 
came on the circuit, visits the same dwelling, is attracted by the 
same fair object, and finds in his heart the same passion. The two 
seek the same person. One is absent on the St. Lawrence ; the 
other frequents the blest habitation, never out of mind. One, too, 
is deformed, the other a person of desirable appearance. Jealousy 
crept in with love. But, at last, the preference was made, and 
disappointment, like a thunderbolt, overset the mental balance of 
the.tirst itinerant minister in Canada." Ho subsequently removed 
to New Yoi'k, where he continued to live for many years, and 
recovered his mental health. He had purchased lots in Kingston, 
which ho returned to sell in 181t» ; at this time he was perfectly 
sound in mind, and was a good man. He visited Adolphustown, 
and other places, preaching here and there, and finally returned to 
New York. 

Mr. Dunham proved a useful man, especially among the settlers 
of Marysburgh. He ultimately in the yeai* 1800, retired from the 
ministry and settled near Napanee, having married into the Detlor 
family. But he continued to act as a local preacher. 

The eai'ly preachers often traveled from place to place on 
horseback after a bridle-path had been made, with saddle-bags, 
containing oats in one part, and a few articles of wearing 
apparel in another, perhaps a religious book; thus the zealous 
preacher would travel mile after mile through interminable forests. 
Indeed there are plenty to-day who have done likewise. 

There is one fact connected with the early Methodist preachers, 
which requires a passing notice. 

The settlers were all intensely loyal ; yet when the Yankee 
Methodist preacher came in their midst he was gladly received ; it 
is true Losee the first who came was a loyalist ; but many who 
followed were Americans and republicans. Although the Lutheran, 
Presbyterian, and English churchmen had preceded the Methodistii 
into Canada, neither seemed to obtain that hold upon the hearts of 
the plain U. B. Loyalists, that the Methodists did. The people 
of every denomination as well as those belonging to none, flocked 
to hear them, and many stayed to become followers. These 
Americans Avere always regarded with suspicion by government, 
and serious doubts were entertained whether those who became 



ORIGIN OP CAMP-MEETINGS. 293 

Methodists wore loyal. But the war of 1812, exhibited in a thrill- 
ing manner the old fire of attachment to their sovereign the King. 
Their seemed to be an adaptability between the Methodist mode of 
worship and the plain old settlers, and for years there were many 
who left the church of their fathers, and joined the more demon- 
strative society of Wesleyanism. Not only was this mode of 
ordinary worship followed by • the Methodist congenial, but 
especially the camp meeting engaged their hearty attention. This 
mode of worshipping in the woods was first known in Kentucky in 
1801, and was initiated by two brothers named McGee, one of whom 
was a Methodist, the other a Presbyterian. There are many who 
regard the holding of camp-meetings as very questionable, even in 
the past. Whatever may be said about the necessity of such 
meetings at the present day, they were it is thought, highly appro- 
priate in the infant da^'s of the country. At the fii-st, and for many 
long years, there were but few churches of any size. Then, the 
inhabitants had been buried as it were in the primeval forests, left 
to meditate in its deep recesses, far away from the busy haunts of 
men. Xo doubt the solemn repose, and silent grandeur awoke in 
their minds feelings of awe, and of veneration. Just the same as 
one will feel when gazing along the naves of some old grand 
cathedral, with its representations of trees and flowers. It is not 
difficult to understand that the mind, trained by habit to meditation 
in the woods, with its waving boughs telling of other times, and of 
a mysterious future, would naturally find worshipping in the woods, 
congenial to the soul,— find it a fit place for the higher contempla- 
tion and worship of the great God. The first camp-meeting held in 
Canada was in 1805, on the south shore of Hay Bay, near the chapel. 
The meeting was attended by some from the distant townships, 
who went down in batteaux. This was a great event to the settlers. 
Its announcement, says Dr. Bangs, "beforehand excited great interest 
far and near. Whole families prepared for a pilgrimage to the 
ground, processions of waggons, and foot passengers wended along 
the highways." The ministers present were Case, Eyan, Pickett 
Keeler, Madden and Bangs. The meeting commenced on the 27th 
of September; the whole was characterized by deep reli. 



joy " 



"'1 



gious feeling as well as decided demonstration, and the 
comfort of believing, which ought always to be present with the 
Christian, was generally experienced, while there was an absence 
of that outside exhibition, too ofter seen in later years, around the 
camps. We quote from Carroll respecting the ending of this meeting. 



294 ' END OF A CAMP-MBETING. • 

Tho account is from Dr. Bangs, "The time was at hand at last for 
the conclusion of the meeting. Tho last night was the most 
awfully impressive and yet most delightful scone my eyes ever 
beheld There was not a cloud in tho sky. Tho stars studded the 
firmament, and the glory of God filled tho camp. All the neigh- 
bourinc- forest seemed vocal with the echo of hymns. Turn our 
attention which way we would, we heard the voice of prayer and 
praise 1 will not attempt to describe the parting scene, for it was 
indescribable. The preachers, about to disperse to their distant 
fields of labor, hung upon each other's necks, weeping and yet 
rejoicin..-. Christians from remote settlements, who had here 
formed holy friendships, which they expected would survive in 
heaven, parted probably to meet no more on earth. As the hosts 
marched off in dil^rent diroctipns^tl^c songs of vict9ry rolled along 

the high wJiys." ' ■'■''--■• [■ \, ,, 

\l)ropos of Methodist camp-meetings, Carroll tells an anecdote 
characteristic of the times, and as well of the honest Dutch. One 
of these old settlers was speaking of a recent camp-meeting from 
which ho had just come said, " It was a poor, tot tuU time, and no 
goot was tone, till tat pig Petty (the Eev. Elias Pattie) come ; but 
mit his pig fist, ho did kill te tuval so tet as a nit, and ten te work 
proke out. The.Methodists of that day were fond of the demon- 
strative." ;•':;''•;;■, , ,. , . ^^''^'t .a 
In tho year 1806, a native of Prince Edward district entered 
the Methodist ministry. He was the first native Canadian preacher 
of any denomination, bin name was Andrew Pringle. 

The same year Thomas Whitehead was sent by the Inow lork 
Conference. He was six weeks on the road through the woods 
with his wife and six children, "and during mostef the time they 
subsisted on boiled wheat." i,^: 



.'■^'Ai-- 



t: < THE RYANITES. 295 

i.'.^'V'ii :■;;.«;.; :;,i-,; rti,.VT .,'•' '■•■1 •-' : ,i^^|.^Vt>;-/'->'.'j:f, '^, i , 

; ' CHAPTER XXXI. ' ^n-^ '^'^'•^^'Jti"..;-»«nv. 

CoNTBNTS— Henry Ryan— IlyanituH— Ho comes to (,'nnadii— HIk associuto, Case— 
At KingKtoii— A Siiigor— PivaohiiiK in the Markot-place— Tlicir ticatinent 
■y- —In office— His circuit— 1000 miles— yi^liat ho roceivi^d- -Elder— Snpor- 
;i.. aeded- trobablo cause — A British subject — During the war of 1812— I'resi- 
^^ dent of Conference— "High-minded"— Useful— Aec.-ptable to tlie peojde— 
■' Desired Independence 1)y the Canafiians— How lie was treated- His labors— 
. . Brave— Witty— " Fatherless cliildren "— " Impudent scoundr.d "—Muscular 
^ — " Jlethodists' Bull "—" Magistrate's Goat" — Ryan seelts separation— 
•^ Ereakonridge— Condn<t of the American Conference- Ryan's agitation— 
■.. Effect upon the Bishops— First Canada Conference- At Hoilowell— Desire 
., for independence— Reasons, cogent— Fruit of Ryan's doings— The way tiie 
Conference tnjated Ryan— Withdraws -No faith in tlie United States Con- 
ference— Ryan sincere—" Canadian Wesleyans "—The motives of tlie United 
>,, Sttites Conference questionable— Tiio wrong done Ryan— Second Canada 
Conference— Case, first Superintendent— A'"isit of Bisliop Asbury— Account 
r by Henry Boehm— Asbury an Englishman— During tlie rebellion— A Bishop 
—His journey to Canada— Crossing the St. Lawrence- Traveling in Canada 
;^ An ups(!t— " A decent i)eople "—His opinion of tlie country— Tlie Bishop ill 
—At Kingston— B(Ehm at Embury's— A field meeting— Riding all night — 
i; Crossing to SacJ<etts harbor— Nearly wrecked. - -hl-.;ri,.Vu".) 



SOME ACCOUNT OP HENRY RYAN. 



■ u' ;:• -J 



A sketch of the early ministers who preached around the Bay 
Quinte, would be incomplete without a somewhat extended notice 
of Elder Ryan, after whom was called, a certain number of non- 
contented Methodists, Rijanites. ^^t^^iWT - .. «:.;•«: v:* 
;■ Henry Ryan, an Irishman, "of a bold energetic nature, with a 
powerful voice," commenced preaching in 1800. He was for five 
years stationed in the States. In the year 1805, he, with the Rev. 
Wm. Case, was appointed to the Hay Quinte circuit. It was they 
who arranged and conducted the first camp meeting. Carroll, writ- 
ing of that period, says, " there was no society (of Methodists) then 
in the Town of Kingston, and its inhabitants were very irreligious. 
The ttfarket house was the only chapel of the Methodists, Case and 
his colleague (Ryan) made a bold push to arouse the people. Some- 
times they went together, Ryan was a powerful singer too. They 
would ride into the town, put their horses at an inn, lock arms, and 
go singing down the streets a stirring ode, beginning with ' Como 
let us march to Zion's hill.' By the time they had reached the 
market-place, they usually hatl collected a large assembly. When 
together, Ryan usually preached, and Case exhorted. Ryan's sten- 
torian voice resounded through the town, and was hoard across the 
adjacent waters. They suffered no particular opposition excepting 
it little anjioyauco from some of the baser sort, who sometimes tried 



296 



DURING THE WAR OF 1812. 



to trip them off the butcher's block, whicli constituted their rostrum ; 
,ot fire to their hair, and then blew out their candle if it were in 
the night season." Proof was subsequently given that this preach- 
ing was not without effect. ^ ■' •* '' ^'•' '.-''^ 
Mr Evan continued-ten yoarsatthoBayQuinte.and then thiee 

years in the west at Long Point and Niagara. In 1810, ho was 
presiding Elder. His duties, as such, was to visit every part of 
the Province, from Detroit to Cornwall. « Allowing for his renirns 
home, he traveled about 1000 nales each quarter in the year, or 
4000 miles a year. And what was the worldly gain ? The pre- 
.Siding Elder was allowed $80 for himself, 060, for his wife and 
what provisions he would need for his family. His entire allow- 
ance might have been £60 a year. Such was the remuneration, 
and such the labors, of the presiding Elder " of the Methodists fifty- 
three years ago— (Playter). 

Henry Eyan continued a presiding Elder, for many years, m 
the whole of Upper Canada, a few years in lower Canada, and then 
when the Bay of Quinte district was set apart by division he was 
appointed Elder to it. But in 1834, for some reason, Mr. Eyan 
was superseded in office. The reason of this can only be guessed. 
He was an Irishman by birth, and although sent to Canada by an 
American body, he seems to have been more a British subject, a 
Canadian, than American. During the war of 1812, he remained 
in Canada attending to his duties, with three other faithful men, 
Ehodes, Whitehead, and Pringle. More than that, as presiding 
Elder, he assumed the oversight of the preachers at the close of the 
first year. Others had been stationed in Canada who were British 
subjects, but they ceased before the war had closed, to discharge 
their duties. The Americans feared to come, or, having come, were 
warned off by proclamation. Those who continued in the minis- 
terial field met under the presidency of Eyan. In the year'of the 
commencement of the war, the conference was to have met at 
Niagara, in Upper Canada; but war was declared by the United 
States a month previous, and instead of venturing into the country 
where their fellow countrymen were about to carry the midnight 
torch, they turned aside to another place to hold their conference. 
« None of the brethren laboring on the Canada side went over, it 
is probable, although we are not certain, that they met at the place 
appointed, where some sort of deliberations would take place. 
The Eev. John Eyorson says Mr. Eyan " held a conference, and 
held three conferences during the war, the principal business oi 



•' ^ ^ HIS CHARACTER. 297 

which was t'mplo3'in<< preachors, and appointing thorn to their 
different fields of labor." The Eev. Ezra Adams says, the second 
conferonco was held at Matilda," and "in 1814, it was hold at 
the Bay of Quinto, at Second or Fourth Town " — Carroll. Mr. 
E^'^an was impulsive and authoritative, at least the ministers 
thought so, and the rule of " Harry Ej-an " was called *' high-handed." 
The end of it all was that, although ho was useful and liked by the 
people, his ministerial brethren in Canjida did not like him, and 
the conference seemed glad to supersede one, who no doubt already 
manifested his desire that the Canadian Methodists should become 
independent of the Americans. In view of the political state of 
affairs, the objection felt by the government to have American 
preachors giving religious instruction to Canadians, — in view of 
the course pursued by Eyan during the war of 1812 — in view of his 
whole career up to this time, the belief is forced upon the mind 
that it was not, only when Eyan had been superseded that he began 
to agitate for a separation. His labors during the war were severe 
and continuous, says a preacher of the times, " Ho used to travel 
from Montreal to Sandwich, to accomplish which he kept two horses 
in the Niagara district, and one for the upper part of the Province, 
and another for the lower. As his income was very small, he eked 
out the sum necessary to support his family by peddling a manu- 
facture of liis own in his extensive journe3's, and by hauling with 
his double team in winter time, on his return from Lower Canada, 
loads of Grovernment stores or general merchandise. Mr. Eyan, by 
his loyalty, gained the confidence and admiration of all friends of 
British suj)remacy, and by his abundant and heroic laborS) the 
affections of the God-fearing part of the community." Much more 
might be said in the same vein, but probably enough has been said 
to establish his claim to the sympathy of every Bay of Quinte in- 
habitant, where he so long labored and where most of his subsequent 
followers lived. It may be added that he was brave and witt}', and 
" had a ready answer for every bantering remark. Some wicked 
follows are said to have asked him if lie had hcai-d the news ? What 
news ? Why, that the devil is dead. Then said he, looking around 
on the company, ho has left a groat many fatherless children. On 
another occasion, on entering a piiblic house, a low fellow, knowing 
him to be, from his costume, a minister, remarked aloud, placing 
his hand in his jiocket, " There comes a Methodist preacher ; I 
must take care of my money." Eyan promptly said, " You are an 
impudent scoundrel." "Take care," said the man, "I cannot 



298 FIRST CANADA CONFERENCE. 

swallow that," "ThcMj chow it till 3'ou cnn," was the fearless reply. 
— (Carroll 1. At camp meetiiit^s, when it came to pass that indi- 
viduals came to create diHturbance, and when there was no police to 
take care of rowdies, Mr. Kyan has been known to display his 
muscular power by at-tually throwin/^ the guilty individuals over 
the enclosure to the camp ground. ,.,, ^,.i> 1 ;>iji^ >ri 

Mr Ilyan preat^hed occasionally at Vandusens' tavern in Adol- 
phustown. After one of his thundering sermons, a neighboring 
squire who was a daily visitor at the tavern, and who had recently 
attempted to cut his own throat, wrote upon the wall of the bar- 
room, "Elder Ryan, the Methodist bull, preaches hell and damnation 
till the pulpit is full ;" whci-euponsome one wrote below it, "Bryan 

C d, the magistrate goat, barely escaped hell and damnation by 

cutting his throat." 

Mr. Ryan, upon his return from the General Confoence in 
1844, commenced an agitation for indc})endence of the Canadian 
Methodists, and from Port Hope Creek t(^ the Ottawa, he continued 
to urge the necessity of such an end. iiiiVv{,rii<* 

" While not much liked by the preachers, Ryan was very popular 
among the people," especially along the Bay (Jiiinte. Captain Break- 
enridge, a local preacher, living on the St. Lawrence, joined him, in 
holding conventions, and in procuring largely signed ])etitions, pray- 
ing for separation. Ryan and Breakenridge, went to the (leneral 
Conference, bearing these petitions, and were not received. But 
these petitions were the commencement of the separation, which it 
was quite time should take j^lace for the well being of both ])arties. 
Concessions were made — a Canada conference was formed through 
the instrumentality of Elder Ryan ; but under the superintendency 
of the United States conference. This did not satisfy Ityan, and his 
followers in the Bay Quinte circuit. Meetings were held at which it 
was resolved they would " break ojf " fi*om the American Church 
without permission. For four months Ryan energetically appealed 
to the people. To allay this the Bishop liad to come and say to the 
Canadians, that if they wished independence, the next general confer- 
ence, whieh would meet in 1828, would no doubt grant it. The 
following year the first Canada conference was held at the village of 
Hollowell, (Picton). It was opened on the 25th August. There 
were thirty preachers present, and they continued in session five 
days. The agitation initiated by Ryan, had done its work, " a gen- 
eral desire existed, that the Canada body shouM become an indepen- 
dent body, not later than the general conference of 1828," and a 



A NEW SOCIETY, 299 

inenuMMiil wu.s prepurt'tl to bo subniilteil to that body. At'tor roquest- 
iiig to bo set iipiirt an iiulupomlent botly, the followhig rcaHon, with 
others was given. " The state of society requires it. The first 
settlers having eiaimetl the proteotion of Ilis Britannic Majesty in the 
revohitionary war, were driven from their former possessions to 
enchire great hardships in a remote wilderness. Time, however, and 
a friendly intercourse, had worn down their asperity and i)rejndico, 
when the late unha])py war revived their former feelings ; attbrding 
what they considered, new and grievous occasion for disgust against 
their invading neighbors. The prejudices thus excited would prob- 
ably subside if their ministry were to become residents in this country, 
as would be the case in the event of becoming a separate body." 
The fact that government regarded with dislike the connection was 
adverted to, also that they were not allowed to solemnize nuitrimony. 
Such was the fruit of Elder Eyan's i)roceedings, and to him belongs 
great credit, however much his motives may have been iiui)ugned. 
It has been acknowledged that he was disliked by the preachers, and 
this dislike was manifested this year by sending him as a missionary 
to the Indians. No wonder he was dissatisfied. Not because he was 
placed in a humble position, after acting nearly a quarter of a century 
as presiding Elder; but because of the aninius of those who did it. 
And moreover, he entertained the belief that the general conference 
did not intend to give independence. The next year Ryan was placed 
among the superannuated ministers, and thus remained two years, the 
next yeai 1827, he withdrew, and resumed the agitation for indepen- 
dence, lie had no faith in the United States conference, the cry was 
raised, Loyal Methodism against Republican Methodism. In this 
Ryan was countenanced by (-Tovernment and the English Church, and 
Playter says. Dr. Strachan sent him XoO to carry on the work of 
separation. 

The whole previous life of Ryan, lead us to believe that he 
was siiicei'e and honest in his movements and statements, but 
it is said he was greatly mistaken. The people generally said, wait 
till we see what the general conference does. The preachers have 
said they will give us independence, pause till we see. The result 
of the conference was as had been promised ; Avhile already 
Ryan had separated, and, with a limited number of followei-s, mostly 
along the bay and St. Lawrence, had foi-med a new body with 
the name of Canadian Wesleyan Methodist Church. But it will always 
remain a question whether the general conference would have con- 
ceded the independence had it not been well known thatJByjiu would 



300 SEPARATION. 

take almost all if they were not ma«lo free. It is not an unknown 
thing lOr a perHon who has worked tor nomo public /jjood to bo robbed 
of the credit in a snrreptitions manner. Ryan was deceived, and his 
kind thoti^h impulsive natun* resented the wrong done him. Though 
his name has been [)laced under a shadow by tliose who were indebted 
to him, yet his memory is even yet green and 8weet in the hearts of 
some of the old settlers. Well might Elder Ryan, select as liis text 
at the time, " I have raised tip children and they have rebelled." 

The general conference assembled at Pittsburgh, Ist May, 1828. 
The memorial from the C-auada conference was duly considered, and 
whatever may have been the reasons, they granted in the most kindly 
spirit, the decided request of the C'anadiau Methodists, llyan, it is 
said when he heard of it, '* looked astonished, trembled and could 
scarcely utter a word." !'t > ' ''"^ ■ ' *'"- • ' i^V;"^' •. 

The second Canada conference met at Erncsttown, the 2nd 
October, 1828, in Switzer's chapel. " Bisliop Hedding came for the 
last time, and [)rcslded over tlie conference. No United States Bishop, 
no Bishop at all, lia.se''er presided since." This year, Andrew Pringle, 
the first native Methodist preacher, was placed on the superannuated 
list. After due deliberation the conference resolved to organize into 
an independent body, and adopted the discipline of the Methodist P'pis- 
copal Church, as the basis of their own. The Rev. Wm. Cme was 
appointed General Su))orintendent until the next conference. 

It is not pofslble, nor would it be proper to give a connected 
history of Methodism, or any other religious denomination. But the 
aim of the writer is to supply facts relative to those who have lived 
and acted a part in connection with the early history of the bay, with 
such other tacts as will throw light upon the matter. With this 
object in view, we will here introduce, in conclusion, a brief notice of 
the visit of Bisliop Asburv to Canada in 1811. The account is from 
the pen of the Rev. Henry Bcehm, with remarks by Mr. Carroll. 
Reading this account, it called to our inind the account given to us 
by Father Bo'hm, in 1854, while sojourning at Staten Island, New 
York, where we had the great pleasure of frequently meeting him 
and of enjoying the hospitality of his genial family. Mr. Bcehm 
was the traveling companion of Bishop Asbury when he visited 
Canada. 

Bishop Asbury, the cotemporary of the Wesley's, being one whom 
Wesley ordained to preach, he came to America in 1771, as a mis- 
sionary, being 25 years old. Of .all the English preachers in the 
revolting colonies, he alone remained during the revolutionary war, 



BIBHOP ASBURY. 801. 

ami was under the necessity of conoeuling liiinHelf in Di'lftWJire. 
Created a Bishop by Dr. Coke, in 1786, ho (continued for ni.uiy years 
in the oversigiit of the Metliodist Church in America and in Canada. 
But although Metiiodisni wnH planted in Canada in 17U2, it wan not 
until the year nicntioned that a BIhIioj) found hiw way to the remote 
settlements of Canada. Bishop Asbury, however, had for years a 
desire to see Cana(hv. Two years before he came he wrote, " t shall 
see Canada before I die." Says H(juhm. 

*' Wo hud a sovoro time on our journey. We crossed Lake 
Champlain, and Mr, Asbury preached in a bar-room in Plattsburgh. 
The roads through the woods, over rocks, down guUoys, over 
stumps, and through the mud, were indescribable. They wore 
enough to jolt a halo bishop to death, let alone a poor, infirm old 
man, near iho grivo." "On entering the village (of St. Kogis) 
as Mr. Asbury was loading his horse across a bridge made of 
poles, the animal got his foot between them, and sunk into the 
mud and water. Away went the saddle-bags; the books and 
clothes were wet, and the horse was fast. We got a pole under 
him to pry him out; at the same time the horse made a leap, and 
came out safe and sound.- We crossed the St, Lawrence in romantic 
style. We hired tour Lidians to paddle us over. They lashed 
thi'oo canoes together, and put our horses in them, their tore feet 
in one canoe, their hind feet in another. It was a singular load ; 
three cahoos, three passengers, the bishop. Smith and myself, 
throe horses and four Indians, They were to take us over for three 
dollars. '• it was nearly three miles across to whoro we landed" — 
" did not reach the other side till late in tlie evening." The 
Indians claimed another dollar, because three could not be easily 
divided between four, this was "cheerfully paid," "We arrived 
in Caniula on July Ist, 1811, landing at Cornwall, and about mid- 
night reached the hospitable house of Evan Koise, who hailed the 
bii^hop's arrival with joy, and gave him and his companions a 
welcome worthy of patriarchal times." " We found it warm in 
Canada, and the Bishop suffered greatly. Here Henry Eyan, 
Presiding Elder of Upper Canada, mot us. The next day Bishop 
Asbury preached," the day after the Bishop preached again and 
there was a love-feast, and the Lord's Supper," Proceeding up 
the River St, Lawrence, arrived at the eastern line of Matilda, 
" the Bishop rode in Brother Glassford's close carriage, which he 
called a ' calash,' and he inquired how they would got out if it 
Upset, He had hardly asked the question before over went the 



302 A LAND THE LORD HATH BLESSED. 

carriage, and tlio venerable Bishop was upset, but fortunately no 
bones were broken ; the saplings along side the road broke the fall. 
On Friday the Bishop preached in Matilda chapel, in what was 
called the German settlement. I followed, preaching in German. 
The Bishop %vas delighted with the people, he wrote, "here is a 
decent loving people. I called upon Father Dulmage, and Brother 
Heck." We tarried over night with David Breackenridge. He 
married and baptised a great many people, and attended manj- 
funerals. In 1804 he preached the funeral sermon of Mrs. Heck, 
who died suddenly, and it is said she claimed to be the person who 
stirred Philip Embury to preach the Gospel. On Saturday we 
rode twelve miles before breakfast to Father Boyce's, where we 
attended Quarterly Meeting. Bishop Asbury preached a thrilling 
sermon. " The Bishop greatly admired the country through which 
we rode. He says ' Our ride has brought us through one of the 
finest countries I have seen. The timber is of noble size; the 
cattle are well shaped, and well looking ; the crops are abundant 
on a most fruitful soil. Surely this is a land that God, the Lord 
hath blessed.' " (Such was the testimony of one who liad traveled 
all over the United States, concerning a country eighty yeavB 
younger than the older States of the Union. Such the testimony 
respecting the pioneers of the country who twenty-five years pre- 
vious came thereto into an unbroken wilderness — respecting the 
men the Americans had driven away and stigmatized by the appli- 
cation of the most degrading names). "On Monday we proceeded 
to Gananoque Falls, to Colonel Stone's. Father Asbury was very 
lame from inflammatory rheumatism. He suffered like a martyr. 
On Tuesday we visited Brother Elias Dulmage, a very kind family, 
and Bishop Asbury preached in the first Town Church" (Kingston 
Church). E. Dulmage, one of tho Palatines, lived afterward a long 
time as jail-keeper." — (Carroll). The Bishop was so poorly he 
could not proceed on his journey, and was obliged to lie up and 
rest. He remained at Brother Dulmage's, where he found a very 
kind home, and I went with Henry Eyan to his Quarterly Meeting, 
in Fourth or Adolphustown, Bay of Quinte. On Friday we rode 
to Brother John Embury, Hay Bay. Ho was a nephew of Philip 
Embury, the Apostle of American Methodism. On the Loi-d's day 
we had a glorious love-feast, and at the Lord's Supper He was 
made known to us in the breaking of bread. In a beautiful grove, 
under the shade of trees planted \)y God's own hand, I preached 
to two thousand people, John Eeynold's, afterward Bishop Roy- 



FIRST ROMAN CATHOLICS. 303 

iiolds, of Belleville, and Homy Hyan exhorted. (Exhorting after 
sermon was a common practice among the Methodif>ts in those 
days). Mr. Boehm had to return to Ki:;gston the same night, in 
order that the Bishop might get to the Conference to be held in 
the States immediately. To do so they rode all night — 35 miles. 
•'To our great joy we found Fatlier Asbury better" — "he had sent 
around and got a congregation to whom ho preached in the chapel. 
He also met the Society and baptized two children. Wo were in 
Canada just a fortnight. The Bishop was treated everywhere as 
the angel of the churches. The Bishoji preached six times in 
Canada, besides numerous lectures which he delivered to societies." 
The Bishop and Mr. Boehm set out on the Mondaj^ for Sackett's 
Harbour, in a small sail boat. There was a heavy storm, and they 
were nearly wrecked. On the water all night without a cabin. 
Spent a fearful night, and reached Sackett's Harbour the next 
afternoon. 

' /■'":■ ' . v:'- ;■' ■'' '•■^•^•,:- '' ■■• ■■■•' '^- "-'' " • /•■■-f '- 
: ' '• CHAPTER XXXII.^' ''' '^' ■' ' ' ■ 

' "' ..,.'-'■ k'>''" i ' •'■(■. ' " .'■•'1, . ■ 

Contents— McDonnell— First R. Cntholic Bisliop— A " MemoianiUira''— Birth, 
place — In Spain — A Priest— In Scotland— Gleugary Fencibles— Ireland, 
1798— To Canada — Bishop— Death in Scotland— Bod}-- removed to Canada — 
Funeral obsequies— Buried at Kingston— Had influence — Member of Cana- 
dian Legislative Council— Pastoral visitations, 1806— A loyal man — A 
Pioneer in his Church— The Bishop's Address, 1830 —Refuting mal-charges 
— Number of the R. C. Clergy in 1804 — From Lake Superior to Lower 
Canada— Traveling horseback— Sometimes on foot — Hardships — Not a 
Politician — Expending private means— Faithful services— Acknowledged — 
Roman Catholic U. E. Loyalists— First Church in Emesttown— McDonnell 
at BelleviJle— Rev.M. Rrennan— First Church in Belleville— What we have 
aimed at— The advantages to the English Church— The Reserves — In Lower 
Canada— Dr. Mountain— Number of English Clergymen, 1793 — A Bishop- 
Monopoly initiated— Intolerance and E.xclusion swept away — An early habit 
at Divine se^ice. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLICS — BISHOP MCDONNELL. ■. . \i.....~r' 

We are much indebted to J. P. McDonnell, Esq., of Belleville, 
for a " Memorandum of his grand-parent, the Eev. Alex McDonnell, 
first Bishop of Upper Canada." ^:. *«;•*• v-'r-nn't^^rij; h i ,.. 

" He was born in the year 1760, in Glengary, in Scotland, 
educated for the Priesthood at Valladolid College, in the Kingdom 
of Spain; for, at this time no person professing the Eoman Catholic 



304 BISHOP m'donnell. 

faith could be allowed to be educated in any part of the British 
empire. Ho was ordained Priest before the year 1790. Then 
came back to Scotland, his native country, and officiated as a 
Priest in Badenoch, a small district in North Scotland, also in 
the city of Glasgow; afterwards joined, in 1798, the Glengary 
Fencibles, then for duty in Ireland, under the command of Lord 
McDonnell, of Glengary, who was Colonel of said Fencible Regi- 
ment. He came to Canada in the year 1804; was consecrated first 
Bishop of Upper Canada in the year 1822, titled as the Bishop of 
Kingston." He died in Dumfriesshire, a County bordering on 
England and Scotland, in the year 1840. His body was laid in St. 
Mary's Church, Edinborough, until removed to Canada, in 1862. 
His remains was taken from the cars at the station at Lancaster, 
and carried to St. Eaphael's Cathedral ; in which Church he had 
spent some of his most useful days, administering the consolations 
of his religion to his numerous co-religionists throughout the Pro- 
vince of Upper Canada. His remains were escorted by thousands 
of people, of all denominations, from St. Raphael's Church to St. 
Andrew's Church, and thence to Cornwall depot, in order to convoy 
his remains to Kingston, the head of his See ; where his remains 
now lie in the vaults of the Cathedral of that ancient city, in which 
he, as Bishop, officiated for years, a favorite of both Protestants 
and Catholics. 1 may here remark, that no other man, either 
clergyman or lay. ever had more influence with the Government, 
either Imperial or Colonial than Bishop McDonnell. In fact he 
established the Catholic Church in Western Canada. All the lands 
that the church now possesses were ]irocured by his exertions. The 
Bishop was a member of the Legislative Council for years in con- 
nection with the Venerable Bishop Strachan, of Toronto. About 
the year 1806, he passed on his way from Toronto, then York, to 
Kingston ; celebrated mass at his relation's. Col. Archibald Chisholm, 
whose descendants are now living on Lot. Nos. 8 and 9, 1st Con., 
Thurlow, adjoining the Town of Belleville— carried his vestments 
on his back most of the way from Toronto to Kington ; and he 
took passage in a birch canoe from his friend's, Col. Chisholm, to 
another relation. Col. McDonnell, (McDonald's Cove,) on his way 
to Kingston. 
; " Although his religion was then proscribed by the British Gov- 
' ernment, and he was compelled to go to a foreign country to bo 
educated, no more loyal man to the British Crown lived ; no other 
; man over conduced more to the upholding of British supremacy in 
North America than he, and helped to consolidate the same. 



ADDRESS TO SIR FRANCIS BOND HEAD. 305 

We are also indebted to Mr. McDonnell for other valuable docu- 
ments concerning the Bishop, who may be regarded the father of his 
Church in Upper Canada. >t least, he was the pioneer of that 
denomination in the Bay region. To a great extent, his history is 
the early history of his Church. The worthy prelate will npeak for 
himself, when at the advanced age of seventy-four, and ho spoke 
under circumstances which precluded the possibility of any state- 
ment accidentally creeping in, which could not be fully substan- 
tiated. 

Eeferring to an address of the House of Assembly, 183G in 
which his character had been aspersed, and his motives assailed' he 
m a letter to Sir Francis Bond Head, asks ''the liberty of making 
some remarks on a few passages" thereof, and, among other things, 
says, '< As to the charges brought against myself I feel very little 
affected by them, having the consolation to think that fifty years 
spent in the faithful discharge of my duty to God and to my country 
have established my character upon a foundation too solid to be 
shaken by the malicious calumnies of two notorious slanderers " 
To the charge that he had neglected his spiritual functions to 
devote his time and talents to politics, he, by plain declaration 
refutes their "malicious charge," stating the following facts, which 
relate to the country from the year he entered it, 1804. He says 
"There were then but two Catholic clergymen in the whole of 
Upper Canada. One of these clergymen soon deserted his post ; and 
the other resided in the Township of Sandwich, in the Western 
District, and neverwent beyond the limits of his mission; so that 
upon entering upon my pastoral duties, I had the whole of the Pro- 
vince beside in charge, and without any assistance for the space of 
ten years. During that period, I had to travel over the country 
rem Lake Superior to the Province line of Lower Canada, to the 
discharge of my pastoral functions, carrying the sacred vestments 
sometimes on horseback, sometimes on my back, and sometimes in 
Indian birch canoes, living with savages-without any other shelter 
or comfort, but what their fires and their fares, and the branches of 
he trees aiforded ; crossing the great lalcen and rivers, and even 
descending the rapids of the St. Lawrence in their dangerous and 
wretched crafts. Nor were the hardships and privations which t 
endured among the new settlers and emigrants less than what I 
m to encounter among the savnges themselves, in their miserable 
Chanties ; exposed on all sides to the weather, and destitute of every 
comfort. In this way I have been spending my time and my health 



30(> LOYAL ROMAN CATHOLICS. 

year after year, since I liavo been in Upper Caiiuda, and not 
clinging to a seat in the LegisUuive Council and devoting my time 
to political strife, as my accusers are pleased to assert. The erec- 
tion of five and thirty Churches and Chapels, great and small, 
although many of them are in an unfinished state, built by my 
exertion ; and the zealous services of two and twenty clergymen, 
the major part of whom have been educated at my own expense, 
afford a substantial proof that I have not neglected my spiritual 
functions, or the care of the souls under my charge; and if that be 
not sufficient, 1 can produce satisfactory documents to prove that 1 
have expended, since I have been in this Province, no less than 
thirteen thousand pounds, of my own private means, beside what I 
received from other quarters, in building Churches, Chapels, Pres- 
byteries, and School-houses, in rearing young men for the Church, 
and in promoting general education. With a full knowledge of 
those facts, established beyond the possibility of a contradiction, 
my accusers can have but little regard fior the truth, when they tax 
me with neglecting my spiritual functions and the care of souls. 
The framers of the address to His Excellency knew perfectly well 
that I never had, or enjoyed, a situation, or place of profit or 
emolument, except the salary which my sovereign was pleased to 
bestow upon me, in reward of forty-two years faithful services to 
my country, liaving been instrumental in getting two corps of my 
flock raised and embodied in defence of their country in critical 
times, viz., the first Glengary Fencible Eegiment, was raised by 
my influence, as a Catholic corps, dm-ing the Irish rebellion, whose 
dangers and fatigues I shared in that distracted country, and con 
tributed in no small degree to repress the rapacity of the soldiers. 
and bring back the deluded people to a sense of their duty to then' 
sovereign and submission to the laws. Ample and honorable testimo- 
nials of their services and my conduct may be found in the Govern- 
ment office of Toronto. The second Glengary Fencible Eegiment 
raised in the Province, when the Government of the United States of 
America invaded, and expected to make a conquest of Canada, was 
planned by me, and partly raised by my influence. My zeal in the 
service of my country, and my exertions in the defence of this 
Province, were acknowledged by his late Majesty, through Lord 
Bathurst, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. My salary was 
then increased, and a seat was assigned for me in the Legislative 
Council, as a distinguished mark of my sovereign's favor, an honor 
I should consider it a disgrace to resign, although I can hardly 



THE FAVORED CHURCH. 3O7 

expect over to sit in the Council, nor do I believe that Lord Glenel^r, 
who knows something of me, would expect that I should show m 
much imbecility in my latter days, as to relinquish a mark of honor 
conferred upon mo by my sovereign, to gratify the vindictive 
malice of a few unprincipled radicals. So far, however, from 
repining at the cruel and continued persecutions of my enemies I 
pray God to give me patience to suffer, for justice sake, and 'to 
forgive them their unjust and unmerited conduct towards me. I 
have the honor to be Sir,— Your most obedient and very humble 
servant,— (Signed)— Alex. McDonnell. To T. Joseph, Esq., Sec'y 
to His Excellency, Sir Francis Bond Head, &c., &c., &c." 

There were a number of Roman Catholics among the U. E. 
Loyalists. Among them were the Chisholm's on the front of 
Thurlow, to whose house Mr. McDonnell came to preach as he made 
his annual round. I am told by an old settler, that a very old 
Eoman Catholic Church existed in Ernosttown west, a short distance 
from Bath. Probably Mr. McDonnell travelled all around the Bay, 
visiting members of his Church. There were several in Marys- 
burgh. He was the first to preach in Belleville, Avhen it had become 
a village. But the Eev Michael Brennan, who still lives, and is 
highly respected by all classes, was the first priest located in Belle- 
ville; he arrived in 1829. The frame of a building which had been 
erected for a Freemason's Lodge, was moved to the lot which had 
beeen received from Government, and was converted into a Church. 
The present Church was commenced in 1837, and completed in 
1839. 

, • ■■-.:■.. .>..L ^il. 

We have now adverted to the several early clergymen of the 
different denominations in the young colony of Upper Canada, and 
have dwelt upon those facts, and related those events, which apper- 
tain to the work we have in hand. We have essayed to simply 
write the truth, without reference to the interests of any denomina- 
tion, either by false, or high coloring, or suppression of facts. ' ' ' 

From what we have recorded, it is plain that the Church of 
England stood the best chance of becoming the religion of Upper 
Canada. The seventh part of the lands were reserved "for the clergy, 
and it was determined to erect an Ecclesiastical establishment in 
the Province. In Lower Canada the Koman Catholics had been 
secured by Act of Imperial Parliament. In Upper Canada it was 
resolved that the English Church should occupy a similar position. 
The Eev. Dr. Johoshaphat Mountain was sent out from England in 
n93, having been consecrated the first Bishop of Quebec, to take 



308 AN IRREVERLNT HABIT. 

charge of the English establishment in all Canada. There were 
then in both Canadas five clergymen of the church. The monopoly 
thus instituted continued for many years, and other denommations 
could not even hold land upon which to build a place of worship. 
But time swept all intolerance and exclusivenoss away. In the 
year 1828, was passed " An act for the Belief of Eoligious Societies" 
of the Province, by which it was authorized "That whenever any 
religious congregation or society of Presbyterians, Lutherans, 
Calvinists, Methodists, Congregationalists, Independents, Ana- 
baptists, Quakers, Menonists, Tunkers, or Moravians, shall have an 
occasion to take a conveyance of land, it shall be lawful for them to 
appoint trustees," which body should hold perpetual succession, &c. 
Bufit was also enacted that no one Society should hold more than 

five acres. ... -i. e 

This subject will be concluded by the following, the writer ot 
which we fail to remember. It is within our own recollection when 
this habit still existed : ..v:., <..;w- (^. . ^;V !.v-r.;;,i;f, ..i b>7« '0 
An early writer, a visitor to the Province of Canada, speaking 
about religious denominations says, "The worshipping assemblies 
appear grave and devout, except that in some of them it is custo- 
mary for certain persons to go out and come in frequently m time 
of service, to the disturbance of others, and the interruption of that 
silence and solemnity, which are enjoyed by politeness, no less 
than a sense of religion. This indecorous practice prevails among 
several denominations." rf^.K.-.w:.'. --,-., >-..?r..v',...., ;..-,. , ,t 

,.. ,...!,,,.„,.-: -*.; ,, ,^...; ■■l-;;-'*i'^ •.'' -, :< ; ''■■■■■■■ ^>-l /'ifftV 

■^■'•'■'vT, *i\*^ li'f^ r(^ -.h;-, r'l/ ■..•-;'i-l// ■)';-v.r>* .-i r, t r ■if.f;,ftXt,'fi''^ ■ ^' ~ it*<''l '•'^h' '.r"i'- 

.vt.,„^-:^:^^--r'- CHAPTER XXXIII. -' '^r-,r..U...v,y^^ 

CONTENTS-Fivfit Sabbath teaching- Hannah Bell, l^eO-Schoolestablifihed 1781 
CONTENTS ru States-First in Canada^Cattrick,Moon- 

' rommo'l^isS-First in Bc41eville_Turnbull-Cooper_Marshall-Pn.e8, 
^ lhowon"hem-Mr. Turnbull's death-Intempcranoe-First Tempemnc 
, Societies- Change of custom-Kum-Incieasing mtemperance-rhe tastes 
of the PioneersiTemperance, not teototnlism-First Society m Canada- 
> Drinks at Raising and Beos-Socicty at Hollowell. 

• ««i*^trri^g(,arlie8t attempt known to teach children upon the Sabbath 
was in 1769, made by a young lady, a Methodist, by the name of 
Hannah Bell, in England, who " was instrumental in training man} 
children in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. In 1781, while 



FIRST SABBATH SCHOOLS. 309 

another Methodist young woman (afterward the wife of the colo- 
bratod lay preacher, Samuel Bradburn) was conversing in Gloucester 
with Robert Raikes, a benevolent citizen of tJiattown, and publisher 
of the Gloucester Journal, he pointed to groups of neglected children 
in the street, and asked: ''What can we do for them?" She 
answered: " Let us teach thorn to read and take them to church ! " 
"He immediately proceded to try the suggestion, and the philan- 
thropist and his female friend attended the first company of 
Sunday-scholars to the church, exposed to the comments and 
laughter of the populace as they passed along the street with their 
ragged procession. Such was the origin of our present Sunday- 
school, an institution which has perhaps done more for the church 
and the social improvement of Protestant communities, than any 
other agency of modern times, the pulpit excepted. Raikes, and 
his humble assistant, conducted the experiment without ostentation. 
Not till November 3, 1783, did he refer to it in his public journal*. 
In 1784, he published in that paper an account of his plan. This 
sketch immediately arrested the attention of Wesley, who inserted 
the entire article in the January number of the American Magazine 
for 1785, and exhorted his people to adopt the new institution." 

In 1786, they wore begun in the United States by the Methodist 
Bishop, Francis Asbury, in Virginia. In 1790, the Methcdi&t con- 
ference "resolved on establishing Sundaj^-schools for poor children, 
white and black," since which time they have been in operation. 

The first notice found of a Sabbath-school in Upper Canada is 
in June, 1817, when a Rev. Mr. Cattrick proposed at Kingston to 
organize one. A communication from Wm. Moon, in the Gazette 
expreses great pleasure thereat, and Mr. Moon offers for the purpose 
his school-room, and likewise his services. In 1824, "Sunday- 
schools were common in the old settlements, and were valued and 
encouraged by all classes of people, Not only did private benevo- 
lence contribute to the schools, but the Upper Canada Parliament 
granted £150, for the "use and encouragement of Sundaj^-schools," 
and of indigent and remote settlements, in the purchase of 
books and tracts— (Play ter). A Sabbath-school was established 
in Belleville about 182G, by John Turn bull, Dr. Marshall, and 
Dr. Cooper who taught in the school. Some religious society 
granted books and tracts to schools. Pour prizes were granted for 
good attendance and behaviour, consisting of two P=bles and two 
Testaments. They were awarded, the first to J. II. Meacham, who 
IS now Postmaster of Belleville; the second to his sister, Anna 



gfj.^ THE QUESTION OP TEMPERANCE. 

Meacham, the third to Matilda McNabb,the fourth to Albert Taylor. 
While these pages are going through the press, we receive the sad 
intelligence that John Turnbull, Esq., last living of the three men- 
tioned, has passed away, at the beginning of this new year, 1869, 
after a life of well-merited respect, and honor. The writer feels he 
has lost a ft-ie.id. ?<.'-< :iruM:.iu*--.u •**..., .;....,-.,, «. ■ ; ., v..-.^.. 
" Intemperance.— Total abstinence or tectotalism was unknown 
when Upper Canada was first settled. The first temperance 
society ever organized was at Moreau, Saratoga, County, New 
York, in 1808. 

To taste and drink a glass of wine or grog, was not regarded 
as a sin by any one of that day. To the soldiers and sailors grog 
was dealt out as regularly every day as rations. Eum was the 
liquor more generally used, being imported from Jamacia, and infi- 
nitely purer than the rum sold to-day. It has to be recorded that 
at a comparatively early date, breweries and dii-tilleries were 
erected, first in one township then in another, so that after a few 
years the native liquor was much cheaper than rum, and then fol- 
lowed the natural result— namely, increasing intemperance. It is 
not difficult to understand that the old soldier would like his regular 
glass of grog. In the long and tedious journeys made by boat, when 
food perhaps was very limited in quantity, the conveniently carried 
bottle would take its place, and extraordinary labor and severe 
exposure would be endured by the agency of unnatural stimulus. 
The absence of teetotal principles, the customs of the day ; want 
of food; frequent and severe trials and exposures, would lead 
even the best of men to partake of spirituous liquors. As we see it 
"to-day, so it was then, abuse arose from moderate use, and those 
who had no control over the appetite, or who loved to forget the 
bitterness of the day by inebriation, would avail themselves of the 
opportunity to indulge to excess. The mind naturally craves a 
stimulant. If this desire be not fed by legitimate food, it is too 
likely to appropriate the unnatural. The excitement of war had 
passed away ; but had left in its wake the seeds of longing in the 
breast of the old soldier. The educated man shut out from the 
world, had but little to satisfy the usually active mind. With some, 
the remembrance of old scenes— of old homesteads, and their belong- 
ings, were forgotton in the stupifying cup. When all these facts 
are considered, is there not abundant reason to wonder that intem- 
perance did not prevail more extensively. But it is a question 
after all, whether the loyalists became more addicted to the cup 



FIRST SOCIETIES IN CANADA. 311 

after they settled, than when at the old homes. Those who have 
charged the old settlers with the vice of drinking, have forgotten to 
look at them in comparison with other countries at that day, instead 
of the light set up at a later period. ,, .. ..( .:i>... 

But while the pioneers preserved themselves fi-om unusual indul- 
gence, it is to be regretted that their children too often forsook the 
path of soberness, and in losing their right minds, lost the old farm 
made valuable by their fathers' toil. It was often a repetition of 
what occasionally occurred when the soldiers wore disbanded. 
They would often sell a location ticket, or two or three acres of 
land for a quart of rum i the sons would sell the fruit of a father's 
liard work of a life time. 

One of the first temperance societies formed in Canada was in 
Adolphustown, on the 4th January, 1830. On this occasion the 
Eev. Job Deacon, of the Church of England, delivered an address, 
after which a respectable majority and three out of five magistrates 
present, adopted resolutions condemning the use of ardent spirits, 
and unitedly determining not to use or furnish drink for raisings, 
bees, and harvest work. At the same meeting a temperance 
society was formed and a constitution adopted under the title of 
"The Adolphustown Union Sabbath School Temperance Society." 
They pledged themselves not to use ardent spirits for one year. 
According to the Hollowell Free Press, a tempercnce society 
was formed at Hollowell, in 1829 ; for it is annouuced thit the 
" Second Anniversary " will be held 3rd June, 1831. It is announced 
April 12, 1831, that a temperance meeting will be held in the 
Methodist Chapel, when addresses will be delivered by Dr. A. 
Austin. The officers elected for the ensuing year are Asa Worden, 
Esq., M.P.P., President ; Dr. Austin, Vice President; P. V. Elmore, 
Secretary and Treasurer, „ ., •;,;,..;..;} ,,;f .,v f ,j:^ .^,, ,^;.^,,,,|>;..V- 



Ofij'Rf ' "ff ■ ^<^t> -.;.!>r,-r;-r^:*.' ■'/,( 



'»'t liT'^'AlS'^iijf!- 'W 






^nspy-rf^ff,' J)ixh'^ •,^. :)■,,: ./f!,;...r. .,rit ifp.br.r. ->'.[T|if 1:!i''f)iiH .i,y4H-^' 



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vtf 



mOQL'OIS IN ENGLAND 

M:M^»^>^^v;-,,.• ,^ CHAPTER XXXIV, -^ -v ' ?•" -;"^-:;;^--; 

CoNTKNTS — Tlic Six Nations — Faitliful EnKliHh Allies — Society for the Propaga- 
tion of GoHpcl — First mitisionary to Iroquois — .fohn Thomas, first convert— 

;' Visit of Chiefs to England — Tlieir names — Thoir portraits — Attention to 
them — Asking for instructor — Queen Anne — Connnunion Service— During 
the Rebellion — Burying the Plate — Recovered — Division of the articles — 
Sacrilege of the Rebels — Uc-printing Prayer Rook — Mr. Stuart, missionary 
— The women and children — At Lacliine — Attachment to Mr. Stuart- 
Touching instance — Mr. Stuart's Indian sister — Church at Tyendinaga— 
School teacher to the Mohawk— John Bininger — First teacher — The Bininger 

, . family — The Moravian Society — Count Zinzendorf — Moravian church at New 
York — First minister, Abralinm Bininger — Friend of Embury — An old 
account book — John Bininger journeying to Canada — Living at Bay Quints 
— Removes to Mohawk village — Missionary spirit — Abraham Bininger's 
letters — The directions Children pleasing parents " Gallowping 

'• thoughts " — Christian!ty — Canadian Moravian missionaries — Moravian 
loyalists — What was stmt from New York — " Best Treasure " — The " Dear 
Flock " — David Zieshager at the Thames — J. Bininger acceptable to Mohawk 
— Abraham Bininger desires to visit Canada — Death of Mrs. Bininger— 

:• " Tender mother "— Biningerand Wesley — " Garitson " — " Losne " — " Dunon" 
— Reconciled to Methodists — Pitying Losee — Losco leaving Canada — Ceases 
to be teacher— Appointing a successor — William Bell — The salary — The 
Mohawks don't attend school — An improvement — The cattle may not go ia 

, school-house — The school discontinued, ri .,,,., .j,^ , ,. ^j. ,• r.. 'i./yf 

.■■■ '« jjjj; gjx NATIONS — CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY. 

Fi'om the first occupation of Now York by the English, tlio 
Six Nations had almost always been thoir faithful allies. This 
devotion did not remain unnoticed. Returns were made not only 
of a temporal nature, but in respect to things spiritual. So early 
as 1702 the Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Pai'ts, the next year after its organization, sent a Missionary 
(Eev. Mr. Andrews) to the Mohawk Valley. Under his direction 
in 1714, the Church of England Common Prayers, was translated 
into their tongue. The first convert to Christianity was christened 
John Thomas, who died in 1727, aged 119. ' ■^v:.* vr- .•.,:/. 

It is said the English in their determination to secure the 
alliance of the Iroquois against the French prevailed upon certain 
chiefs to visit the Court of Queen Anne, in 1710, thinking that 
the greatness and splendour of England, would firmly fix their 
attachment. 

There were four of them who crossed the water, and who 
were treated with distinction. Their names were " Te Yee Nem 
Ho Ga Prow, and Sa Ga Yean Qua Proh Ton, of the Maquas ; 
Elow Oh Roam, and Oh Nee Yeath Ton No Prow, of the River 
Sachem. Portraits were taken of these four kings and placed in 



THE QUEKN'8 oift. 313 

tho British Mu80um. When pronontod to the Quoen they made an 
elaborate Hpooch, iu whicii thoy spoko of their desire to nee their 
" great Queen ;" of the long tedious French war in which tliey had 
taken a ])ai't ; they urged the nccesHity of reducing Canada, and 
closed by expressing a wish that tlielr "great Queen will be pleased 
to send over some person to instruct " them in a knowledge of the 
Saviour. Consequently the (iueen caused to bo sent to tho Mohawk 
church just erected among them, a valuable sacramental service of 
plate, and a communion cloth. This royal gift was ever held in 
tho most fervent esteem by tho tribe. The part taken by tho 
noble Iroquois during the cruel rebellion of 1776-83 is elsewhere 
detailed; but in this coRnection is to be noticed an in^^ident of a 
touching nature. Tho rebel commander of a blood-thirsty gang, 
stimulated by promises of the land which they were sent to despoil, 
came upon tho tribe at an unexpected moment. Tho valuable — 
the costly — the revered gift from the Queen was in danger of being 
seized by the lawless horde which was appi'oaching. Not forget- 
ting them — not unmindful of things sacred, some of tho chief 
members of the tribe decided to conceal them by burying them in 
the earth, which was accordingly done, the plate being wrapped 
in the communion cloth. These doubly valuable articles remained 
buried until the close of th(; war, when thoy were recovered. The 
plate had suifered no injuvy. but the cloth had been almost 
destroyed by the damp earth. These precious relics were divided 
between those who settled upon the Grand Eiver, and the smaller 
branch that remained at the Bay. They ai'o to this day used on 
sacramental occasions. Upon each of tho articles, sacred to 
memory, and sacredly employed, is cut the following words : <> , , 

" The Gift of Her Majesty Queen Anne by the Grace of God of 
Groat Britain, France and Ireland, of Her Plantations in North 
America, Queen of Iler Indian Chappel of the Mohawk." u^jiuw 

When the lawless rebels came into their settlement, they 
destroyed the translated Pi-ayor book. The Mohawks apprehensive 
that it would bo lost, asked the Govei'nor (Haldimand) to have an 
edition published. This was granted by printing a limited number 
in 1780 at Quebec. In 1787 a third edition was published in Lon- 
don, a copy of which before us, supplies these facts. In connection 
with it there is also a translation of the Gospel according to St. Mark 
by Brant. It is stated in the Preface that n translation of some 
other parts of tho Now Testament may soon be expected from 
Brant. But such never appeared. j*4iJ 



314 INDIAN ATTACHMENT. 

• Tlio mi'^wionni-y omjiloyod nt the commciioomont ol' tlie rol»ol- 
Hon, by tl)0 Society for the Propogation of tho (iospel in Foroi^m 
PnrtH, waH the Kov. Jolin Stuart. "In 1710, ho was appointed to 
the MisHion at Fort irunter. He Hoon prepared a Mohawk transUi- 
tion of the Gospol hy Mark, an exposition of the Church catochium, 
andacompondioimlliHtory of the Bible. lie was undisturbod in 
hiH hihorn, until after after the Declaraticjn of Independence, though 
<' he constantly performed divine sorvico without omitting prayers 

for the King." 

The women and children of the Indians when hurried away from 
their homes repaired to Lauhino, where tho>^mostly remained until 
the end of the war. The particulars of the liistory of their mis- 
sionary is elsewhere given. There was a sincere attachment 
between hi.n and the tribe, an instance of which is supplied by the 
conduct of a sister of Cajytain Johns. Mrs. Stuart had an infant 
child which was deprived of its natural food. The Indian woman 
weaned her own child that she might thereby bo able to supply the 
missionary's child with food. This child was Charles O'Kill Stuart. 
When ho became the Venerable Archdeacon, ho did not forget the 
act of motherly kindness bestowed upon him. The faithful breast 
upon which he had nestled, had long since closed its heaving by 
death ; but the daughter whom she had put away from the breast 
still lived. Dr. Stuart visited the Indian woods every year, and 
invariably went to see his sister, as he called her. '<Vv 

- Early steps were taken to have built a church in which they 
miglit worship. The Eev. John Stuart had his home in Kingston, 
yet ho often visited the Indians. 

The first church was erected on Grand River by Brant in 
1786, and as nearly as wo can learn the plain wooden building at 
the settlement upon the Bay was, at the same time, or shortly after 
erected, ■'ft' ■■v.-/^',"! ?.'.',-.**.».'■ ,}*-. v'-'-*,^if' -r,'/ ■^-ky •■> '>^ •. ^>rr^.■^>y^rfrlf.■.f,'A■ 
:,, The Society for the Propagation of tlie Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
not only employed the Eev. Mr. Stuart, as a missionary, to labor 
witli tho Mohawks, but likewise set apart a sum of £30, as a salary 
to a teacher to instruct the children of the Indians upon Bay 
Quinte. Mr. Stuart lived at Kingston, however, and could but 
visit the Indian village occasionally. But a catechist was employed 
by him to supply spiritual nistruction. Mr. Stuart also had the 
appointing of a school-teacher. The precise time when this school 
was opened, it is impossible to determine. The first reference we 
find to it is in a letter, (one of many kindly entrusted to us by Mr|. 



THE MORAVIAN SOCIETY. 315 

Biniiv^ov oF R^llevillc) writton by John Binin;cfov, then living in 
Atlolphnstowii, to his father, the Rov. Ahralinin IJinliiijer of Oaniden, 
New York, Moravian missionary. The letter is (late<l 1 Hth Septenil>er, 
1792, an<l says, "beinpj at Kingston, I heard as it were accidently, 
thnt the Rev. Mr. John Stuart wanted, on belinlf of the society in 
England, to hire a teacher for the Mohawks ui> this bay, accordingly, 
I made an offer of my services." This may have been the commence- 
ment of the school. Mr. Stnart, not long after, accepted the offer, 
and John Bininger says he gave his employers notice that ho should 
leave them. We learn that he was at that time, or had been a short 
time before, engaged as a book-keejier in Kingston. He was detained 
tor two months before his employers would release him, immediately 
after which he removed to the Mohawk village. ' - >'i: > .u r'nr), 

Before proceeding with the record of the Mohawk school, we 
shall ask the reader to listen to a few of the facts in the histoiy of 
the liininger family. 

The Moravian Society was founded by Count Zinzendorf. He 
visited New York in 1741, and seven years later, 1748, a Moravian 
Church was established in New York. The first or principal Mora- 
vian minister was Abraham Biniiiger, a native of Switzerland, from 
the same town where the immortal William Tell lived. — (Wakeley.) 
He was the intimate friend of Embury and the other early Methodists 
in America. 

Of the sons of the Rev. A. Bininger, we have only to notice 
John. Before us is an old account book in which is found the follow- 
ing memorandum: " 1791, May 30th, Moved from Camden in Salem, 
Washington County ; June 2nd, Arrived at St. John's, Canada ; June 
8th, Arrived at Lachine for Kingston; 24th, arrived at Kingston, 
Upper Canada ; July 2nd, Arrived at John Carscallians, Fredericks- 
burgh, Bay Kanty ; October 2nd, Moved from Fredricksburgh to 
Adolphustown, 1792; November l.'Hli, Moved from Adolphustown 
to Mohawk Village." A letter written by John Bininger to his 
father, is in a fine distinct hand, and indicates both learning and piety, 
and that he was actuated, in taking the situation of teacher to the 
Mohawks, by a missionary spirit. His father wrote to him from 
time to time, the letters are dated at Camden, and usually refer to 
family affairs ; but each has a lai'ge portion devoted to Christian 
advice, simply and touchingly, and sometimes quaintly given. They 
are signed Abraham and Martha. The first letter is addressed to 
" Caterockqua," and the request is made upon the corner of the 
letter to " please forward this with care and speed," " also to the care 



316 bininqer's letters. 

of Mr. John CavscalUan, or Lieutenant Carscallian.' The rest of the 
letters are addressed to Adolphustown, o,ud the Mohawk Village, 
"Bay Quinte." 

In one letter he says " Remember children never please parents 
more than when they are willing to be guided by them ; self-guiding 
is always tlie begimiing of temptation, and next comes a fall that we 
must smart for it ; we are to work out our own ealvation (not with 
high gallowping thoughts) but with feave and trembling." In this 
way every letter beams with pure and simple Christianity. After 
his childreus' personal well-being, he is concerned about the Moravian 
missionaries in Canada, and also a considerable number of Moravian 
Loyalists who had settled upon the Bay Quinte, after whom he fre- 
quently inquires. In one letter he says " remember me to all my 
friends, in particular to old Mr. Carscallian and wife." One letter 
says, " We send you with Mr. McCabe a lag. cheese, weight five pounds 
and three-quarters, about h;ilf-a-pint of apple seed, from Urana's 
saving. I also send you part of my best treasure, the Daily Word 
and Doctrinal Texts, for the year 1792. The collection of choice 
hymns and sixteen discourses of my very dear friend, Count Zinzen- 
doi'f." lie says, " I would heartily beg to make Inquiry and friend- 
ship with the bretliren among the Indians. They are settled in the 
British lines, I dout know the name of the place." Again he ex- 
presses a wish that he should inquire for the brethrens' settlement, 
and " make a correspondence with them," to think it liis " duty to 
assist them in the furtherance of the Gospel, both on account of 
yourself and on account of your old father. If you can get any 
intelligence pray let me know, I am often concerned in my mind for 
the dear flock that believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. I think if cny 
gentleman in your parts can give information, it is the Eeverend Mr. 
Stuart, a minister of the Church of England, he is a gentleman that 
I have great esteem for, I know he will give you all the intelligence 
he possibly can." Subsequently, 1794, he wishes his son to corres- 
pond with the brethren at the river LaTrenche (the Thames). Asa 
result of this request, we see a letter received from David Zeisherger, 
dated at River Thames, 20th July, .1794, eighty miles from Detroit. 

John Bininger was acceptable to the Mohawks of the Bay, 
as an instructor. His father writes 5th January, 1 794, " It was a 
real satisfaction to me to see Mr. llekenalder in New York, and 
more so when I heard the good character of the Indians of your place 
living among them." Writing February 23rd, he says, " was I able 
to undergo the hardships, I would certainly join with you and tell 



SENDING PRESENTS TO CANADA. 317 

the poor Indians of God their Saviour, that would be the highest and 
happiest employ for me." In August, he says I would have ventured 
the hardships of the journey, but mother and Isaac wont approve of 
it , they think I am too old and feeble. I know that if I was with 
you I should have more contentment than I have here." 

The last communication we have is dated February, 1804, in 
Avhich the good old Moravian says to his children, John and Phcebe, 
that there " dear tender mother went happy to our dear Saviour ;" at 
the funeral was so many, he wondered how so many could collect. 

The Rev. Abraham Bininger was intimate with Wesley, whom 
he accompanied to Virginia. He also was familiar with Philip 
Embury, and Mr. " Garitson " who bapti/ed his grand-child. The 
first two Methodist preachers in Canada were well known to him. 
Several letter!:, back and forth, are " per favor of Loseo." In one 
letter lie says, " Don forget to remember my love and regards to Mr. 
Dunon (Dunham) and Mr. Loese." The postscript of another letter 
says, " Isaac intends to send a young heifer, two pound of tea, a 
gammon, and a pise of smokt beef. Mother sends her love to Dunon 
and Mr. Loese." A letter dated April l2th, 1792, says John Switzers' 
son " was baptized by Mr. Garitson. Mr. Garitson is well ai)proved 
of in these parts. I heartily wish, as much as I love him, that he 
were in your parts. I am of late more reconciled to the Methodists 
than I was before, I see they really are a blessing to many poor 
80uls." 

Writing 2nd August, 1794, he says *'I heartily pity Mr. Losee 
for withdrawing his hand, he is now to be treated with jiationce and 
tenderness. I have sent last part of a discourse which I translated 
from the brethrens' writing. I did it chiefly on account of Mr. Lv ''ee, 
if you think proper send him a copy with a tender greet from me." 
John Bininger, writing January 12, 1795. remai-ks, Mr. Losee is just 
setting out for the States. 

Mr. John Bininger ceased to be teacher to the Mohawks some- 
time in the latter pai't of 1795, or first part of 179G. 

There are several lott<5rs before us, written by Mr. Stuart, in 
reference to the appointment of a successor to Mr. Bininger, the 
first one is directed to " Mr. William Bell, at the head of the Bay of 
Quinte, and dated at Kingston, September 26, 1796." He says " I 
received your letter respecting the Mohawk school ; I can give you 
no positive answer at present : because I have agreed, conditionally 
with a school-master at Montreal, that is, if he comes up, he is to 
have the school ; I expect daily to hear from him, although I do 



318 THE MOHAWK SCHOOL. 

not think he will accept of the employment. Some time ago Mr. 
Ferguson mentioned you as one who would probably undertake 
that charge. I told Captain John that if the person from Montreal 
disappointed me I would talk with you on the subject. The salary 
is £30 sterling, with a house to live in, and some other advantages 
which depend wholly on the pleasure of the Mohawks— but the 
teacher must be a man, and not a woman, however well qualified." 
The teacher from Montreal did not come, and Mr. Bell was ap- 
pointed. The following seems to have been a copy of Mr. Bell's 
first call for payment, the half-yearly instalment. - ■;- . 

"Mohawk Village, Bay of Quinte, July 5, 1197— Exchange for 

£15 sterling. 

Sir,— At thirty days sight of this first of exchange, please to 
my to Mr. Robert McCauley, or order, the sum of fifteen pound.s 
sterling, bei g half-year's salary, from the 15th day of November, 
1796, to the 15th day of May, 1797, due from the Society, without 
further advice, from. Sir, &c., (Signed), William Bell, school-master 
to the Mohawks. To Calvert Chapman, Esq., Treasurer to the 
Society for the Prop:i--ation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts— Duke 
Street, Westminster." 

The Mohawks, it seems, did not appreciate the advantages 
which the establishment of a school among them was intended to 
afford, and Mr. Stuart is found writing as follows: "Kingston, 
August 18, 1799— Sir,--Unless the Mohawks will send such a num- 
ber of their children to school as will justify me in continuing a 
school-master, in duty to myself, as acting for the Society, I shall 
be under the necessity of discontinuing the payment of your salary 
after the expiration of the present year. This information I think 
proper to give you, that you may govern yourself accordingly. I 
am, Sir," &c., (Signed), John Stuart. : , ' : ; ..„„..-: 

But \n-iting again, March 16, 1800, Mr. Stuart says, "I am happy 
to hear that the school is now furnished with a dozen or more 
scholars, and it is expected you will be very strict in your disci- 
pline, and SC3 that prayers are read night and morning ; that the 
children are taught the Lord's Prayer, and the Commandments- 
that children may not be sent homo even if their parents do not 
send wood at the stated times ; that the tattle may not be allowed 
to go into the school, but that it be kept clean, and the wood belong- 
ing to it may not be used unless in school hours." 

Writing again, September 11, 1801, Mr. Stuart says, "I have 
waited with patience to see whether tUe Mohawks would send their 



SCHOOL DISCONTINUED. 319 

chiklrcn more regularly to school, but if the accounts I receive are 
true, tlie money is expended to no purpose. I um told that there 
has not been a scholar in school since last spi-ing. And, as I never 
found that the fault was on j^our side, I cannot, in conscience, allow 
the salary of the Society to be paid for nothing. Therefore, imless 
Capt, John and the chief men of the village will promise that the 
school shall be furnished with at least six scholars, I must dismiss 
you from their service— as soon as you receive this notification. I 
hope you will see the reasonableness of this determination of mine, 
and you may show this letter to Capt. John and the Mohawks, by 
which they will see that the continuance or discontinuance of the 
school depends wholly on themselves." 

The final letter upon the subject is dated "Kingston, 26th 
August, 1802," and says, "I have not yet received any letter from 
the Society; but, for the reasons I mentioned to you, I think it 
will bo expedient to let the Mohawk school cease, at least for some 
time. I therefore notify you that after 3'our present quarter is 
ended you will not expect a continuance of the salary." (Signed), 
" John Stuart." " To William Bell, school-master to the Mohawks, 
Bay of Quinte." 



CHAPTEK XXXV. '• " " " 

Contents— The liist Church at Tyeudinaga grows old— A CoimciI_Ask for 
Assistance— Gov. Bfigot— Laying first stoncof new Church— The Inscription 
—The Ceremony- The new Church— Their Singing— The surrounding 
Scenery—John Hall's Tomb— Pagan Indians— Red Jacket— His Speech- 
Reflection upon Christians — Indians had nothing to do with murdering the 
Saviour. 

BUILDING A NEW CHURCH. 

Their original edifice of wood, having served its purpose, and 
l>cing in a state of decay; it was deemed necessary to have erected 
a now and more substantial building. They, consequently, held a 
Council, at which the Chief made the following speech, after hearing 
all the ways and means discussed—" If we attompc to build this 
church by ourselves, it will never bo done. Let us, therefore, ask 
oar father, the Governor, to build it for us, and it will be done at 
once." Reference here was made, not to the necessary funds, for 
they were to be derived from the sale of Indian lands ; but to the 



320 THE INDIAN CHURCH. 

experience requisite to carry out the project. Sir Charles, Bagot, 
the Governor, was accordingly petitioned. "The first stone was 
laid by S. P. Jarvis, Esq., Chief Superintendent of Indians in 
Canada ; and the Archdeacon of Kingston, the truly venerable G. 
O. Stuart, conducted the usual service ; which was preceded by a 
procession of the Indians, who, singing a hymn, led the way from 
the wharf" " The following inscription was placed in this stone : 

TO 

The Glory op God Our Saviour 

THE EEMNANT OF THE TEIBE OF KAN-YE-AKE-HAKA, 

IN token op their preservation by the divine mercy 

THEOUGH JESUS CHEIST, 

In the sixth year of Our Motlier Queen Victoria : Sir Charles 

Theopholus Metcalf, G.C.B., being Governor General 

of British North America ; 

The Eight Eev. J. Strachan, D.D., and [LL.D., 

Being Bishop of Toronto : 

AND 

the rev. saltern givins, being in the thirteenth year 

OP HIS incumbency. 
The old wooden fabric having answered its end, 

THIS CORNER STONE OP 

CHEIST'S CHUECH TYENDINAGA, 

WAS LAID 

In the presence of the Venerable George O'Kill Stuart, LL.D., 

Archdeacon of Kingston; 
By Samuel Peter Jarvis, Chief Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs in Canada, assisted by various Members of 

the Church, "■ •-' 

' " ON TUESDAY MAY 30th, A. D., 1843. ^"^ '"'\' 

", ,, ". . :. , .^-., ,. , &C., «!fec., &C. 

A hymn was sung by the Indians, an an children of the 

school. The Eev. Wm. Macauley, of Picton, delivered an address, 
which was followed by a prayer from the Eev. Mr. Deacon."— (^«r 
RicMrd Henry Bomycastk.) 



MOHAWK CATECIIIST. 321 

This edifice, with four Inncot windov/s on each side, presents 
to the eye a very pleasing appearance upon approaching it. While 
the interior may not altogether appear so attractive, it is sufficiently 
interesting. There is the elevated desk, and the more elevated 
pulpit ; and upon the wall, over the altar, are the ten command- 
ments, in the Mohawk tongue. Here is grandly united the Mother 
Church, and the devoted piety of the once great ■\Iohawk nation. 
Opposite the altar is a gallery, across the end of the building, in 
which is an organ. Therefrom proceeds, Sunday after Sunday, 
rich notes of tuneful melody, blending with the stout voices of the 
singers. From this church ascends, have we not reason to believe 
the adoration of hearts warmed into spiritual life by the pure 
principles of Christianity. 

The view from the church upon the surrounding scenery is very 
pleasant, and, in the quietness of a summer day, one may linger 
gazing and meditating upon the past history of the race whoso 
dead slumber hard by. The visitor's attention will be directed to a 
fiat tomb, of blue stone, inclosed by a low stone wall, overgrown 
with shrubs. Upon the face of the tomb are the words : 

" This tomb, erected to the memory of John Hall, Ochechusleah, 
by the Mohawks, in grateful remembrance of his Christian labors 
amongst them. During thirty years, he served as a Mohawk 
Catechist, in this settlement, under the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel, adorning the doctrine of God, his Saviour, and enjoying the 
respect of all who knew him. He died, generally regretted, June, 
1848, aged 60 years." This stone also covers the remains of " Eloner^ 
the exemplary wife of the Catechist, who died in the Lord, Mav 7 
1840, aged 50." ' 

^Yhile the Mohawks always manifested a desire to learn the 
truth, as taught by Christians, there were some of the Six Nations 
who believed not, and steadfastly turned their backs upon the mis- 
sionaries of the Cross. Among these stood prominent the Seneca chief 
Sagnoaha, or Eed Jacket, one well known as an eloquent Sachem 
m all the Councils of his peojile. A Seneca council was held at 
Buffalo Creek, in May, 1811, when Red Jacket answered the desire 
of a missionary that they should become Christians, as follows :— 
" Brother !— We listened to the talk you delivered to us from the 
council of black coats in New York. We have fully considered your 
titlk, and the oftors you have made us. We now return our answer, 
which we wish you also to understand. ^ In making up our minds 
we have looked ba-k to remember what 'has been done in our days, 
and what our fatherfii have told us was done in old times. 

MX 



322 PAGAN INDIANS. 

"Brother! — Groat numbers of black coats have boon among 
the Indians. With Hwoct voices and smiling faces, they oiferod to 
teach them the religion of the white people. Our brethren in the 
Ea«t ii.stcncd to them. Thoy turn from thcreligionof their fathers, 
and look up the religion of the white people. What good has it 
done ? Arc they more friendly, one to another, than wo are ? No, 
Brother! They are a divided people; we are united. They quarrel 
about religion; we live in love and friendship. Besides, they drink 
strong waters, and they have learned how to cheat and how td 
practice all the other vices of the white people, without imitating 
their virtues. Brother! — If you wish us well, keep away ; don't 
disturb us. Brother! — We do not worshij) the Great Spirit as 
the white people do, but we believe that the forms of worship are 
indiiForent to the Great Spirit. It is the homage of sincere hearts 
that pleases him, and we worship him in that manner." "Brother! 
For these reasons wo cannot receive your offers. Wo havo other 
things to do, and beg you will make your minds easy, without 
troubling us, lest our heads should bo too much loaded, and by and 
by burst." At another time, he is reported to have said to one 
conversing with him upon the subject of Christianity, that the 
Indians were not responsible for the death of Chri.st. "Brother," 
said ho " if you white people murdered the Saviour, make it up 
yourselves. We had nothing to do with it. If he had come among 
tis, we should have treated him better." 

0/ h'fft'j fii-"'} I J'fKi i>>>;) Ofivi ,;-Atl.,l.r:;K ,:'l'!ivrj ,Jlli»!, l.>Xi-iXdf'''<>-' 

l^.di '•i fii'*iTi'jn j;6rlT' ::-)i\i i)Ay)\-hi: :^«i; i;<;.uiitboffl;iTij.':>iii; ittt.^,-)- 
. ,. :■• ■- ■■ . . - - ■ ■ y ■ ■ .■• ■. ;:..Ur :=^, ,:.> ■ 



PREACHING TO THE INDIANS. 323 



.•ij i~ 



> .. : 
( 



CHAPTER XXXVI. ' 



U. •% ..'.-'it .' .-.! 



CoNTBNTs-Mississauga Indians— Fatlier Picquet's opinion—Remnant of a largo 
tribe— Iheir Land— Sold to Goverinnent—Ilev. Win. Case-^Tolin Sunday— 
A drnnkard— Peter Jones— Raptisin-- Indians— At a cainp-ineetin--— Tlieir 
departnient- Extraet from Playtur— William Beaver— ClonversionsT— Jacob 
1 etcr— bevere ujjon wlute eiiristians— Tlieir worship— The Father of Cana- 
dian missions— Scheme to teach Indians— Orape Island— T.easin" islands— 
The parties-^' Dated at Belleville "— Constructing a village— The hiniher— 
How obtained— Encamping on Grape Island— The; metliud of instruction— 
' The number— Agriciiltnre— Their singing— School house— The t-acher— 
In,structions of women— Miss Barnes-Property or' Indians-Cost of imiirove- 
meats— A visit to Government— Askini;- for land-" Big Island "—Other 
favors— 1 eter Jacobs at New York— Extracts from Playter— Number of 
Indian converts, 1829- Uver Credit Indians-Indians removed to Alnwick. 

THE MISSISSAUQA INDIANS— THEIR CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY. 

We have learned that the French missionary, Fatlier Picquct 
did not entertain a very high opinion, at least he professed not to, 
of the moral character of the Mississaugas, and their susceptibility 
to the influence of Christian religion. We will now see what was 
accomplished by the agency of the Eev. William Case. We refer 
to that branch at present called the Mississaugas of Alnwick, 
and formerly known as the Mississaugas of the Bay of Quinte! 
They were the remnant of the powerful tribe, which ceded a large 
tract in the Johnstown, Midland and N^ewcastle districts to the 
Oovornment. This block contained 2,748,000 acres, and was 
surrendered in 1822, for an annuity of £642 10s. 

In 1825 the Rev. William Case visited the Bay. Among the 
first to come under the influence of religion, from the preaching of 
the Methodists was John Sunday. The writer has conversed with 
many, who remember Sunday as a very filthy drunkard. Peter 
Jones and John Crane, Mohawks who had been converted to 
Methodism at the Grand River, visited Belleville. Peter Jones 
with simple eloquence, soon reached the hearts of the Mississaugas. 
The writer's father has heard Peter Jones jireach to them in Indian 
near the banks of the Moira, just by No. 1 school-house in Belle- 
ville. In the si)ring of 1826 Case baptized 22 Indian converts, 
while 50 more seemed under the influence of religion. In June, a 
camp-meeting was held in Adolphustown, the Mississaugas attended. 
Special accommodation was afforded ihem. Their arrival is thus 
graphically given by Playter, and it supplies an excellent idea of 
Indian character in connection with religion. 



324 INDIANS AT CAMP-MEETING. 

" A mossago came that the MisHisBauga fleet was in sight. A 
few repaired to the shore to welcome and conduct the Indians to 
the ground. The bark canoes contained men, women and children, 
with cooking utoiiHils, blankets, giuiH, Hpearw, provisions, and bark 
for covering their wigwams. The men took each a canoe reversed 
on his head, or the guns and spears; each bn[iiaw a bundle of 
blankets or bark. The men marched first, the women iiv the rear> 
and in file they moved to the encamjiment, headed by two preachers. 
The congregation seeing the Indians passing through the gate, and 
so equipped, was astonished. Reflecting on the former condition 
and the present state of these natives of the woods, gratitude and 
joy tilled every bosom. Ood was praised for the salvation of the 
heathen. After the natives had laid down the burdens, they all 
silently prayed for the blessing of the Great Spirit, to the surprise 
and increased doligbtof the pious whites. The Indians next buih 
their camp, in the oblong form, with poles, canoes, and bark. The 
adults numbered 41, of whom 28 had given evidence of a converted 
state, and the children were 17 : in all 58. The natives had private 
meetings by themselves, and the white?; by themselves ; but in 
preaching time, the Indians sat on the right of the preaching 
stand. At the close of each sermon, William Eeaver, an Indian 
exhorter, translated the main points for the Indians, the other 
Indian exhorters, Sunday, Moses, and Jacob Peter spoke to their 
people on diflerent occcasions. Beaver's first exhortation was on 
Friday, and produced a great efi'ect on the natives. >• .-■'-' 

On Sunday Beaver spoke to his people with great fluency. 
Upon being asked what he had been saying, " I tell 'em," said he, 
"they must all turn away from sin ; that the Great Spirit will give 
'em new eyes to see, new ears to hear good things; new heart to 
understand, an^ sing, and pray; all new I I tell 'em squaws, they 
must wash 'em blankets clean, must cook 'em victuals clean, like 
white women ; they must live in peace, worship God, and love one 
another. Then," with a natural motion of the hand and ai*m, a:* 
if to level an uneven service, he added, " The Good Spirit make the 
ground all smooth before you." 

"On Monday, the Lord's supper was given to the Indians and 
the whites, of the Indians 21 were also baptized, with ten of their 
children. The whole number of the baptized in this tribe was now 
43, 21 children. As yet those Indians know but one hymn, " for 
a thousand tongues to sing, my great Redeemer's praise," and one 
tune. This hymn they sung, over and over, as if always new, and 
always good. " 



A REBUKE. 325 



It has boon the custom, of not alone the United States, but 
Bomo in our midst, to regard the Indians as altogether degraded 
bolow the whites in intelligence, in natural honesty, and in appre* 
elation of right and wrong. At the camp-meeting above referred 
to, there was a convert by name of Jacob Peter. He is described 
as *' a sprightly yOuth of 18 years." At some subseqent date during 
the same year, the Indians lield a prayer-meeting at the village of 
Domorestville. " Mr. Demorest being present with other white 
inhabitants, to witness the Indian's devotion, requested Jacob to 
speak a little to them in English; which he thus did : 

"You white people have the Gospel a groat many years. You 
have the Bible too: suppose you road sometimes — but you very 
wicked. Suppose some very good people : but groat many wicked. 
You got drunk — you tell lies — you break the Sabbath." Then point- 
ing to his brethren, ho added, "But these Indians, they hear the 
word onlj' a little while — they can't read the bible — but they be- 
come good right away. They no more get drunk — no more tell 
lies — they keep the Sabbath day. To us Indians, seems very 
strange that you have missionary so many years, and you so many 
rogues yet. The Indians have missionary only a little while, and 
we all turn christians." • : ' i ■ 

"The whites little expected so bold a reproof from a youth 
belonging to a race which is gonorally despised." — (Playter). 

Camp-meetings were peculiarly calculated to impress the 
Indians with solemn thoughts. These children of the forest deemed 
the shade of trees a fit and true place in which to worship the true 
God, just as seemed to the first settlers Avho had for so long a time 
had their homes within the quiet glades. And no more inconside- 
rate step could have been taken than that pursued by Governor 
Maitland, who, at the instigation of others, forbad the converted 
Indians at the Eiver Credit to attend camp-meetings. The conver- 
sion of the Mississaugas at Belleville, and the Credit, soon became 
known to the other branches of the tribe scattered throughout 
Canada, and in time the whole nation was under the influence of 
Methodist teaching. Their change of life was as well marked as it 
has been lasting. 

The Eev. William Case, " The father of Canadian Missions," 

determined to permanently settle the tribe, to teach them the 

I quiet pursuits of agriculture, and their children the rudiments of 

I education, as well as of christian knowledge. To this end the plan 

t; was adopted, of leasing two islands, situated in Big Bay, which 



326 GRAPE ISLAND. 

belonged to the tribe, and eHtabliHh thereupon the converted Indians. 
The parties to whom the tribe granted the lease for 999 years, for 
the nominal Hiim of five shillings, were "John Reynolds, Benjamin 
Ketcheson, Penuel G. Selden, James Bickford, and William lloss." 
The Chiefs, Warriors, and Indians conferring the lease, and who 
signed the indenture, were "John Sunday, William Beaver, John 
Simpson, Nelson Snake, Mitchell Snako, Jacob Musguashcum, 
Joseph Skunk, Paul Yawaseeng, Jacob Nawgnashcum, John Salt, 
Isaac Skunk, William Boss, Patto Skunk, Jacob Sheepegang, James 
Snake." It was " signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of 
Tobias Bleaker, and Peter Jones." Dated Belleville, 16th October, 
1826. The islands thus leased were Huff's Island, then known as 
"Logrim's," containing about fifty acres, and Grape Island with 
eleven acres. . ' ' ' ' '"^ 

Steps were promptly taken to carry out the object aimed at by 
the projectors, and arrangements wore made to construct a village 
upon Grape Island. The lumber for the buildings was obtained 
by cutting hemlock saw logs upon the rear part of Tyendinaga, by 
the river Moira, under the direction of Surveyor Emerson, which 
were floated down to Jonas Canniif's saw n ill, and there sawed 
into suitable pieces. These were again floated down in small rafts 
to the island. During the ensuing winter, the buildings not being 
as yet erected, a large number encamped upon Grape Island, while 
the rest went hunting, as usual. Instructions commenced immedi- 
ately. Preachers visited them from lime to time, and two inter- 
preters. William Beaver and Jacob Peter taught them the Loi-d's 
Prayer and Ten Commandments. In January the hunting party 
returned, and "a meeting, lasting several days, Avas held in the 
chapel in Belleville, to instruct them also." "The tribe mustered 
about 130 souls, and the Society embraced every adult, about ninety 

persons." '^"=^ "■' '- ••'^". 

A branch of the tribe living in the roar of Kingston, forty in 
number, came in May, the following Spring, and joined those at the 
island, and became converts. " In this month the buildings were 
commenced, and some land ploughed and planted. The condition 
of the people was every day improving. As many as 130 would 
assemble for worship. Their voices were melodious, and delight- 
ful was the singing. A school and meeting-house was built in July, 
30 feet by 25 feet. William Smith was the first school-teacher, 
having thirty scholars in the day school, and fifty in the Sabbath 
school. The farming operations were under the superintendence 



DEPUTATION TO YORK. 327 

of K. Phelps. The girls and women wore instnictod in knitting, 
sewing, making Htriiw huts, and other work, by Mis.s K. Barnes. 

" The public properly of the Indians comjjrised a yoke of oxen, 
three cows, a sot of farming tools, and material for houses, as 
lumber, nails and glaas, — contributions of the benevolent. The 
improvements of the year were expected to co.st £250, to be mot 
by benevolence in the United States and Canada. In Octobei', the 
meeting-house was seated, in connection with which was a I'oom 
provided for a study and bed for Iho teacher. The bodies of eleven 
log houses were put up ; eight had shingled roofs, and they were 
enclosed before winter." — (Playter). 

Soon after, a deputation from Grape Island visited York, with 
a deputation from Eice Lake, and the Credit Indians, to seek an 
audience with the Government. A council was hold with the 
Government officers on the 30th January, 1828. The speeches woro 
interpreted by Peter Jones. John Sunday, after referring to their 
conversion, and having settled by the Bay Quinte, said, "that when 
they considered the future welfare of their children, they found 
that the island they claimed would not afford them sufficient wood 
and pasture for any length of time, and that they had now come to 
ask their great father, the governor, for a piece of land lying near 
thorn." "lie then proceeded to ask the Government in what situa- 
tion Big Island was considered ; whether or not it belonged to the 
Indians? and, if it did, they asked their father to make those 
who had settled on it without their consent, pay them a proper 
rent, as they had hitherto turned them off with two bushels of 
potatoes for 200 acres of land. In the last place, he asked permis- 
sion of their great father to cut some timber on the King's land 
for their buildings." — (Peter Jones). 

In April of this j^ear, Mr. Case, with John Sunday and Peter 
Jacobs, attended the anniversary of the Missionary Society in New 
York. The manifestation of Christianity displayed by these sons 
of the forest touched the hearts of the people present, and led to a 
considerable augmentation of the contributions previously supplied 
by private individuals. They visited other parts of the United 
States, and returned to the bay, May 12, "accompanied by two 
pious ladies. Miss Barnes, and Miss Hubbard." " The ladies came 
with the benevolent design of assisting the Indians in religion, in- 
dustry, and education." : , , , ^ „i.„.,^.Ai, -.'-, .,; 

'' In the tour Mr. Case received many presents of useful articles 
for the Indians; and among the rest ticking for straw beds. This 



328 THE NUMBER OP CHRISTIANS, 

WiiK <livi(le<l lunoiig twenty i'amilies, and mjulc the first beds they ever 
slept upon." Among the eonversions of this year, was an Indian 
woman, j^ractising witchcraft, as the people believe, ami a Roman 
Catholic." ■ . 

The people were not only persevering in religious duties, but 
made progress in industry. Mr. Case collected the Indians together 
one evening, to show what they had manut'actured in two weeks. 
They exhibited 172 axe handles, 6 scoop shovels, 57 ladles, 4 trays, 
44 broom-handles, 415 brooms. The Indians were highly commended 
for their industry, and some rewards were bestowed to stimulate 
greater diligence." — (Playter). ' ' ' ■.,'"•' 

According to the Annual Rci)ort of the Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States, there were 
"two hundred and twenty natives under the Christian instruction of 
one missionary, one hundred and twenty of whom are regular com- 
municants, and fifty children are taught in the schools." Lorenzo 
Dow visited Grape Island, and writing July 29, 1829, says, "viewing 
the neatness and uniformity of the village — the conduct of the chil- 
dren even in the streets — and not a drunkard to be found in their 
borders. Surely what a lesson for the whites ! " 

The other communities of the Mississaugas that came under the 
religious teaching of the Methodists are the River Credit Indians, 
the Rice Lake Indians, and those at Schoogog, Siracoe, and tho 
Thames River. .-'!■,•/'-■;'-; ■•.;!;.;•.: ^- [•,• ' .■'<■:<■■ : •■" j n:; .-•hi^..-> 

When«the Indians from the Bay Quinto, an(J from Kingston, left 
Grape Island, they removed to Alnwick. A Report on Indian Aflfairs, 
of 1858, says, "they have now a block of laud of 2000 acres divided 

into 25 acre fai'ms." 

, i;f .;;':> ( :■"; ■'■:■■■ ;.•-.. :■...■ .;' r. . -' ■:7(y 

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■•'.'.' V' ''I' '!•' ^'i > '•; .1..- " I'v I' .; ■ i .;j; , ■ ' '■ j' ■-■ {',■'.. !<■ > (KM;ii: 
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-^•^h:^ -Jffoiluv/.TiniijIi^jt'j^J^iLoit^. b ir^; .r ■■ ;' *■■ 'T ■ '■ ■■'• '^ 



\i;i I I 



DIVISION' VI 



•f.', i:'i.': 



.! 



EAELY EDUCATION IN UPPEll CANADA. , 
' " CHAPTER XXXVII. 



.'I* 






CoNTKNTN — ?Muinti<tii (imonR tho LoyalistH — Etfoct of tlic War — No o|)i>f»rtiiinty 
for Ediioivtif)!! — A fuw EdiuiitiMl — At l^iith — A common belief — \Vlmt wiis 
requisito for fiirminK — liearning at liome — Tlio Hcliool IV^achorH — Their 
qualificationK — lUiv. Mr. IStuart as a Teacher — Academy at KingHton — First 
Canadian D.T). — Mr. Clark, Tcaciier, 1786 — Donovan — Garrison He hools — 
Cockerell — MycrH — Wnney — Michael — Atkinw — Kingston, 1 795 — I^yons — 
MrK. Cranahan — I»i AdolphuKtown — Morden — Faulkiner — The School Bo(»kK 
— Evciung Schools — McDougall — O'Ueilcy — McCormick — Flogging — Salis- 
bury — Jam(^H — I'otter — Wright — Watkins — Gibson — Smith — AVhelan — 
Articles of Agreement — Recollections — Boarding round — American Teachers 
—School Books— The Letter Z, 

'"■ " '"''•' THE FIR?*T 8C1I00LS AND TEACIIEItS. ' "' '' ' ^ ' 

• . yr<'-' . ■ 'U' '' 

The majority of tho refugees poBseHsod but limited education. 
There were a very wmali number whoso education was even 
oxcoUent ; but tiie greater portion of LoyaliHtH from tho revolting 
Colonies, had not enjoyed opportunities for even a common educa- 
tion. The state of society, for many yoar.s, precluded tho teaching 
of youth. During tho civil war, tho chances for learning had been 
exceedingly slender. Apart from this, there did not exist, a hun- 
dred years ago, the same desire to acquire learning which now 
prevails. Tho disbanded soldiers and refugees, even some of the 
half-pay officers, were void of education, which, even in the back 
woods, is a source of pure enjoyment. There was, however, an 
English seminary at Quebec, and at Montreal, at which a few were 
educated during the war; for instance, Clark, who was a naval 
store-keeper at Carleton Island, had his children there at school. 
At tho village of Kingston, there were a certain number of educated 
persons; but around the Bay there was not much to boast of. As 
their habitations were sparse, it was difficult for a sufficient number 
to unite to form good schools. Among the old, sturdy farmers, who 
themselves had no learning, and Mdio had got along without much, 
if any learning, and had no books to road, there obtained a belief that 
it was not only unnecessary, but likely to have a bad effect upon 



330 THE FIRST COLLEQIATE HONOR. 

the youttg, disqualifying tliem for the plain duties of husbandry. If 
ono conld road, Hign hiH own name, and caat intcrent, it was looked 
upon as quite buflicient for a farmer. But gradually there sprung 
up an increased deniro to acquire education, and a willingness to 
supply the means therefor. In most places, the children were 
gla<lly sent to school. And, moreover, in some cases, eldorpersons, 
without learning, married to ono possessed of it, would spend their 
long winter evenings in learning from a willing i)artner, by the 
flickering fire light. Says Ex-Shoritt'Ilutlan, then living at Adolphus- 
town, "As there were no schools at that period, what knowledge I 
acquired was from my mother, who would, of an evening, relate 
events of the American rebellion, and the happy lives people once 
led under British laws and protection previous to the outbreak." 
"In a few years, as the neighborhood improved, school teaching 
was introduced by a few individuals, whose individual infirrailios 
prevented them from hard manual labor." We find it stated that 
the first school teachers were discharged soldiers, and generally 
Irish. 

The Rev. John Stuart, subsequently D.D., (Sec first clergyman) 
was the first teacher in Upper Canada. So early as 1785, the year 
he settled at Cataraqui, as he called the place, ho says, in a letter 
written to an old friend in the States, "The greatest inconvenience 
I feel here, is there being no school for our boys ; hut, wo are now- 
applying to the Legislature for assistance to erect an academy and 
have reason to expect success ; If I sncooed in this, T shall die here 
contented." "In May, 178C, he opened an academy at Kingston;" 
writing in 1788, ho remarks, I have an excellent school for my 
children," that is the children of Kingston. — (Memoirs of Dr. 
Stuart). The degeeo of 1). I)., which was conferred upon Mr. 
Stuart, in 1799, by his Alma Mater, at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, was the first University degree of a.iy kind conferred upon 
a Canadian, probably to any one of the present Dominion of Canada. 

While the Rev. Mr. Stuart was engaged with the first school in 
Kingston, Mr. Clarke was likewise employed in teaching upon the 
shores of the Bay, probably in Ernesttown or Fredericksburgh. 
" We learn from Major Clark, now residing in Edwardshurgh, that 
his father taugh* tho iirst regular school in Dundas. lie arrived 
with his family in Montreal, in tho year 1786, and proceeded to the 
Bay Quinte. lie remained two years at the Bay, emph)ycd in 
teaching. In 1788, he came to Matilda, at the instance of Captain 
Frazer, who, at his own expense, purchased a farm for him, at the 



THE FIRST PEDAGOGUES. SSI 

cost of one hundred dollars. A few of the neighbors assisted in 
the erection of a school house, in which Mr. Clark taught for several 
years, lit) was a native of Perthshire, Scotland." — (^History of 
Dundas). 

One of the first teachers at Kingston, Avas one Donovan. 

As a general thing, all the British garrisons had, what was 
called, a garrison school, and many of the children at first derived 
the rudiments of education from these; that is, those living conve- 
nient to the forts. The teachers of these army schools, no doubt, 
Avere of questionable fitness, probably possessing but a minimum 
of knowledge, next to actual ignorance. However, there may 
liavo been exceptions. Possibly, where a chaplain was attached to a 
garrison, he taught, or superintended. 

Col. Clark, of Dalhousie, sr/s, "The first rudiments of my 
humble education I acquired at the garrison school, at Old Fort, 
Niagara, When we came to the British side of the river, I went 
to various hchools. The best among them was a Itichard Cockcrell, 
an Englishman, from the United States, who left tJie country during 
the rebellion," lie also speaks of D'Anovan of Kingston, as a 
teacher, and likewise Myers, Blaney, ^h: Michael, Irish, and 
another, a Scotchman, This was before 1800, 

A memorandum by Ilobert Clark, of Napanoe, says, " My boys 
commenced going to school to Mr. Daniel Allen Atkins, 18th 
January, 1791." 

Eochofoucault says, in 1705, speaking of Kingston, "In this 
district are some schools, but they are few in number. The children 
are instructed in reading and writing, and pay each a dollar a month. 
One of of the masters, superior to the rest, in point of knowledge, 
taught Latin ; but ho has left the school, without being succeeded 
by another instructor of the same learning." 

'* In the year 1788, a pious young man, called Lyons, an 
oxhorter in the Methodist Episcopal Church, came to Canada, and 
engaged in teaching a school in Adolphustown," " upon Hay Bay 
or Iburth concession." — (Playtcr). Ex-Sheriff liutl an tells um, that 
" At seven years of age, (1790), he was one of those who patronized 
Mrs. Cramihan, who openc^d a Sylvan Seminary for the young idea, 
(in Adol})hustown) ; from tlience, I wont to Jonathan Clark's, and 
then tried Thomas Mordon, lastly William Faulkiner, a relative of 
the Ilagermans. You may suppose that these gra<liiations to Par- 
nassus, was carried into effect, because a large anumnt of knowledge 
could be obtained. Not so; for Dilworth's S])elling Book, and the 



332 NIOMT HOIIOOLH. 

N(5vv ToHtamcnt, worn fhf. <m\y hooks f>OHM0HH(!<l by llicsc ucudortiics. 
About Hvc fiiiloH (Jistiiiit, \v;n unotlmr loadior, whoHO fiurnc I ibr^ot ; 
ufUvr hJH (luy'H work wiih (Joikj in the IjiihFi, l)iit particularly in IImj 
wintt)!', ho wuH ready to r(5C<>ivo his |Mi|>ilH. Thiw ovonin^ Hchool 
waH for thow! in Hcarcli of kfiowlc(J^t). My two vMov brother.-* 
avuil(!(i th«!inM()lvoH of thiH opportunity, and aiwayH went on nnow 
hIiooh, vvliieh they d<fpOMit(!(l at Ihr; door." it jfjokn v(!ry minh um iC 
c.ourtiri^ may have becjti intirnatiijy awHoeiated with lh<!He ni;^htly 
i'<!Hcai'clie.H for knowjcid/^e. Mr. Ruttan mldn, "And exciting 
oecaHifniM HonnitinjeH happiMKjd by moonlight, when the /:.(irlH Joined 
tJie cavaleiwle," At thin Hchool aH well, the only bookn wore 
Diiworth, and the TeHtani(;nt; unlesM it wen; the ^irl'H " IooUh.'' 
"Those primeval dayH I nttnfjnifter with ^reat pleaHure." "At 
ffMirteen, ClHOfJ), my (idueation wm lini.shttd." W<! learn that at an 
<;arly p(friod there wftM one M<;I>f*u^all, who tiiu^ht nehord in a Uijj; 
houHe upon tlie Houtli whore of Hay Hay. ^nyn Mr. Henry Van- 
J>UHon, one of the lirHt nativeH of Upper ('afiada, "The fii-^t who 
(iXiTcm'A the prero^^^ative of the Hchool room in Adolphuntown were 
tfie two HoriM of I'ldward O'llcdiy, and .McOormick, both of whom 
are widl rem<unbered by all whovv<!re favored with their ifiHlruetion 
— from th(! unmerfiful flog^in/i^.s leccuved," 

About the year 1H03, r»n<; .SaliHbury taught Hehool on the Ili^li 
Shore, So)»hiaHbtir/^h. TIm! HrHt teaeher n\K)fi the Marnli Front, 
near (Jj-aMMy I'oird, waH .bdin .lameH. At the rnoulh of Myer/s' 
Cre(d<, in IH07 or H, .lamen I'otter taught whool ; but, prior to that, 
a man by the nanm of LcHlie taught. About Ihiw tinu;, there wan 
uIho a l^!V. .Mr. Wright, a I'niMbyterian, who taught wchool near ,Mr«, 
Himpson'H. He pr(!a<hed o(•ea^<iomllly. Iti IHIO, in a little fraiiie 
Hchool lioime, near the prciMent market, CHelleville,) tau^Jit ono John 
WalkiiiH. ()n«! of the tlrHt H(;hf)ol maHtcrH up the Moira, fifth con- 
eoHHion of Tliurlow, was one (iibHon. ,MrH, J'eny, born in Kj-ne.st- 
town, remem(fnjl>erH h<;r firnl, and Jier principal tehool teachei*. JIIh 
name was Smith, and h<! faupjht inllMJ Hceond eonejiHsion r»f I*!rneKt- 
t^jwn in ]HiUi. H<! had a lar^e hchool, the (diildren C(;ming from 
fill the n<'i/.^hbf)i'hor)d, infdudiri;^ the f)e.st familioH, 

During the war of 1812, Mr. \Vh(dan iuufj^hi at Kin^nton, in 
the public hcHooI. 'J'he M(dio<d Iiouho hUxxI near the block hoUMC. 
It is Hlat<;d, Jatiuary, 1817, that he had b(;en a teaeher for ton yearH. 

Hefore us, is a doeurn<;nt, dated at Holh.well, Oct. 2ft, 1819. It 

is — "Articles of afrnsament betwecui U L , of tlio one 

one part, and we, the undorMigned,of the other part: that in to»ay: 



AN AOIIKKMKNT. 333 

that H \j (loth ori;^a^<! to k<iOp a rft^iiljir hcUoo], iov Uio 

t<!rrn of Huvi'.n irir>riUiH from tJi<! firMt *luy of Novernlxsr w-.xi., ul tlio 
rato of two poiiikIm ten hliillin/^K per friontli ; and ho fiirth(!r doth 
a^M'CO t/) touch r(!Hdin/.f, writ,jn;(, and aritJitrKitif! ; to Uc.o^i rft^iihir 
hour-H, k(!<)|» i^ood onlor in Hchool, an i'ltv as liin ahilitioM will allow, 
Hco that tho children ^o orderly from H(d)ool </> th«ir roHp«!(;t-ivo 

fiornoH. And wo, tho undorHi/^nod, doth a^roo U) pay li L 

llK^Hiim ahovo tiarn<!<l oi' t<5n <lollarM por month for tho time ahovc 
rficntiofM'd ; and further, doth a/^ro(! to find a cornfortahlo Iioumcj for 
tli<! Hchor)l, and hiipply tho Hami; with vvoori fitt<!d fori ho tin!. And 
furtlKir, to waHh, rnond, lo<i^(j, and viotiial hirn for tho tinio oi' 
k<!Opin|< Maid H<diool, Hfhool to h<5 ijnd(;r r-har/^o and inHpootion of 
the following tniMt«j(!H: William ('laik, l*ot<;i' Ii«!avenH, und Daniel 
fx;avenM." 

Til whi(di JH Hiihjoined, r|iiaintly, in Mr. li.'H Jiand writing: 

" li \H to ho nnderntood that thiinaid \i Ij Idih perfortned 

his hiiKinoHrt rightly till ho Ih disohari^csd, — (H'i^tHul) It L ." 

IJelow are tho namon of tho MuhhruihorM, und th<5 number of 
HcholarH <!ach will Hend. ' i 

'i'hnpracti<;e already njfffrred Ut, of H(!ttin|^ apart forsehool t<5iu:h- 
cr.s Kiich moinherHof tli(! family an were phyMically ineapahlorjf rloing 
hard manual lahor, without any r(!;^'ar(| to tfieir natural oi' a^;quired 
capahilitieH, waH of Yankee f>ri^in, and (;ontinu<^l in many plaeeH 
tor many yearn. The wril(!r ha<J, annui;^ hin eai'ly teaeherh, one 
who hoarded round from family to family, wh<),He moIo (jualitieation 
Ui t<!(u;h eo»iHi«l/<!d in hin lamenortH. Thiw prontitutiou of u nohio 
eallinj^, hiwi the offeet of preventing men of (sdueation for a long 
time, from engaging in the dutien of thin profei-MJo/i. 

In ditlerent plaeen, youiig men would engage for thret) or four 
HiontliM, in winter, to toueh Mchool ; hut, with the return of Hpring, 
they would return U) the lahor of the field and woodtj, AJler a 
wlule, young womtui (;<*uld he foun<J who would teach in the con- 
ccHhion Hchool houHoall the Mumrner, to which the young<!rc,liildren 
would go. 

.Someofth(5 lirHt Hcliool teuchorH w<-.re from thct old e(>untry, and 
MOme from the American StatcH. The lattta* would naturally d<!Hire 
to have UHcd American nchool h<*okH, and, uh ihey were the moMl 
conveniently procured, they were intnxluced, and continued to be 
in UHe for many yearn. AtleaHt, by nome kcIiooIm, l>r. Noah W<;b- 
Bter'K wpelling book waw among the (irHt to he u«ed ; and the writer 
coramenced hiw rudimentary education in that fjook. it lollowed, 



884 AMKIIICAN I'liONUNC'IATION. 

ftroiri ilio ])i*OH<tn('« of AinorM-iin 1«fU'li«i'i<i iiri<l hcIidoI hookn, timt, 
poculiuritJttH of Amvr'n'.nn Hpolliiif^ iiii'l iironuncMuliori woro Uiuj^lit 
U) the ciiildron of ihiniuUi. Fov iiiHtiiiK-.o, luko Uio lnt(<M' Z. Tliin 
tettor <»r tho IOii/^IImIi jilpliflhet Ih, jicom-din^ t() orl^iiml jvutlioril.y 
prorioiitictvl r«//; hut, WolinUsr (uiiKlit tJiiiL it liiul not a c.<>iii|>omi<l 
•ouri'l, und nhoiild he pronounced ze.. TJiIh nmiXar WftH hroii^ht 
I' ;fofw (lit! puhlic, l>y H l()l,f(!i- ov<!r th(!Mi;^iiatmo of " JIiirriH," which 
appeared in liic KhujHtmi //(raid, in IHtlJ, Af'tor juidiiciii^' ahiind- 
ancti of iiiithurify, ho c,oiic.iiidcH Uiat " tiic inHtnict/;!* of youtli, who, 
whon on^ugod in lijachin/^- Uio chJinuntM of Ihn Mri^liHli lan^iuijt^o, 
dhiici iUiitn to call tiiat Icttor ze, hiHtuad of zed, arc tomdiing lliurn 
error." ■'■i:m- - /i -/'•.: -■-..i - -■ ,' r ,,,^: iw. ,, -i . • s. i.i,/ 



t ■' ' ' 



« 



L I ■ . . ■■ : 1 » . . ■ : 

J' 111 ii i'' ■ ' 1. . ■!■: ' . ' ' 

;-' ' !.•.;•!..■ . 



CUAJ'TKK XXXVIII. . 

CoNTKNTH — Mr. Ktiiftrt'H Mchodl — HIriicfH — State C'liim-h and (UAU'^c — Ommriirtr 
HctiooU;— -Klin. it. liMnWum—CAuiiuwtH—HirtuiMti'-'liomcH to (lunula— 
Kiliiriiliiiiiiil liiMtory— Arriviil lit, ivitiKHloti — 'Die ji(ijiilH--l''i!<;M — KcrfiovcH t" 
Coriiwiill — I'ti|,iln t'ollovv— Stritfliitri, ii (.'(iiKullftn— .Muiilch — Inlcivirw witli 
JtiMhop HIriw.h'in— HlHdiH/i|)|»()»iitinctil — A htrftntftir— What fm fornook— 300 
jjiiifiilM — 'rinir MWcv.HH — Htiiy at, Comwall — A|)|)oiiitiiii!iitn (it Vork—A lec- 
tnnr — At KIiiKHton — Meinlicr nt' Uit^Miilivi: ('oiincil — I'lditicidii — C'lurjiy 
lU'Mt^Vi'H — KoimkIm KImr'h (JoII(!K<!— 'I'hn thMty-nltui artk;li-H— Mctnojxdy 
Mwcpt away — Voliiiilaiyiniii— KohikIm Trinity (Jolle^^o — JJiHlioji Ktra<liuu iu 
IHW — VVlial lie liiul iwicoinidiMiii'd -'I'iioHC! lii; tutored — Kettjuj^ ii|< ii IiIkIi 
Ktnndard— " ltcel<oti'^r" — Hineerity — r,e(,'i(slati«»ii, 17!iV --Adfh'iKH to tiie Kitljf 
— (irainniar Hclioolu — (Jrunt, X7l»8— l4oanl ol ]!;(|ii(utioii~-Ku(iownit!iit of 
Klnn'** f'olleKe — JtH «(inMtitiition — (-'lian/^eH — Ujiiier (,'aiiarla (-'ollege — Kn- 
(lovvimtnt — "A Hpirit of ItiiprrtVeTneTit" — Hcmrlay — The xeeornl aeademy — 
At KriuHtti>wn— Tho tnihUicn — 'UtlwBll— (JliarKCH— (Joritradiiitod — JCival- 
Hiliool — IJidweil'H Moii— (/'oiiMpieiioiiH rlianw'ti:r — l5idw(!ll'M deatli — Hon re« 
irioveM to 'I'oronto — Aea<li4iiiy liiiildltig, a barmok — Literary Kpirlt of IMli— 
N«r«r revived— Vorit. > ..its- •, r,*.: ■. •-:i':i.'." k .■•((.'■< ?..■;• ■',!} Iv:,- 

lllQHHU aiiUCAi'lOS—lfOVSltATUtS OK UN lVKltKITll!:» — JiTliA'UIAN,—- 

niowici.L. ■ ' ' .,'" 

\J\> to th(! titno that Uppnr Canada wuh mi aptirt, from Iho I'ro- 
vmce of Quohec, an a dlHtinct Province, and even jiiitil 1 7UU, when J)r. 
Btrachan came to KingHtori, the Uov. Mr. Stiiurt continued to be the 
only tea(dier who finparted anything like a Holid education. But hin 
gcb 'T'ti conHifitod mainly of hoyH not far advanced. No doubt many 
c»\ , however. rec<'ived from him the t'lorncntH of a sound, and 

even cla><Hicnl education. 



rm. htiiadiian'm i'ri>fi,H. .135 

(il()V(!r»K)i'Sim<)(K,', hooji at't(!i' aHHumiii;/ oiWcM, iiii|ii'c*nw!<l witii iho 
iiiipoi'lmico ol' IiIj^Ikt vAucnOou, o,vvn loi- mi inl'jint, (colony, tooU f'jirly 
HtijpH 1.0 i»ro(!ur() fn»ni tin; inotlmMroiiiitry a v,()m]K'U'.t\i )«'r«on to pliico 
at tin; lioad oi' a (Jollc^o Jm had (Ictonn'merl to fMtiiMiNli in i'<mru-r\'\(m 
with )i Kt«t(! (/Imrcli. JIjk HcliciiH- <»r (•(iuciition to Inrdicr tliat 
obj(!(!t, was to ((HtaliliHh u NyHtem of j^ruimnar mcIiooIm, and a IJni- 
vorwity an tlic, liead. 

Tfi(! lion. UolMii't Hamilton, ol (^imotiMton, IwmI at tliJH tinio a 
hrotlicr liviiij.^ in Hcotland, and it waH tliroujj;li him that an <;fr<!r whk 
mado lii'Ht to thn (!cl('l»rat<:d \>r. (Jhalim-rH. Hut not d(;sirin<jf to come, 
although h(! had not yet at(;iinc<l to Ihh trroatncHM, ho nuMiti(»n<'d thn 
nani(! of hin friend .Str.'u-Ji.'iii, t(» whom the; ofli-r waH then made. Mr. 
Strachan di!oid<!d to <!om<!. 'Hiiih it wan tin; v<it(;i*an wthoollxtaolnT, 
tho divine, the l'ound(!r of IfniviifHitieH, who Imt recently paHMiid away, 
wjiH hid to Canada to hfcomo tlu; occupant of ono of tho moMt con- 
BpiciiouH placcH in the I'rovincoof Upper (!anada. Ho intimately ih 
the JianK! oi' Dr. Strachan aHHO(!iated with the liiMtory of edueatiori, an 
W(;ll a.H with th(! ICpiscopalian f/'hiirch, tliat it hecomes neeesHiivy to 
Niipply h(!re a Hoiriewhat lenj^tho/icd ac<;oii!it of his (rducaticjnal hintory. 
lie arriv(Ml at Kin^^Htoii the hiHt day of the; y<rar, 1 75H), havin;jf Hjtiled 
from Gntonock the lattor part <»f AujLjuHt, and liavitiji^ Ihmii frvor f onr 
niontliH on th(! way. Hut when .Stra(!han airived, HimccM* had been 
recalled, arwl hiw MclKinu! wan ;it least, in abeyance*. 

('ol. (Ilark MayH that " a H(;hool waHCHtabliMhcd nt Kin'i;«lon, IH(;0, 
hy the Ibin. It. ('artwrif^ht lor his houh, having .Mr. 8fra<J)an for 
ttiacher, who had the privile<jj«^ of taking U-i\ additional KcholarH at 
£10 each per anmim. Amon;jf thew; ten were the late ('liii'f .luHtiee 
RobiriMon, Chief JuKtiiio Maeaulay, the Hon George Markl.-uid, Minhop 
Ik;thune, tlurHUceeMHorof Dr. Straclian ; tin; f{(!V. W. Macaitlay, I'if^ton; 
(Jnptain Kngland, iioyal Knj4in<M'rh ; JiiMticxi Ahdican, ('ol John (.'lark, 
aud the two HoriH of Hamilton, . I amcH and Samuel. Thcwe, with four 
KoiiH of liiehunl ('artwri;^hl, lonuoil Mr. yU'achun'M lirsthchool lor the 
higher branchoN of education. 

Mr. HtnK'-han continu<rd to teach in Klnj^Hton for Ihre© yearn, 
when he n»inoved hin nchool to ('oniwall. » 

All of IiIh pupils at KingHUnt, except John (Jlark, of K>fi^.irH, 
followed him to that phu;c. and coniifiucHl for yearH uiidt'r Iuh in* 
Mtru(!lion. 

The hi^h standard <;f oilucation now Het uf) by Mr. Ktrndian bad 
a heuelicial ellbist. ilu trained here for uHefuliu-.MH and diMtinc- 
tion, Home of the firnt men of the I'rovinec. fn JMldition to 



336 REMOVAL TO CORNWALL. 

those iiK'ntioned as distingnislicd pupils, was ('hristoj^ior Hagar- 
mait. Hero Mr. Strachau, it may bo said, becamo a tliorough 
Canadian, and began to identify himself with the higher interests of 
the country. He shortly after married a lady of Cornwall, Miss 
Woods, who lived to within a few years of the Bishop's death. 

Dr. Straclian, in conversation witli the writer, ritferred to the^ 
time of his coming to Canada with no little feeling, lie evidently 
felt the disap[tointment arising from the departure of Governor 
Simcoe very keenly, which left him quite to his own resources in the 
new country, far from his home which he had forsaken, in view of 
certain promises of advancement, congenial to his taste. He was, to 
use his own words, *' a lonely stranger in a foreign land, without 
resources or a single acquaintance." But in coming to speak of his 
pupils, of which there had been about 300, and whose course in life 
he had been permitted to see ; whose success he had been proud to 
note, he spoke of them with all the kindness and regard of a parent. 
He dAvelt upon the character and high position to which so many had 
attq,ine(l, especially the late Chief Justice Robinson. Speaking of 
himself, he said his " early life was of too busy a nature to allow him 
to keep a journal." And we find it statinl that he had to supports 
mother and two sisters. 

Mr. Strachan continued at Cornwall inne years, teaching, when 
he removed to York. The Government recognised his ability, and 
to increase the sphere of his usefuhiess, and to establish a Provincial 
College, he was requested to remove to the capital of Upper Canada, 
and had offered to him every advantage, pecuniary and otherwise. 
In these early efforts to establish higher education, says the Kev. Mr. 
Smart, whose testimony is important, too nuich praise cannot be 
given to Dr. Strachan. 

Although Mr. Strachan had removed to Cornwall, Kingston 
was occasionally favored by his presence as a public lecturer, as 
the following notice which appeared in the Gazette, December, 1810, 
will show: 

"Mr. Strachan's annual course of popular lectures on Natural 
Philosophy, will commence on the second Monday in Januaiy, the 
course consisting of thirty-six lectures, to bo completed in two 
months. Tickets of admission, four guineas ; students taught at 
any of the District Schools of Upper Canada, entitled to tickets for 
r)ne guinea. This money to bo appropriated to the purchase of 
scientific books, for the use of those who attend the lectures." 

In 1818 Dr. Strachan was appointed a member of the Legis- 



ORIGIN OP TRINITY COLLEGE. 337 

lativo Council, and jiIko of the Executive Council. In these posi- 
tions he was a consistent worker to secure the esfablishment of a 
State Church ; and for the twenty-two years he took part in the 
politics of Upper Canada he ceased not to work for the cause, and 
the preservation of tlie Clergy Eeservos. Dr. Strachan never 
forgot the original purpose Avhich brought him to Canada, the 
foundation of Grammar Schools and a University. In 1827, after 
UKing the influence which his political position allowed him to 
secure this object, ho procured a royal charter f(;r a University 
which ho named King's College after his Alma Mater. This insti- 
tution wah intended for the exclusive benefit of those who would 
subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles. For nearly twenty years 
this University continued under the control of the Church of Eng- 
land. But the spirit which obtained in the public mind of Canada 
WHS hostile to this monopoly, and the time came when the Uni- 
versity he had founded became more truly a national one. Although 
at this time an old man, when it might have been supposed ho 
would yield to the adverse influence which had overcome his col- 
lege, he never thought of resting satisfied, but, in direct opposition 
to the principle against voluntaryism, for which his life had been 
hofar spent, he set about laying the foundation of another Uui- 
versily, and the Trinity College of 'J oronto is a second monument to 
his untiring energy and success ; a monument which renders another 
unnecessary to commemorate him. 

We penned the following remarks in 186G: This widely 
known worthy still animatiis the church he has been mainly instru- 
mental in erecting to a high and ever influential j)osition in Canada, 
and whose untiring energies, guided by a brilliant intellect and a noble 
purpose, has made him the parent of higher education iu the Pro- 
vince. The result of his doings— the traces of his vigorous mind, the 
lopletion of his noble life may })e seen, not alone u])on the page of 
Episcopalian Church History ; but in all the departments of Provin- 
cial life— in the halls of learning, in the recorded charges from the 
Bench, by the mouth of those he educated ; in the si)eeches of many 
of Canada's earliest and foremost statesmen. For it was he tutored 
the mind of a M<!Lean, a Ilagorman, a Robinson, of the Sherwoods 
Jones, besides a large number of others who have acted a conspi'- 
cuous part in the history of the country. While the trees of the 
forest yet overshadowed the muddy soil where Toronto now proudly 
rears her graceful spires and domes, and while the wild duck found 
a sufe resting place in the bay, now thickly dotted with crafts of every 



3IIS FIBWT (lllAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

size, Or. Slraclian by i)on, and by word of mouth, was .setting up a 
liigli standard of U-arning; and by worthy means, was stimuhiting tlio 
minds of the. future men of Canada to attain that liigli mark. Head 
the eaHy flowing words that appeared in tlic Kingston (luzettc, over 
"Eecitoner," and it will strike one that if ho. took tlie Spectator as a 
model, fie abundantly sueceeded in imitating the immortal Addison. 
Ilis school at Cornwall was |»re-ennnently good, "he had the welfare 
of those committed to him at heart, (says the Ilev. Mr. Smart,) as 
well as the youth of the country generally." 

Five years after the erection of Upper Canada into a distinct 
Province, 1707, steps were taken by the two ILmscs of Parliament 
to establish schools for the higher branches of U^arning, A joint 
address was presented to His Arajesiy, Geo. II f., asking that he 
"would bo graciously pleased to direct his ({ovornmcsnt in this Pro- 
vince, to a])i)ropriate a certain ])ortion of the waste lands of the 
Crown, as a fund for the establishment and support of a respectable 
Grammar School in each District thereof ; and also a College, or 
University, for the instj-uction of youth in the different brandies of 
liberal knowledge. " The Imperial (Jovernmont replied, enquiring 
in what manner, and to what extent, a portion of the Crown lands 
migii t bo appropriated and ronderedjijroducti vo towards the formation 
of a fund for the above purposes." The I^^xecutivo Council of Canada 
rocommondod "tliatan appropriation of 500,000 acres, or ton town- 
ships, after deducting the Crown and Clergy seventlis, would be a 
sufficient fund for the establishment and maintenance of the royal 
foundation of four Grammar Schools and one University." It was 
also suggested, that the (I rammer Schools bo established at Corn- 
wall, Kingston, Newark (Niagara), and Sandwich, and the Uni- 
versity at York." It is not known what action was taken on this 
recommendation. — (Lillie). IJut, in 1798, "a grant was made of 
549,000 acres of land in ditlci-ent parts (»f the Province, to carry out 
the design of the Grammor Schools and University." "Of the 
above land endowment, 100,573 acres were, up to the year 1826, 
assigned to ( or disposed of by) a public body, known as the Board 
of Education, the proceeds having been applied to the support of 
Common and Grammar Schools." The residue of tho grant, 
amounting to 358,427 acres, appears to have been rogardod as 
propeidy constituting that portion of the royal gift which hiul been 
intended for the support of the contemplated University." 

Through the influence and exertion of Dr. Sfrachan, the 
University of King's College was established by Poyal Charter of 



I-'OI :N')ATI0N ok CIM'KIl CANAKA COIJ-KflK. 'MVJ 

IncorponitioM, 15111 M.»roh, 1827, with jin cnduvvmcnl of " 225,000 
ucroH of crown luinl, aiuj CI, 000 for sixtooii ycnrs. Tlic Council or 
fiov(M*nors wcr<! lo cotisisl o.' (Ik; C'liiiiiccllor, I'l-esidcnf, und huvcu 
ProfcHHors or (ii-iiduatcs of the I'lslittilion. All wens U) honicinbcrs 
of the Church of En,<;Iand. Thi> MxcluHivo f(!iilui'o of the Collu<,'c 
continued Lo exist until \M'i, vvhcii the charter was niodined 
whereby purticH were eligible to liohl offlco by u declaration of 
their "belief in th(! authonticit}' and Divine uicori)onition of the 
Old and X(!W Testaintuils, and in the doctrine of the Ti-inity. 
Various (d^ang(^s were made by JiC^islalivci enactuK'nt until the 
present institution became established, in 1H5;{, when the iaculties 
of Law and Medicine wore abolished, the nam*} chantjed from Kiiur's 
College to University Collo/^e, and the University and College 
made two distinct institutions. 

The Royal fJi-ammar S(diool was mor;,'ed into Up]jer Canada 
College in 182!>, and this institution was opened the following year. 
"In the years 1832, 1834, and 1835, if received ciulowments of 
land, amounting, in all, to fi3,268 acres, irrespective of two valuable 
blocks in York — on one of which 'lie ju-esent CoHogo buildings 
stand." " The (Jollege further rocjived an alhnvance from Govern- 
ment of £200 sterling, in 1830; £500 in 1831; and £1,000 sterling 
per annum since. " 

^ '■ •'''''■ ACADEMY AT T^iUNRHTTOWN — HIDWELL. ' * ' ""'M 

1 While to Dr. 8tracb-iu belongs the honor of e.stabliwhing ihe 
firtit school whereat ii fiheral education might be obtained the 
efforts and labors of .ythors must not bo forgotten. Shortly after 
the commencement of the present century, th(!re arose, )>erhaps as 
u result of the te.iching of Stracdian, a greater (b^sire for advanced 
learning. Say-; a writer in 1811, "A spirit of improvement is 
evidently spic^ading, the value of education, as well as the want of 
it, is felt, rientlemen of competent means appear to be sensii'o of 
Iho imj/ortance of giving their children academical learning, and 
ambitious to do it without sending them abroad foj- the purpose. 
Among other indications tjf progress in literary ambition, I 
cannot forbear re fei-ring to the academy lately erected in Ernest-. 
town, by the subscription of public-spirited inhabitants of tiiat, 
and the neiglibouring townshijjs,' who appear to bo convinced that 
the cultivation of liberal arts and sciences is naturally connected 
with an improvement of manners and morals, and a general melior-i 
ation of the state of society." 



340 MR. niuwauL. 

TIk) nciwlorny iiltovo rtjforfed to wuh the hcooihI hcJiooI of import- 
anco (!Htal»liHliO(l in Uppor CiiiuuJa. It wuh hIho Hituatod upon tlio 
HhoroHol tho liny of (^uinto. Tbe followipg \» from the Kiwjuton 
Gazette : 

" ICiiNFHTTOWN AoAUKMY. — The HuhH(rriborH hereby iMfbrm the 
frieiidH of Uniru'm^ tliut an Aeadernictal Sfdiool, iiridor the HUporin- 
tondeni^e of an «!Xp<!rieii''ed pre<teptf)r, \h o|)onod in ErnoHttown, 
near the chun h, for the inHtructioTi of youtli in Kn^liHh readiii/^, 
speaking, grammar and <;omf)ONition, tht; Usurncd \ii,u^\in^v.H, poc- 
maiiHiiip, arithmetic, /^e<i^raliy, and otlier hi-anchen of Jjihoral 
Education. Schohirs attetidin/^ from a diHtance may l)e hoarded in 
good famili<!H on r(!aHon)ihi(! terniH, and for fifteen nhiiiingn a year 
can hav<! the une of a vaiuahie iiitrary. School TruHteen : llobort 
McDowcd, Benjamin Fairfield, William Fairfield, Solomon .lohiiH, 
William Wilcox, Samuel Neilson, (ieorge Baker. — l<]rneHttown, llth 
March, IHll." 

The jKirHon Hclected for ti^achJTwas Mr. liarnabaH Jiidwell, who 
ha<l a few yearH i)revio»8ly come (o ( Canada from the State of 
MaHHacliUHettM, where he had been, according to a writer in the 
Kiwj.itfm Gazette, Atfx>rnoy-{ieneral of that State. Tlie Hamc 
writer miuhf charges of a HCirious nature agJiinst Mr. Midwell, an to 
the cauHO (;f bis leaving bin country ; but one of the above com- 
mitlee vindicat<'d Mi'. Bidw(dl'H cluu'acter; by aHHcrting that 
although Mr. JJ. had been "unfortunate in buHineww, and became 
embarraH,-od, he wax honent, and had left jiroporty to pay hiHdoht- 
wlum he left — that he ha<l been a tutor at the first college ii. 
America — thai be avoided polifics and devoted liimnelf to litc^ran 
purHultH." !t was about )b(M-ommc,ncementof the prewoTit (Uintiuy, 
when Mr. Bid well came to Bath to live. 

I'l-obabiy tli(! academy at Baili wan regarded Homewhat an a 
rival to the Mcliool exiHting at (yornwall. •■■•'; i- ■■fi'.i'n- ..fr 

Jiarnub:iH Bidwell remained at Batli about eight yearn wlion he 
rOmoved to Kingston, with IiIh hon, Marshal Bidwtdl, who b(!CHrne a 
lawy(!r, and a very conspiciiouH chai-act<M' in Oanada. B. Bidwcli 
died at KingHton, Jidy 2^5, lH3;-{, ag(!d 70. lliw Hon nimovwl to 
York in 1830, whore he practiised liiH profeH«ion until llie eventfni 
year of 1837. ' "'^ o).:'n:<5'j.-: -: ,;.;i.;vH( *>? vtouuii./) [5 ,i 

The academy, at the comm(!Ticemont of the war of 1812, wa- 
in a proHperou.-^ ntaie, but very Hoon all waw changed, — the ncIiooI 
waH broken up, and th(! fniildin;* converted into a barrack. TIk 
close of the war unlor i unately wav no return of the old Btato.of thiug^; 



COr-rKUKH AT KINdHTON. .341 

th(! touclioi" wftrt L^oiio, mill till! Hfudniits Mcaltorod, " Imvin^ rosortud 
to ofhcr |)liic<*H of orlijcatioii, inniiy of tliom (»ut of the |»roviiico. 
Tho Itiiildiii/; \h now, (\H22), octMipicd as a lioii'^o oi'piildic worsliiij, 
and a common wdiool. It. Ih to ho hoped, liowoviT, thai, th«' tasto 
tor literary improvcmont may ho rovivod, and this Hcininary bo 
ro-»!Ml,ahlish(!d." fiiit, thoHo hopen woro rie-vor realizcfl. Tlio literary 
i^lory of Hath liad departed. Tho capital of V'ork was now to 
become a eontr(3 to which would /^ravilato tlio moro learned, and 
where would Ix; OHlahlished (he seatH of learning. The limited, 
though oai'noHt rivalry which had oxiHted Ixttween Kin^wton and 
Bath, waH to bo on n moro important Hcale, hotween tho ancient 
eajiital, Kingston, and the moro promising one of York. 



CllAVTVAl XXXI X, 



Co.NTKXTS — Kxtruct from (Joopcr — Ediiaitioiml iriHtitiitioriM — KiiiKHt(»n— Qiu'cii'h 
(!()llo^'c — OwiiV I^(•(ll KKtatc — llcj^idpoliH Collf^'-c — Itoiimn (.'iitlKilic — (iniin- 
tnar School — Attmulniicf— Se^liool Iioiihi'h — l,iiiriiiy — Si,'|»iriiLi' ScIiooIh — 
Priviit(! S('Ih)()Ih — Tlii^ QniiUcr School — VVilli/im l'(!nri — I'pon tho IIikIhoii — 
Xcnr l^looinlli^M -()ri(,'iM of H'hool— (iiiriiiiy— .IMh (>l]\:v — MuiiiiK''iiiiiit of 
Hchool — 'I'JKr U'.nihinn — Mih. ('n>u\\ni:'H Hi'lif)ols— Pictori LikIIvh' Affulciiiy— 
McMiillon, projiiiotor — 'l'diu Ihix -Ocntl'aiiitii'rt <l(:|mrtrnciit, — ropiihii' — Th*- 
(irl. of piiiitiiiK— I" Ainc'rifa— Ilool; piiliiiKJiinf.^ — KiiKl in AiinTicii- liooks 
(iiiiong tim loyalJKtH — Kcw — TaHHcd (uoiirid - i''i r^iiHon'H hookn — 'I'hi! Hihlr— 
i/iiiriirioH lit Ivin^Htoii luid IJjiMi— L";^iHlatii)ii — In Lowiir ('iiiiiiilH---Ki;ii(Iii»K 
room at Jliillowidl — IIi'him'Vch for K<iii< iitioii--rp]»(r ('niiii'lii in vcMpoct to 
udncatioii— I'nilHcworthy — (lornmon Scliool Systmti I'ill iiitrodiiciMl 1H41 — 
AiUiJiulcd, 1810— Dr. Uycrsoii'H KyHti'iii — rnniir|)iiMK!d. 

moilKIl KDITATION, CONTINI.KI). ' 'A 



t 



Tho Hiibjoined Htalemeiit we extract from (!oopor, wliich was 
Writt(!n in lW)i'>. VVo have no doubt the last IavoIvc yeai's ban liecn 
atteii(l(!d with a Htcady iner(!aH(! in Uic iniportarice of llie Hdueu- 
tiorial inhtitutiouH of Kin^Ht/)ri. 

" KDircATioNAii iNHTHTirnoNM. — Tlioro are in KingHton two 
collogoH, (^ucon'M Collogo and Ki^giopolin; tho County (irammai* 
Hcliool, 11 Common Sehooln, 2 Hoparato R. C iSebooJH, ono School 
connectou with tlio Nunnery, or SiHtorh of Charity, with numorou.s 
good private HchoolH for boyn, private HchoolH for girlH, infant 
schooJH and otiior minor oduoational oHtabliHbmontH, Buch an evening 
schools, clasHOH for teaching continental latiguagoM, &c., in all 
hetweon 20 and 30. 



342 queen's college. 

" Queen's College. — Queen's College is mi educational inbtitu- 
tion of very considerable importance, and from it have issued 
graduates in arts, divinity -md medicine, of no despicable attain- 
ments. It was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1842, and is 
under the management of a Board of Trustees and Senate. It haa 
a Principal and four Professors in Arts and Divinity, besides six 
Medical Professors. It confers Scholai'ships of the aggregate value 
of £200, the highest being worth £12 10s. It numbers during the 
present year, 47 medical students, 30 in Arts, 10 in I)ivinity, con- 
nected with it is a Preparatory School, where great pains are 
taken to prepare jjupils for matriculation at the college. A good 
library, containing some 3,000 volumes belongs to the College. A 
series of meteorological observations are taken by the graduates, 
with the able supervision of the Eev. Professor James Williamson, 
under wdiosc assiduous attention this branch of knowledge, so .piuoh 

neglected in Canada has been carefully fostered. <-'• 

.,,,," This institution owns valuable real estate, and is aided by an 
annual grant from the Legislature of £750, and £230 to the 
medical branch. 

" Eeoiopolis College is a Roman Catholic Seminary of learn- 
ing; it has three Professoi'ships, the duties of which are discharged 
by Eoman Catholic clergymen. Beyond its own walls, and it& 
own community, it is little known as an educational institution. 

,, y The County Grammar School is supported as tliose in other 
counties, that is, by a grant from Government of £100 per annum, 
and the tuition fees of pupils. It possessed formerly a small endow- 
ment ; this for the present has been consumed in creating a fund 
for the liquidation of some debt on the school-house, a plain sub- 
stantial building in a healthy and elevated part of the town; it is 
under the control of a Board of Trustees, appointed by the County 
Council, and is managed by a heatl-master and under-master. It 
is one of the three Grammar Schools first established in the Pro- 
vince, and created by Eoyal Charter— tjiey.9t|j^-j^.t\5rp, J 
Cornwall and Niagara. . „ 

.-';," The Common Schoots are, as in other places, under the 
management of i»o deps ■ neut of education, and the local control 
of a Board of Trut-'^ies. mu local Superintendent. There is a great 
want of projjer and sufficient school-houses, a want which it is 
anticipated will soon be supplied, the Board having in contempla- 
tion, the immediate erection of proper buildings. The free school 
system has been adopted here ; the difficulties usually attendant on 



QUAKER SCHOOLS. 343 

its establishment have not been altogether escaped — the piihlic 
seeming loth to tax themHelvos to any oxtoiit, for the purpose of 
general education. A marked inci'oase in the attendance at the 
city schools has taken place during the last two years, and there 
are now taught an large a number of children in the common schools 
of Kingston as in any other Canadian city, in proportion to its 
population : the standard of education may or may not be as high 
as in Toronto, Hamilton or Brockvillc, but if it is more elementary, 
it is not less sound. In free public schools, such as now established, 
it is perhaps as well not to aim at a higher standard than is liore 
attained to. When good school-houses are erected, it will doubt- 
lessly be found necessary to adopt the Central School system, on 
the model of that so successfully carried out in Hamilton, Perth 
and St. Catharines, and perhaps elsewhere. When such is the case 
the present schools will rank high as primary schools, whilst the 
central schools will have to compete with other similar institutions 
in the province, and will not likely be behind them in character 
and value ; these changes are in contemplation, and will before 
long be carried into effect. The people of Kingston do not fail to 
appreciate the benefits of sound education of its inhabitants in 
elevating the position of a city. A publij library, containing some 
2,000 volumes, has been established in connection with the city 

schools. ^'ittrWoUtiOiJ'bonRHJ; tmom OiudfM :H .X^UiUsninm (iv/<; 

''^*'>"*'The Roman Catholic Separate Schools are i^^nder the 
management of a separate Board of Trustees ; they are supported 
as are the Common Schools, by a Legislative grant, proportionate 
to the average attendance of pupils, and by a rate settled by the 
Board, collected from all rate-payers ; in the ease of the Separate 
Schools, from the parents of pupils and supporters of the schools, 
who are exempt from all other taxation for school purposes. The 
rate in their case is usually very low. The wealthier supporters 
of the schools, with a praiseworthy zeal, voluntarily contribute 
largely io the required fund. Among the private schools are many 
excellent academies for both boys and girls, which afford both 
ornamental acquirements and substantial, classical and commercial 
education." "'''' ^'' / 

Quaker Schools — The noted and good William Penn founded 
a school for the children of the Friends at an early date. Subse- 
quently a Quaker Boarding School was established upon the banks 
of the Hudson, near Poughkeepsie. 
■- Toward tlie latter part of 1841, a school for the children of 



844 PICTON ACADEMY. 

tho Quaker dorioriii nation, was opened near the pleasant village of 
Bloomfield, about 4 miles from Pieton. The origin of tho school 
we believe, was jirettj' much an follows : An English gentleman, 
John Joisoph Gurney, brother to Elizabeth Fry, a member of the 
Quaker Society, and wo believe a minister, was travelling in Canada, 
and discovering tho wants of that denomination, with respect to 
education, offered to bestow a certain sum, (£500), on condition 
that another specified sum were raised, a suitable place bought, and 
buildings prejiared. His offer being accepted, and at this juncture, 
Mr. Armstrong being desirous of selling his farm of 100 acres, 
with a good brick house just completed, the present site of the 
school was procured. In addition to the means thus obtained there 
was also a limited sum hold by the society, it is said a bequest, for 
educational purposes. Additional buildings were erected, and the 
school duly opened. The first teachers were Americans. The 
school was managed by a committee chosen annually by the 
Society, until the latter part of 1865, when it was leased to Mr. 
W. Valentine, to whom we are partially indebted for the foregoing 
facts. The school continues under the supervision of a managing 
committee, appointed by the Society. Its capacity does not extend 
further than to receive 30 pupils of each sex, who are taught the 
usual branches of a good English education, and sometimes the 
rudiments of the classics and the modern languages. 

In 1836, Mrs. Ci'ombie and her sister Miss Bradshaw opened a 
"Female Academy" in Pieton, which promised to give "substantial 
and ornamental accomplishments." , , ., 

The Pieton Ladies' Acadamy was op(iriea fn December, 1847, by 
the Rev. D. McMulleu, as sole proprietor. It was continued by him 
until May, 1851, when Miss Creighton rented the premises and took 
charge of the school. It continued under her management nine months, 
when it finally was closed. The first teachers were the late Mrs. N. 
F. English, and Miss Eliza Austin. Afterwards Miss M. E. Adams 
was preceptress, and Miss Ployle was teacher. 

A male department was established by Mr. McMullen, with the 
hope of having it connected with the Grammar School. But this was 
not done. The principal of the school was C. M. C. Cameron, now 
Dr. Cameron of Port Hope, and a graduate of Victoria College. He 
was assisted by Mr. Samuel W. Harding ; the school existed but one 
y6ar. Both of these schools were well attended, and were deservedly 
popular. When closed it was generally regarded as a public loss, by 
those most capable of judging. 



FOUNDATION OP VICTORIA COLLKOE. 346 

UPPER CANADA ACADEMY — VICTORIA COLLEQE. ,. . 

■ ' Wo have accorded to Dr. Straclmn a prominent and foremost 
position in connection with the subject of higher education. We 
considered it a duty as well as a pleasure, to thus honor one whoso 
praise was in all the land when ho ceased tolivo. But the fountain 
of education opened by him did not flow, shall we say, was not 
intended to flow to the masses. Dr. Strachan's educational estab- 
lishment was rather created for a select circle, for an expected 
Canadian aristocracy. It remained for others to originate a stream 
of learning that should water the whole land, and come within tho 
reach of every Canadian family — that should give intellectual life 
to the whole of the country, irrespective of creed or origin. To tho 
Wosleyan Methodists belongs the greater honor of establishing an 
institution of liigher learning, whose doors were opened to all, and 
within which any one might obtain learning without hindrance, no 
matter what his belief While religious oversight was to be 
extended, no peculiar dogma was to be enforced, no sectarian 
principle was to be inculcated. 

In the month of August, 1830, when the Wosleyan Conferonco 
met upon the Bay Quinte, the Eev. Wm. Case, being General Super- 
intendent, and Eev. James (now Dr.) Eichardson, Secretary, and 
while Cobourg Avas yet embraced within the Baj'" Quinte District, 
the following Eesolutiou was adopted by that body: . 

"That a Committee of nine bo chosen by ballot, consisting of 
three from each District, to fix the location of the Seminary, 
according to some general instructions to be given them by tho 
Conterence." The committee consisted of " J. Eyerson, T. White- 
head, S. Belton, David Wright, J. Beatty, Wm. Eyerson, Thos. 
Madden, Wm. Brown, James Eichardson." '■,' , , /, 

" The following Constitution for the Upper Canada Academy, 

was adopted : ,|.;j,i?//;jo^j A, ^j^bmi^^ &i-iiA ^W- .^"^- ii''^43^'-'i ^A 

" 1. That nine Trustees be appointed, three of whom sfiall go 
into office annuallj'. 

"2. That a Board of Visitors, consisting of five, be chosen 
annually by the Conference," That these two bo dies should jointly 
form a Board to appoint the Principal and Teachers, and govern, 
and generally superintend the institution. a^-;:^<'-k^mmm 'M^:- 

The Conference, in the Pastoral Address, asked for the liberal 
support of the members, in the establishment of the proposed 
Academy. A general agent was appointed, and active steps taken 



346 THE FIRST PRINCIPAL. 

to cany out the object. It is noteworthy, that the call thus made to 
the farmorH, many of whom wore yet strugijling for the necessaries 
of life, was promptly and nobly responded to. Agents continued 
to be appointed from year to year, and in the Conference address of 
1835, it is said, "Wo are happy to be able to say that the buildings 
for the Upper Caniuia Academy are nearly completed. "VVe trust 
the Institution will soon bo open for the reception of pupils." There 
had been delay "for want of funds." Arrangements were making 
to accommodate one hundred and seventy piipils, with board and 
lodging. In 1836, it is found stated, that " the Conference and tho 
friends of general education, and of Wesleyan Methodists in Canada, 
have at length, by their unremitting efforts, succeeded in preparing 
the Upper Canada Academy for the reception of pupils, and wo 
expect, in a few days to see it in operation." In 1837, we find that 
Matthew Eitchey, A. M., was the Principal of the U. C. Academy. 
If we mistake not, the Rev. Egerton Ryerson had, previously been 
named to fill the office. At all events, we have every reason to 
believe that this distinguished Canadian educationist was chieflv 
instrumental in securing the foundation of an abiding institution, 
probably, indeed, was the originator of the scheme. He not only 
stimulated others to work; but obtained from Government a grant, 
BO often begrudged. He also, as a representative to the British 
Conference, was the moans of procuring a donation of one hundred 
pounds' worth of books, beside other contributions. In 1840, the 
Eev. Mr. Ritchey ceased to be Principal. During his time of service, 
it is stated, the Academy increasingly progressed in efficiency and 
in increase of pupils. Mr. Ritchey's successor, in 1841, was the Rev. 
Jesse Hurlburt, A. B. Daniel C. VanNorman was Professor of 
Mathematics, a post to which he had been appointed a year 
previous. 

The year 1842 saw the Upper Canada Academy changed into 
the Victoria College, by Provincial Legislative enactment, posses- 
sing the usual powers and privileges of a University. The Rev. 
Egei'ton Ryorson was luade Principal ; Jesse Hurlburt, A. M., and 
D. C. Vai .' )f man , Pi-ofessors ; and James Spencer, English Teacher. 
Dr. Ryerson continu )d Principal until 1845. In 1845, Alexander 
MacNab, A, M., was appointed Acting Principal, and in 1847 ho 
became Principal, and held the position until 1850. 

In 1851, the Rev. S. S. Nelles, A. M., was elected to the office 
which he now continues to hold with so much credit and dignity, 
having been instrumental in materially advancing the reputation 
of the previously well known College. 



THE ART OP PRINTING. 347 

)M,; BOOKS, LIBRARIES — PRINTING. 

,.....•14; , - ■ • • ■ •■ ■• ■• 

, , ,, The art of printing was not old whon the colonies of Franco and 
Great Britain were planted in America. The discovery of this art, 
with the avenue which the discovery of America, opened for the pent 
up millions of Eurojje, wrought out the most striking changes which 
ever marked the history of the human race. It struck the tinal blow 
to the spirit of feudalism, while America supplied an asylum for 
those who found not full freedom of conscience and an' o})portunity 
to rise in the scale of human existence. ,,,,, ^; 

Book publishing being once introduced into England, rapidly 
became of vast magnitude, and thus everywhere scattered the food 
essential for the human mind. It was in the year 1639 that printing 
was introduced into America ; but it was sixty-two years before it 
became of any account, during which time the business was mostly 
in Philadelphia. Altogether there were but four presses in the 
country. The first book printed in America was made in 1640. It 
was a reprint of the Psalm Book, and afterwards passed through 
many editions, while it was reprinted in England in eighteen editions, 
and twenty-two in Scotland, being seventy in all. 
^ , Whatever may have been the state of education in the British 
Colonies, and the general desire to read books at the time of the re- 
bellion, it is quite certain that the hasty manner in which many left 
their homes, the long distance to travel, and necessity of carrying 
quantities of provision which took all the strength of the refugees, 
precluded the possibility of carrying many, or any books to the 
wilderness of Canada. Even after the peace the long distance to 
come, and tlie frequent impoverished condi^i'^a of the settler, allowe